268 relations: Aaron, Aarti, Abraham, Afterlife, Akkadian language, Amun, Anatolia, Ancient Egyptian deities, Ancient Greek, Ancient Near East, Ancient Rome, Anglican Cistercians, Anglican Communion, Anglican religious order, Anglicanism, Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Saxon mission, Anointing, Anointing of the sick, Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church, Anthesteria, Anthropology, Apollo, Apostles, Apostolic succession, Archpriest, Asherah, Athens, Atonement in Christianity, Babalawo, Baptism, Bible, Bible translations into English, Bishop, Blue Letter Bible, Brahmin, Calvary, Cambridge University Press, Canon law, Cassock, Catholic Church, Celibacy, Ceremony, Ceres (mythology), Chrismation, Christian, Christian views on the Old Covenant, Church of England, Church of the East, Cincture, ..., Classical Greece, Clergy, Clerical celibacy, Clerical clothing, Clerical collar, Cloak, Confession (religion), Confirmation, Consecration, Conservative Judaism, Continuing Anglican movement, Coven, Cuba, Cult image, Curate, Deacon, Deity, Delphi, Dingir, Dionysus, Divine Liturgy, Dogma, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Egyptian temple, Elder (Christianity), EN (cuneiform), Enheduanna, Enkidu, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Ensi (Sumerian), Epic of Gilgamesh, Episcopal Church (United States), Epistle to the Hebrews, Etymological fallacy, Eucharist, Full communion, Gerarai, Gesenius, Ghee, God's Wife of Amun, Goddess, Gospel of Luke, Gothi, Government, Gurua, Halakha, Haoma, Hieromonk, Hieros gamos, High church, History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of Iceland, Holy anointing oil, Holy orders, Holy See, Hrafnkels saga, Ifá, Inanna, Incardination and excardination, Ise Grand Shrine, Iyalawo, Jerusalem Talmud, Jesus, Jewish holidays, Jogi, Journal Star (Peoria), Kami, Kamo Shrine, Kannushi, Karnak, Kish (Sumer), Kohen, Korban, Kubaba, Lagash, Late antiquity, Late Period of ancient Egypt, Latter Day Saint movement, Law of Moses, Laying on of hands, List of disqualifications for the Jewish priesthood, List of fictional clergy and religious figures, Liturgy, Low church, Lutheranism, Marriage in the Catholic Church, Martin Luther, Mass (liturgy), Mediumship, Melchizedek, Methodism, Miko, Minister (Christianity), Mishnah, Mother goddess, Murti, Nadītu, Nethinim, New Kingdom of Egypt, New Testament, Nigeria, NIN (cuneiform), Nippur, Norse mythology, Old English, Old French, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, Online Etymology Dictionary, Oracle, Ordinance (Latter Day Saints), Ordination, Ordination of women, Ordination of women in the Anglican Communion, Oriental Orthodoxy, Orisha, Orthodox Judaism, Osun, Oxford English Dictionary, Paganism, Pandit, Parish, Pastor, Pharaoh, Phrygia, Phrygian Sibyl, Pidyon haben, Polytheism, Pope John Paul II, Presbyter, Presbyterium, Presbyterorum Ordinis, Priest shortage in the Catholic Church, Priesthood (LDS Church), Priestly Blessing, Prophecy, Prophet, Proserpina, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-European society, Psalms, Puabi, Puja (Hinduism), Pujari, Purohit, Pythia, Q-D-Š, Qetesh, Queen consort, Quorum (Latter Day Saints), Reformation, Regent, Religious habit, Religious text, Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Restoration branches, Rite, Ritual, Ritualism in the Church of England, Robe, Sacerdotalism, Sacrament, Sacrament of Penance, Sacred prostitution, Sacrifice, Saga, Saiin (priestess), Same-sex marriage, Sanskara (rite of passage), Santería, Second Vatican Council, Secretary, Secular clergy, Shamhat, Shinto shrine, Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Skirt, Social stratification, Strong's Concordance, Sumerian King List, Sumerian language, Swami, Tanakh, Taoism, Taoist priest, Temple in Jerusalem, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Reverend, Theocracy, Third Temple, To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Tribal chief, Tribe of Levi, Trifunctional hypothesis, Tumah and taharah, Tunic, Umbanda, Universal priesthood, Ur, Uruk, Vestal Virgin, Vestment, Vicar, Volkhv, Vulgar Latin, Western Christianity, Wicca, Wiccan church, Worship, Wu Xing, Yasna, Yogi, Yoruba people, Zoroastrianism, 1978 Revelation on Priesthood. Expand index (218 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions (elder brother in the case of Judaism).
