210 relations: A Just Russia, All-Russia People's Front, Altai Krai, Alternative Democratic Pole, Andrew Scheer, Antanas Mockus, Argentine general election, 2011, Argentine general election, 2015, Argentine legislative election, 2013, Armenia, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Australia, Australian Labor Party, Blanket primary, Bulgarian Socialist Party, By-election, California Proposition 14 (2010), Canada, Carlos Gaviria Díaz, Caucus, Chile, Citizens' Action Party (Costa Rica), Colombia, Colombian Conservative Party, Colombian Liberal Party, Committeemen and committeewomen, Condorcet loser criterion, Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party (UK) parliamentary primaries, Conservative Party of Canada, Conservative Party of Canada leadership election, 2017, Costa Rica, Crossover voting, Czech Social Democratic Party, Delegate, Democratic Left Alliance, Democratic National Committee, Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008, Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016, Democratic Progressive Party, Direction – Social Democracy, Dmitry Medvedev, Election commission, Elections Canada, Elections to the European Parliament, Electoral district (Canada), Electoral system, Europe, European Green Party, ..., European Parliament, European Parliament election, 2009, European Parliament election, 2014, European People's Party, European political party, Exhaustive ballot, François Hollande, François Mitterrand, Françoise de Panafieu, Fred Tuttle, French Communist Party, French European Constitution referendum, 2005, French presidential election, 1995, French presidential election, 2012, French presidential election, 2017, French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2006, French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2011, General election, Governor of Saint Petersburg, Green Alliance (Colombia), Green Alliance (Russia), Green party, Gustavo Petro, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Horacio Serpa, House of Commons of Canada, Hungarian Socialist Party, Independent Party of Oregon, Initiative, Instant-runoff voting, Iowa caucuses, Italian general election, 2006, Jacques Chirac, Jacques Delors Institute, Jagmeet Singh, Justin Trudeau, Kuomintang, Labour movement, Labour Party (Ireland), Labour Party (Malta), Labour Party (Netherlands), Labour Party (UK), Labour Party (UK) leadership election, 2010, Labour United, Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party, Leadership convention, Liberal Party of Canada leadership election, 2013, Lionel Jospin, List of Democratic Party presidential primaries, List of mayors of Paris, List of political parties in Canada, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Louisiana primary, Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, Majority, Median voter theorem, Member of parliament, Member of the European Parliament, Moscow City Duma, Movement for Social Democracy, National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, National Liberation Party (Costa Rica), National Party of Australia, New Democratic Party, New Democratic Party leadership election, 2017, New Hampshire primary, Nicolas Sarkozy, Noemí Sanín, Nonpartisan blanket primary, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Official Opposition (Canada), One member, one vote, Parti Socialiste (Belgium), Party leader, Party of European Socialists, Party of Growth, Party of Growth presidential primaries, 2017, Party raiding, PASOK, People's Freedom Party, Plurality (voting), Plurality voting, Political convention, Political party, Political science, Premier (Canada), President of France, President of the European Commission, President of the United States, Primary election, Primary elections in Italy, Prime Minister of Canada, Progressivism in the United States, Proportional representation, Provinces and territories of Canada, Radical Party of the Left, Rafael Pardo Rueda, Ranked voting, Referendum, Republican National Committee, Republican Party presidential primaries, Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012, Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016, Riding association, Russia, Russian legislative election, 2011, Russian presidential election, 2018, Saint Petersburg, Ségolène Royal, Social Christian Unity Party, Social democracy, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Social Democratic Party (Estonia), Social Democratic Party (Romania), Social Democratic Party of Austria, Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party of Lithuania, Social Democrats (Denmark), Social Democrats (Slovenia), Socialism, Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party (Portugal), Socialistische Partij Anders, Sore-loser law, South Korea, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Spoiler effect, State Duma, Strategic nomination, Swedish Social Democratic Party, Tactical voting, Taiwan, Terra Nova (think tank), The Greens (France), The New York Times, The Olive Tree (Italy), The Republicans (France), Third party (United States), Thomas W. 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A Just Russia (Справедливая Россия, СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR, esers (эсеры)) also translated as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic political party in Russia currently holding 23 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.
The All-Russia People's Front (Общероссийский народный фронт), known by its Russian initialism ONF, is a movement in Russia started in 2011 by then-Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin to provide United Russia with "new ideas, new suggestions and new faces".
Altai Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai).
The Alternative Democratic Pole (Spanish: Polo Democrático Alternativo or PDA) is a social democratic and democratic left party in Colombia political party in Colombia.
