109 relations: Advertising, Agricultural & Applied Economics Association, Air cargo, Air France–KLM, Air New Zealand, AU Optronics, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Bertelsmann Music Group, Best Buy, Bid rigging, Bloomberg News, British Airways, California, Capacitor, Cartel, Chanel, Citric acid, Collusion, Commerce Act 1986, Commerce Commission, Compact disc, Competition Act, Competition and Consumer Act 2010, Competition law, Credit, Deadweight loss, Dillons Booksellers, Discounts and allowances, Dynamic random-access memory, Economic liberalism, Economic surplus, EMI, European Commission, European Union, European Union competition law, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal crime in the United States, Federal Trade Commission, Fee, George Howard Earle Jr., Gold fixing, Government of France, Graphite, HannStar Display Corporation, Herfindahl index, High Court of New Zealand, Hitachi, Hutchison Whampoa, Infineon Technologies, InnoLux Corporation, ..., International Air Transport Association, Korea, Korean Air, L'Oréal, LG Display, Liquid-crystal display, List price, London Gold Pool, Lufthansa, LVMH, Lysine price-fixing conspiracy, Markup (business), Monopoly, MSNBC, Musicland, Neoclassical economics, Net Book Agreement, New York (state), Nippon Chemi-Con, Office of Fair Trading, Oligopoly, OPEC, Perfume, Petroleum, Price book, Price controls, Price fixing cases, Price gouging, Product (business), Profit (economics), Resale price maintenance, Samsung, Sephora, Sharp Corporation, Sherman Antitrust Act, SK Hynix, Sony Music, State attorney general, State Oil Co. v. Khan, Supply and demand, Supreme Court of the United States, Tacit collusion, Target Corporation, The Guardian, The Korea Times, Tower Records, Trans World Entertainment, Treaty, United States antitrust law, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division, Universal Music Group, Variable pricing, Vendor lock-in, Virgin Atlantic, Virginia, Warner Music Group, Waterstones, Whistleblower. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
The Agricultural & Applied Economics Association (AAEA) is a professional association for those interested in the field of agricultural and applied economics.
Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft.
Air France–KLM is a Franco-Dutch airline holding company incorporated under French law with its headquarters at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Tremblay-en-France, near Paris.
Air New Zealand Limited is the flag carrier airline of New Zealand.
AU Optronics (In abbreviation: AUO) is an electronics manufacturer in Taiwan, specialise on the area of TV panel manufacturing.
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is an independent authority of the Australian government.
Bertelsmann Music Group (abbreviated as BMG) was a division of German media company Bertelsmann before its completion of sale of the majority of its assets to Japan's Sony Corporation of America on 1 October 2008.
Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota.
Bid rigging is a form of fraud in which a commercial contract is promised to one party even though for the sake of appearance several other parties also present a bid.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal–but always secretive–to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.
The Commerce Act 1986 is a statute of New Zealand.
The Commerce Commission is a New Zealand government agency charged with enforcing legislation that promotes competition in the country's markets and prohibits misleading and deceptive conduct by traders.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
The Competition Act is a Canadian federal law governing competition law in Canada.
The Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA) is an Act of the Parliament of Australia.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
A deadweight loss, also known as excess burden or allocative inefficiency, is a loss of economic efficiency that can occur when equilibrium for a good or a service is not achieved.
Dillons was a British bookshop founded in 1932 and named after its founder and owner, Una Dillon.
Discounts and allowances are reductions to a basic price of goods or services.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
In mainstream economics, economic surplus, also known as total welfare or Marshallian surplus (after Alfred Marshall), refers to two related quantities.
EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
In the United States, a federal crime or federal offense is an act that is made illegal by U.S. federal legislation.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for rights or services.
George H. Earle Jr. (July 6, 1856 – February 19, 1928) was a Philadelphia lawyer and "financial diplomat" who was highly sought after to save ailing corporations from financial ruin.
The London Gold Fixing (or Gold Fix) is the setting of the price of gold that takes place via a dedicated conference line.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
HannStar Display Corporation is a Taiwan-based technology company, primarily involved in the research and production of monitors, notebook displays, and televisions.
The Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score) is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them.
The High Court of New Zealand is a superior court established in 1841.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
Hutchison Whampoa Limited (HWL) was an investment holding company based in Hong Kong.
Infineon Technologies AG is a German semiconductor manufacturer founded on 1 April 1999, when the semiconductor operations of the parent company Siemens AG were spun off to form a separate legal entity.