Aarti also spelled arti, arati, arathi, aarthi (In Devanagari: आरती) is a Hindu religious ritual of worship, a part of puja, in which light from wicks soaked in ghee (purified butter) or camphor is offered to one or more deities.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anglican Cistercians are members of the Anglican Communion who live a common life together according to the Cistercian tradition.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglican religious orders are communities of men or women (or in some cases mixed communities of both sexes) in the Anglican Communion who live under a common rule of life.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).
Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.
Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person.
Anointing of the Sick is a sacrament of the Catholic Church that is administered to a Catholic "who, having reached the age of reason, begins to be in danger due to sickness or old age", except in the case of those who "persevere obstinately in manifest grave sin".
Anthesteria or the Anthesteria (Ἀνθεστήρια, Anthestḗria) was one of the four Athenian festivals in honor of Dionysus.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes.
Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death.
Babaaláwo or Babalawo (Babalao or Babalaô in Latin America; literally meaning 'father of the mysteries' in the Yoruba language) is a spiritual title that denotes a priest of the Ifá oracle.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Partial Bible translations into languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old and Middle English.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Blue Letter Bible Project is an initiative of Sowing Circle, a United States-based, non-denominational Christian ministry, who has created a Study Bible in both CD format and for the internet.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Calvary, or Golgotha (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha, traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull" Strong's Concordance.), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
A ceremony is an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Chrismation consists of the sacrament or mystery in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, as well as in the Assyrian Church of the East initiation rites.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Mosaic covenant or Law of Moses which Christians generally call the "Old Covenant" (in contrast to the New Covenant) has played an important role in the origins of Christianity and has occasioned serious dispute and controversy since the beginnings of Christianity: note for example Jesus' teaching of the Law during his Sermon on the Mount and the circumcision controversy in early Christianity.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
The cincture is a rope-like or ribbon-like article sometimes worn with certain Christian liturgical vestments, encircling the body around or above the waist.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.
Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy.
A clerical collar, clergy collar, or Roman collar, is an item of Christian clerical clothing.
A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform.
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
The Continuing Anglican movement, also known as the Anglican Continuum, encompasses a number of Christian churches that are from the Anglican tradition but that are not part of the Anglican Communion.
A coven usually refers to a gathering of witches.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents.
A curate is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
Dingir (usually transliterated DIĜIR) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in e.g. DInanna.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.
An elder in Christianity is a person who is valued for wisdom and holds a position of responsibility and/or authority in a Christian group.
EN (Borger 2003 nr. 164; U+12097 𒂗, see also ENSI) is the Sumerian cuneiform for "lord" or "priest".
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
Enkidu (EN.KI.DU3, "Enki's creation"), formerly misread as Eabani, is a central figure in the Ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh.
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account, of preserved, early post-Sumerian copies, composed in the Neo-Sumerian period (ca. 21st century BC).
Ensi (cuneiform:, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; italic) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Έβραίους) is one of the books of the New Testament.
The etymological fallacy is a genetic fallacy that holds that the present-day meaning of a word or phrase should necessarily be similar to its historical meaning.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Gerarai (Γεραραί), also known by the latinized form Gerarae, were priestesses of Dionysus (Bacchus to the Romans) in ancient Greek ritual.
Gesenius is a surname.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
God's Wife of Amun (Egyptian: ḥm.t nṯr n ỉmn) was the highest-ranking priestess of the Amun cult, an important religious institution in ancient Egypt.