Andrew James Scheer (born May 20, 1979) is a Canadian politician serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Regina—Qu'Appelle since 2004 and as the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Official Opposition since 2017.
Aurelijus Rūtenis Antanas Mockus Šivickas (born 25 March 1952) is a Colombian mathematician, philosopher, and politician.
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 23 October 2011.
General elections were held in Argentina on 25 October 2015 to elect the President and National Congress, and followed primary elections which were held on 9 August 2015.
Legislative elections were held in Argentina on 27 October 2013.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
The blanket primary is a system used for selecting political party candidates in a primary election in the United States.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party.
By-elections, also spelled bye-elections (known as special elections in the United States, and bypolls in India), are used to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections.
Proposition 14 is a California ballot proposition that appeared on the ballot during the June 2010 state elections.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carlos Emilio Gaviria Díaz (8 May 1937 – 31 March 2015) was a Colombian lawyer, professor and politician.
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Citizens' Action Party (Partido Acción Ciudadana; commonly abbreviated as PAC) is a left-leaning political party in Costa Rica.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) is a conservative political party in Colombia.
The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a centrist and social liberal political party in Colombia.
Committeemen and Committeewomen are functionaries within the apparatus of political parties in the United States.
In single-winner voting system theory, the Condorcet loser criterion is a measure for differentiating voting systems.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Since 2009, the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom has experimented with the use of open primaries to select some parliamentary candidates.
The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.
The 2017 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election was held on May 27, 2017.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
In primary elections in the United States, crossover voting refers to a behavior in which voters cast ballots for a party with which they are not traditionally affiliated.
The Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic.
A delegate is someone who attends or communicates the ideas of or acts on behalf of an organization at a meeting or conference between organizations, which may be at the same level or involved in a common field of work or interest.
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is a social-democratic political party in Poland.
The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party.
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The 2008 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection processes by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.
The 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the 4,051 delegates to the Democratic National Convention held July 25–28 and determine the nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
Direction – Social Democracy (Smer – sociálna demokracia, Smer – SD) is a social-democratic political party in Slovakia.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of election procedures.
Elections Canada (Élections Canada) is an independent, non-partisan agency reporting directly to the Parliament of Canada.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Green Party (EGP), sometimes referred to as European Greens, is the European political party that operates as a federation of political parties across Europe supporting green politics.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Elections to the European Parliament were held in the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) between 4 and 7 June 2009.
From 22 to 25 May 2014, elections to the European Parliament were held in the European Union.
The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party.
A European political party (formally, a political party at European level; informally a Europarty) is a type of political party organisation operating transnationally in Europe and in the institutions of the European Union.
The exhaustive ballot is a voting system used to elect a single winner.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
Françoise de Panafieu (born 12 December 1948 at Moyeuvre-Grande) is a French politician, member of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party and mayor of the 17th arrondissement of Paris.
Frederick Herman Tuttle (July 18, 1919 – October 4, 2003) was an American dairy farmer, actor, and Republican candidate for the United States Senate from Vermont in 1998.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The French referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was held on 29 May 2005 to decide whether France should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union.
Presidential elections took place in France on 23 April and 7 May 1995, to elect the fifth president of the Fifth Republic.
A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories), with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state).
The 2017 French presidential election was held on 23 April and 7 May 2017.
The Socialist Party presidential primary of 2006 was the selection process by which members of the Socialist Party of France chose their candidate for the 2007 French presidential election.
The 2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary was the first open primary (primaires citoyennes) of the French Socialist Party and Radical Party of the Left for selecting their candidate for the 2012 presidential election.
A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.
The Governor of Saint Petersburg (Губернатор Санкт-Петербурга) is the head of the executive branch of Saint Petersburg City Administration.
The Green Alliance (Alianza Verde) is a Colombian political party located in the centre of the political spectrum.
The Green Alliance (Альянс зелёных) is a Russian political party based on Oleg Mitvol's Green Alternative movement (founded in 2009) and founded in 2012 as a party.
A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of green politics, such as social justice, environmentalism and nonviolence.
Gustavo Francisco Petro Urrego (Local; born April 19, 1960) is a Colombian politician, economist, and presidential candidate who previously served as mayor of Bogotá.
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (abbreviated HR or HR/VP, the latter reflecting the vice presidency of the Commission) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU).
Horacio Serpa Uribe (born 3 January 1943) is a Colombian lawyer, politician and current Senator of Colombia.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt), known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary.
The Independent Party of Oregon (IPO) is a political party in the U.S. state of Oregon.
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a plebiscite).
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
The Iowa Caucuses are quadrennial electoral events in which members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state of Iowa meet to select delegates who will vote for their party's nominee in the United States presidential election at the party convention.