Innolux Corporation is a company producing TFT LCD panels, established in 2003 and located in Taiwan.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights.
L'Oréal S.A. is a French personal care company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris.
LG Display (Korean: LG 디스플레이) is the world's largest LCD panel maker.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
The list price, also known as the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP), or the recommended retail price (RRP), or the suggested retail price (SRP), of a product is the price at which the manufacturer recommends that the retailer sell the product.
The London Gold Pool was the pooling of gold reserves by a group of eight central banks in the United States and seven European countries that agreed on 1 November 1961 to cooperate in maintaining the Bretton Woods System of fixed-rate convertible currencies and defending a gold price of US$35 per troy ounce by interventions in the London gold market.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE, also known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris.
The lysine price-fixing conspiracy was an organized effort during the mid-1990s to raise the price of the animal feed additive lysine.
Markup is the ratio between the cost of a good or service and its selling price.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
The Musicland Group, Inc. was an entertainment company which ran Musicland, Sam Goody, Suncoast Motion Picture Company, OnCue, and the Media Play Superstore Chains.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
The Net Book Agreement (NBA) was a fixed book price agreement between The Publishers Association and booksellers which set the prices at which books were to be sold to the public.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
is a Japanese corporation that produces capacitors and other discrete electronic components.
The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) was a non-ministerial government department of the United Kingdom, established by the Fair Trading Act 1973, which enforced both consumer protection and competition law, acting as the United Kingdom's economic regulator.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In economics, a price book is a book in which the normal prices of an item are listed for all suppliers.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
This is a partial list of notable price fixing and bid rigging cases.
Price gouging is a pejorative term referring to when a seller spikes the prices of goods, services or commodities to a level much higher than is considered reasonable or fair, and is considered exploitative, potentially to an unethical extent.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
Resale price maintenance (RPM) (US) or retail price maintenance (UK) is the practice whereby a manufacturer and its distributors agree that the distributors will sell the manufacturer's product at certain prices (resale price maintenance), at or above a price floor (minimum resale price maintenance) or at or below a price ceiling (maximum resale price maintenance).
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
Sephora is a French-founded chain of personal care stores that operate multi-nationally founded in Paris in 1969.
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.
SK Hynix Inc. is a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips and flash memory chips.
Sony Music Entertainment (SME) is a Japanese-owned global music conglomerate owned by Sony and incorporated as a general partnership of Sony Music Holdings Inc. through Sony Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America. (in Japanese), Sony Corporation The company was first founded in 1929 as American Record Corporation and renamed Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting System. In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS Records, and Sony Corporation bought the company in 1988, renaming it under its current name in 1991. In 2004, Sony and Bertelsmann established a 50-50 joint venture called Sony BMG Music Entertainment, which transferred the businesses of Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group into one entity. However, in 2008, Sony acquired Bertelsmann's stake, and the company reverted to the SME name shortly after; the buyout allowed Sony to acquire all of BMG's labels, including former Columbia Pictures subsidiary Arista Records as well as RCA Records, and led to the dissolution of BMG, which instead relaunched as BMG Rights Management. Sony Music Entertainment is the second largest of the "Big Three" record companies in the world, behind Universal Music Group (UMG) and ahead of Warner Music Group (WMG). Sony's music publishing division is the world's largest music publisher after the acquisition of EMI. It also owns SYCO Entertainment, which operates some of the world's most successful reality TV format including Got Talent and The X Factor.
The state attorney general in each of the 50 U.S. states and territories is the chief legal advisor to the state government and the state's chief law enforcement officer.
State Oil Co.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tacit collusion occurs where firms undergo actions that are likely to minimize a response from another firm, e.g. avoiding the opportunity to price cut an opposition.
Target Corporation is the second-largest department store retailer in the United States, behind Walmart, and is a component of the S&P 500 Index.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea.
Tower Records was a retail music chain based in Sacramento, California, USA.
Trans World Entertainment Corporation is an American company which operates entertainment media retail stores across the United States of America.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division is a law enforcement agency responsible for enforcing the antitrust laws of the United States.
Universal Music Group (also known in the United States as UMG Recordings, Inc. and abbreviated as UMG) is an American global music corporation that is a subsidiary of the French media conglomerate Vivendi.
Variable pricing is a pricing strategy for products.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Warner Music Group (WMG, also referred to as Warner Music or WEA International) is an American multinational entertainment and record label conglomerate headquartered in New York City.
Waterstones, formerly Waterstone's, is a British book retailer that operates about 250 shops, mainly in the UK and also other nearby countries.
A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.