A goddess is a female deity.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
A goði or gothi (plural goðar) is the Old Norse term for a priest and chieftain.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Gurua is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Gaya district, Bihar state, India.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Haoma is a divine plant in Zoroastrianism and in later Persian culture and mythology.
A hieromonk (Greek: Ἱερομόναχος, Ieromonachos; Slavonic: Ieromonakh, Ieromonah), also called a priestmonk, is a monk who is also a priest in the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholicism.
Hieros gamos or Hierogamy (Greek ἱερὸς γάμος, ἱερογαμία "holy marriage") is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The recorded history of Iceland began with the settlement by Viking explorers and their slaves from the east, particularly Norway and the British Isles, in the late ninth century.
The holy anointing oil (Hebrew: שמן המשחה shemen ha-mishchah, "oil of anointing") formed an integral part of the ordination of the priesthood and the High Priest as well as in the consecration of the articles of the Tabernacle (Exodus 30:26) and subsequent temples in Jerusalem.
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hrafnkels saga or Hrafnkels saga Freysgoða is one of the Icelanders' sagas.
Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
In the Roman Catholic Church, incardination refers to the situation of a member of the clergy being placed under the jurisdiction of a particular bishop or other ecclesiastical superior.
The, located in the city of Ise, Mie Prefecture of Japan, is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu.
Iyaláwo is a term in the Yoruba language that literally means Mother of Mysteries or Mother of Wisdom (Ìyá: “mother”; awó “mysteries").
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
The Jogi (also spelled Yogi) are a Hindu sect (nath sampraday), found in North India and Sindh, with smaller numbers in the southern Indian states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Journal Star is the major daily newspaper for Peoria, Illinois, and surrounding area.
are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.
is a general term for an important Shinto sanctuary complex on both banks of the Kamo River in northeast Kyoto.
A, also called, is the person responsible for the maintenance of a as well as for leading worship of a given kami.
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
In Judaism, the korban (קָרְבָּן qārbān), also spelled qorban or corban, is any of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah.
Kubaba (in the Weidner or Esagila Chronicle; Sumerian: Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian King List, which states she reigned for 100 years – roughly in the Early Dynastic III period (ca. 2500-2330 BC) of Sumerian history.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Achaemenid Persian conquests and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
The Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Law or in תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה, Torat Moshe, refers primarily to the Torah or first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual.
Under the Law of Moses in Ancient Israel certain imperfections and other criteria could disqualify the priest from serving in the tabernacle or, later, the Temple in Jerusalem.
Clergy and other religious figures have generally represented a popular outlet for pop culture, although this has tapered in recent years.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The term "low church" refers to churches which give relatively little emphasis to ritual, sacraments and the authority of clergy.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Marriage in the Roman Catholic Church, also called matrimony, is the "covenant by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life and which is ordered by its nature to the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring", and which "has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament between the baptised." Catholic matrimonial law, based on Roman law regarding its focus on marriage as a free mutual agreement or contract, became the basis for the marriage law of all European countries, at least up to the Reformation.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.
Melchizedek, Melkisetek, or Malki Tzedek (Hebrew: malkī-ṣeḏeq, "king of righteousness"; Amharic: መልከ ጼዴቅ malkī-ṣeḏeq; Armenian: Մելքիսեդեք, Melkisetek), was the king of Salem and priest of El Elyon ("God most high") mentioned in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
In Shinto, a miko (巫女) is a shrine (jinja) maidenGroemer, 28.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.
A Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, IAST: Mūrti) literally means any form, embodiment or solid object, and typically refers to an image, statue or idol of a deity or person in Indian culture.
Nadītu or Naditu is the designation of a legal position for women in Babylonian society and for Sumerian temple slaves.
Nethinim (ha-nĕtînîm,, lit. "the given ones", or "subjects"), or Nathinites or Nathineans, was the name given to the Temple assistants in ancient Jerusalem.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Sumerian word NIN (from the Akkadian pronunciation of the sign EREŠ) was used to denote a queen or a priestess, and is often translated as "lady".