The 2006 Italian general election for the two Chambers of the Italian Parliament was held on 9 and 10 April 2006.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
The Jacques Delors Institute (Institut Jacques Delors), which also uses the name Notre Europe (French for "Our Europe"), is an independent think tank based in Paris.
Jagmeet Singh Jimmy Dhaliwal (born January 2, 1979), professionally known as Jagmeet Singh (ਜਗਮੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ), is a Canadian lawyer and politician serving as Leader of the New Democratic Party since 2017.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland.
The Labour Party (Partit Laburista, PL), formerly known as the Malta Labour Party (MLP), is a social-democratic political party in Malta.
The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid,, abbreviated as PvdA, or P van de A) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The 2010 Labour Party leadership election was triggered by a general election which resulted in a hung parliament.
Labour Union (Unia Pracy, UP) is a minor social-democratic political party in Poland.
The Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija, LSDSP) is a social-democratic political party in Latvia.
In Canadian politics, a leadership convention is held by a political party when the party needs to choose a leader due to a vacancy or a challenge to the incumbent leader.
An election for the leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada was triggered by Michael Ignatieff's announcement on May 3, 2011, of his intention to resign as leader following the party's defeat in the 2011 federal election.
Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937) is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.
This is a List of Democratic Party presidential primaries.
The Mayor of Paris (Maire de Paris) is the chief executive of Paris, the capital and largest city in the France.
This article lists political parties in Canada.
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.
The so-called Louisiana primary is the common term for the Louisiana general election for local, state, and congressional offices.
The Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei, Parti Ouvrier Socialiste Luxembourgeois, Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei), abbreviated to LSAP or POSL, is a social-democratic political party in Luxembourg.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
The median voter theorem states that "a majority rule voting system will select the outcome most preferred by the median voter".
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Moscow City Duma (Московская городская дума, Moskovskaya Gorodskaya Duma) is the Russian regional parliament in Moscow, the unicameral City Duma (city council, a local parliament) of the Russian capital city of Moscow.
The Movement for Social Democracy (Κίνημα Σοσιαλδημοκρατών (ΕΔΕΚ), Kinima Sosialdimokraton (EDEK)) is a Greek Cypriot nationalist and social-democratic political party in Cyprus.
The Grange, officially referred to as The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture.
The National Liberation Party (Partido Liberación Nacional, commonly abbreviated as PLN), nicknamed the verdiblancos ("green and whites"), is a political party in Costa Rica.
The National Party of Australia (also known as The Nationals or simply, The Nats) is an Australian political party.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
The 2017 New Democratic Party leadership election was won by Jagmeet Singh with a landslide victory.
The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide party primary elections and the second party contest (the first being the Iowa Caucuses) held in the United States every four years as part of the process of choosing the delegates to the Democratic and Republican national conventions which choose the party nominees for the presidential elections to be held the subsequent November.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Marta Noemí del Espíritu Santo Sanín Posada (born 6 June 1949) is a Colombian-born politician and diplomat.
A nonpartisan blanket primary is a primary election in which all candidates for the same elected office, regardless of respective political party, run against each other at once, instead of being segregated by political party.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
In Canada, Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (L'Opposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on its own or as part of a governing coalition.
In the parliamentary politics of the United Kingdom and Canada, one member, one vote (OMOV) is a method of selecting party leaders by a direct vote of the members of a political party.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic French-speaking political party in Belgium.
In politics, a party leader is the most powerful official within a political party.
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.
Party of Growth (Партия Роста; Partiya Rosta (until March 2016, "Just (or Right) Cause" Pravoye Delo) is a political party in Russia with representatives in several local legislatures. Founded on 18 February 2009 as a merger of the Union of Rightist Forces (partly, other members joined to Solidarnost), Civilian Power and the Democratic Party of Russia, the party's main policy stances are liberal free market economy, democracy and protecting the rights of the middle class. Although widely regarded as a pro-Kremlin party, it has already found itself in opposition to the presidential administration on several occasions.Андрей Перцев. «Коммерсант.ру», 23.02.2016.
The 2017 Party of Growth presidential primaries is the selection process by which voters of the Party of Growth were to choose its potential nominee for President of Russia in the 2018 Russian presidential election.
Party raiding describes a tactic in American politics where members of one party vote in another party's primary election in an effort to either nominate a weaker candidate or prolong divided support between two or more contenders for that party's nomination (especially for president).
The Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα), known mostly by its acronym PASOK (ΠΑΣΟΚ), was a social-democratic political party in Greece.
