32 relations: Accommodation reflex, Binocular vision, Central pain syndrome, Cholinergic, Circadian rhythm, Edinger–Westphal nucleus, Forebrain, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Inferior olivary nucleus, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Lateral geniculate nucleus, List of regions in the human brain, Midbrain, Nociception, Nucleus prepositus, Oculomotor nerve, Optokinetic response, Periaqueductal gray, Pons, Posterior commissure, Posterior grey column, Pulvinar nuclei, Pupillary light reflex, Reticular formation, Retina, Serotonergic, Somatosensory system, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Thalamus, Vertebrate, Vestibular exam.
The accommodation reflex (or accommodation-convergence reflex) is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at a distant object (and vice versa), comprising coordinated changes in vergence, lens shape and pupil size (accommodation).
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition caused by damage or malfunction in the Central Nervous System (CNS) which causes a sensitization of the pain system.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is an evolutionarily conserved structure found in the medulla oblongata underneath the superior olivary nucleus.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
Located in the caudal pons and upper medulla oblongata, the nucleus prepositus (also nucleus prepositus hypoglossi) is part of the horizontal gaze holding system.
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
The optokinetic response is a combination of a slow-phase and fast-phase eye movements.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The posterior commissure (also known as the epithalamic commissure) is a rounded band of white fibers crossing the middle line on the dorsal aspect of the upper end of the cerebral aqueduct.
The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.
The pulvinar nuclei or nuclei of the pulvinar (nuclei pulvinares) are the nuclei (cell bodies of neurons) located in the thalamus (a part of the vertebrate brain).
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Vestibular (from vestíbulo, "entrance hall") is a competitive examination and is the primary and widespread entrance system used by Brazilian universities to select the students admitted.