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Swedish (Modern Swedish: fornsvenska) is the name for two distinct stages of the Swedish language that were spoken in the Middle Ages: Early Old Swedish (Klassisk fornsvenska), spoken from around 1225 until 1375, and Late Old Swedish (Yngre fornsvenska), spoken from 1375 until 1526.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term ordinance is used to refer to sacred rites and ceremonies that have spiritual and symbolic meanings and act as a means of conveying divine grace.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice.
The ordination of women in the Anglican Communion has been increasingly common in certain provinces since the 1970s.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
An orisha (spelled òrìṣà in the Yoruba language, and orichá or orixá in Latin America) is a spirit who reflects one of the subordinate manifestations of the supreme divinity (Olodumare, Olorun, Olofi) in Yoruba religion.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Osun (Ozun) is a major Orichá (manifestation of a god) in the Santería religion of the Caribbean(Cuba and Trinidad) brought over by West African slaves during the transatlantic slave trade.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
A pandit (paṇḍita; also spelled pundit, pronounced; abbreviated as Pt. or Pdt.; Panditain or Punditain can refer to a female pundit or the wife of a pundit) is a Brahmin scholar or a teacher of any field of knowledge in Hinduism, particularly the Vedic scriptures, dharma, Hindu philosophy, or secular subjects such as music.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
In the extended complement of sibyls of the Gothic and Renaissance imagination, the Phrygian Sibyl was the priestess presiding over an Apollonian oracle at Phrygia, a historical kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands.
The pidyon haben (פדיון הבן) or redemption of the first-born son is a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a Jewish firstborn son is "redeemed" by use of silver coins from his birth-state of sanctity, i.e. from being predestined by his firstborn status to serve as a priest.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
Presbyterium is a modern term used in the Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches after the Second Vatican Council in reference to a college of priests, in active ministry, of an individual particular church such as a diocese or eparchy.
Presbyterorum Ordinis, the Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests, is one of the documents produced by the Second Vatican Council.
In the years since World War II, there has been a substantial reduction in the number of priests per capita in the Catholic Church, a phenomenon considered by many to constitute a "shortage" in the number of priests.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the priesthood is the power and authority to act in the name of God for the salvation of humankind.
The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, (ברכת כהנים; translit. birkat kohanim), also known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands (Hebrew nesiat kapayim), or Dukhanen (Yiddish from the Hebrew word dukhan – platform – because the blessing is given from a raised rostrum), is a Hebrew prayer recited by Kohanim - the Hebrew Priests.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Proserpina or Proserpine is an ancient Roman goddess whose cult, myths and mysteries were based on those of Greek Persephone and her mother Demeter, the Greek goddess of grain and agriculture.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Indo-European society is the hypothesized culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European, ancestors of all modern Indo–European ethnic groups who are speakers of Indo-European languages.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Puabi (Akkadian: "Word of my father"), also called Shubad due to a misinterpretation by Sir Charles Leonard Woolley, was an important person in the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur (c. 2600 BC).
Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.
A pujari or archaka (Sanskrit: पूजारी) is a Hindu temple priest.
Purohit, in the Indian religious context, means family priest, from puras meaning "front", and hita, "placed".
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
Q-D-Š is a triconsonantal Semitic root meaning "sacred, holy", derived from a concept central to ancient Semitic religion.
Qetesh (also Kadesh) is a goddess, who was adopted during the late Bronze Age from the religion of Canaan into the ancient Egyptian religion during its New Kingdom.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
In the Latter Day Saint movement, a quorum is a group of people ordained or endowed with priesthood authority, and organized to act together as a body.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, usually referred to as the Remnant Church, is a denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement.
Restoration branches movement is a Christian/Latter Day Saint religious sect which was formed in the 1980s by members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS) in a reaction against the events of the RLDS 1984 world conference.
A rite is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Ritualism, in the history of Christianity, refers to an emphasis on the rituals and liturgical ceremony of the church, in particular of Holy Communion.
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.