The People's Freedom Party (Партия народной свободы, Partiya narodnoy svobody), or PARNAS (ПАРНАС), is a Russian liberal democratic political party.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
In politics, a political convention may refer to a meeting of a political party, typically to select party candidates.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
In Canada, a premier is the head of government of a province or territory.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A primary election is the process by which the general public can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
Primary elections were first introduced in Italy by Lega Nord in 1995, but were seldom used until before the 2005 regional elections.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
The Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche, PRG) was a social-liberal political party in France.
Rafael Pardo Rueda (born 26 November 1953) is the 1st and current Minister of Labour of Colombia serving in the Administration of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón.
Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States.
Presidential primaries have been held in the United States since 1912 to nominate the Republican presidential candidate.
The 2012 Republican presidential primaries were the selection processes in which voters of the Republican Party elected state delegations to the Republican National Convention.
The 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests taking place within all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories, occurring between February 1 and June 7.
In Canadian politics, a riding association (association de comté), also known as a constituency association and officially called an electoral district association (association de circonscription) is the basic unit of a political party at the level of the electoral district, or "riding".
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 4 December 2011.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 18 March 2018.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party.
The Social Christian Unity Party (Partido Unidad Socialcristiana) is a centre-right political party in Costa Rica.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) is a social-democratic and Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Social Democratic Party (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond, SDE) is a social-democratic political party in Estonia, currently led by Jevgeni Ossinovski.
The Social Democratic Party (Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is the major social-democratic political party in Romania.
The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a social-democratic political party in Austria and alongside the People's Party one of the two traditional major parties.
The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP, Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue, Finlands socialdemokratiska parti), shortened to the Social Democrats, is a social-democratic political party in Finland.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija, LSDP) is a social-democratic political party in Lithuania.
The Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne), officially Social Democracy (Socialdemokratiet), is a social-democratic political party in Denmark.
The Social Democrats (Socialni demokrati, Slovene abbreviation: SD) is a centre-left political party in Slovenia, currently led by Dejan Židan.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista,, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Portugal.
Socialist Party Differently (sp.a) is a social-democratic Flemish political party in Belgium.
In United States politics, a sore-loser law is a law which states that the loser in a primary election cannot then run as an independent in the general election.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The spoiler effect is the effect of vote splitting between candidates or ballot questions who often have similar ideologies.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
Strategic nomination is the manipulation of an election by its candidate set.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP; literally, "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden"), contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna ('The Workers' Party – The Social Democrats'), usually referred to just as the 'Social Democrats' (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden.
In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates, when a voter supports another candidate more strongly than their sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Terra Nova is a French independent liberal think tank (or "Progressive Foundation") considered close to the French Socialist Party and now close to the French President, Emmanuel Macron.
The Greens (Les Verts,; VEC or LV) was a green-ecologist political party in France.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Olive Tree (L'Ulivo) was a denomination used for several successive centre-left political and electoral alliances of Italian political parties from 1995 to 2007.
The Republicans (Les Républicains; LR) is a centre-right political party in France.
Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.
Thomas W. Williams (ca. 1867–1931) was a former coal miner, school principal and church minister who was a member of the Los Angeles, California, City Council between 1929 and 1931.
Thomas Newnham Bayley Spencer (born 10 April 1948) is a British Conservative politician and former Member of the European Parliament.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
The Union of Right Forces political party, or SPS (Сою́з Пра́вых Сил, СПС/Soyuz Pravykh Sil), is a Russia political public organization and former party, initially founded as an electoral bloc in 1999 and associated with free market reforms, privatization, and the legacy of the "young reformers" of the 1990s: Anatoly Chubais, Boris Nemtsov, and Yegor Gaidar.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Washington (in case citations, W.D. Wash.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties of the state of Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom.
The presidential primary elections and caucuses held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States form part of the nominating process of candidates for United States presidential elections.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
General elections were held in Uruguay on 31 October 1999 alongside a double referendum, with a second round of the presidential election on 28 November.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a Russian social-liberal political party founded by Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Emilia Slabunova.
The Young Radicals of the Left (French: Jeunes Radicaux de Gauche abbreviated as JRG), are the youth organisation of the French social-liberal Radical Party of the Left.
The Movement of the Young Socialists (Mouvement des Jeunes Socialistes, MJS) or simply Jeunes Socialistes is the youth organisation of the Socialist Party of France.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
Direct Primary, Direct primary, Non-partisan primary, Nonpartisan primary, Open Primary, Open primary, Party primary, Political primary, Primaries, Primary (election), Primary Election, Primary elections, Primary polls.