Sacerdotalism is the belief that propitiatory sacrifices for sin require the intervention of a priest.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (commonly called Penance, Reconciliation, or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (called sacred mysteries in the Eastern Catholic Churches), in which the faithful obtain absolution for the sins committed against God and neighbour and are reconciled with the community of the Church.
Sacred prostitution, temple prostitution, cult prostitution, and religious prostitution are general terms for a sexual rite consisting of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity performed in the context of religious worship, perhaps as a form of fertility rite or divine marriage (hieros gamos).
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
were female relatives of the Japanese emperor (termed saiō) who served as High Priestesses in Kamo Shrine.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Sanskara (IAST:, sometimes spelled samskara) are rites of passage in a human being's life described in ancient Sanskrit texts, as well as a concept in the karma theory of Indian philosophies.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills.
The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute.
Shamhat (or Šamhat, also called Shamkat in the old Babylonian version of Gilgamesh") is a female character who appears in Tablets I and II of the Epic of Gilgamesh and is mentioned in Tablet VII.
A is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more kami.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
A skirt is the lower part of a dress or gown, covering the person from the waist downwards, or a separate outer garment serving this purpose.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, generally known as Strong's Concordance, is a Bible concordance, an index of every word in the King James Version (KJV), constructed under the direction of James Strong.
The Sumerian King List is an ancient stone tablet originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of the kingship.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
In Hinduism, a swami (svāmī), sometimes abbreviated sw., is an ascetic or yogi who has been initiated into the religious monastic order, founded by some religious teacher.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A Taoist priest, Taoist monk, Taoist master or Professional Taoist (道士 "master of the Tao") is a priest in Taoism.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Reverend is an honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and ministers.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
If built, the Third Temple (בית המקדש השלישי, Beit haMikdash haShlishi, literally: The House, the Holy, the Third) would be the third Jewish temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's Temple and the rebuilt Second Temple.
To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation) is the first of three tracts written by Martin Luther in 1520.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
According to the Bible, the Tribe of Levi is one of the tribes of Israel, traditionally descended from Levi, son of Jacob.
The trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society postulates a tripartite ideology ("idéologie tripartite") reflected in the existence of three classes or castes—priests, warriors, and commoners (farmers or tradesmen)—corresponding to the three functions of the sacral, the martial and the economic, respectively.
In Jewish law, ṭumah and ṭaharah) are the state of being ritually "impure" and "pure" respectively. The Hebrew noun ṭum'ah, meaning "impurity," describes a state of ritual impurity. A person or object which contracts ṭumah is said to be ṭamei (Hebrew adjective, "ritually impure"), and thereby unsuited for certain holy activities and utilisations (kedusha in Hebrew) until undergoing predefined purification actions that usually include the elapse of a specified time-period. The contrasting Hebrew noun ṭaharah (טָהֳרָה) describes a state of ritual purity that qualifies the ṭahor (טָהוֹר; ritually pure person or object) to be used for kedusha. The most common method of achieving ṭaharah is by the person or object being immersed in a mikveh (ritual bath). This concept is connected with ritual washing in Judaism, and both ritually impure and ritually pure states have parallels in ritual purification in other world religions. The laws of ṭumah and ṭaharah were generally followed by the Israelites, particularly during the First and Second Temple Period, and to a limited extent are a part of applicable halakha in modern times.
A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.
Umbanda is a syncretic Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African traditions with Roman Catholicism, Spiritism, and Indigenous American beliefs.
The universal priesthood or the priesthood of all believers is a foundational concept of Christianity.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
A volkhv or volhv (Cyrillic: Волхв; polish: Wołchw, translatable as wiseman, wizard, magus, i.e. shaman, or mage) is a priest in ancient Slavic religions and contemporary Slavic Native Faith (Rodovery).
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wiccan churches are a type of organization found within some groups of Wicca, particularly in North America.
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Yasna (𐬫𐬀𐬯𐬥𐬀) is the Avestan name of Zoroastrianism's principal act of worship.
A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1978 Revelation on Priesthood was a revelation announced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) that reversed a long-standing policy excluding men of black African descent from the priesthood.