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Index Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank"). [1]

398 relations: Academic Press, Adapiformes, Alarm signal, Allele, Allen's swamp monkey, Allyn & Bacon, Altanius, Altiatlasius, American Journal of Human Genetics, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Amino acid, Animal Diversity Web, Anomalure, Anthropomorpha, Anti-predator adaptation, Ape, Apex predator, Arboreal locomotion, Arboreal theory, Archaeoindris, Archicebus, Associated Press, Atelidae, Atlas Mountains, Australopithecine, Australopithecus, Aye-aye, Baboon, Back-formation, Barbara Smuts, Barbary macaque, Basal (phylogenetics), Bat, BBC News, Binocular vision, Biological specificity, Biomass, Bipedalism, Bird of prey, Black crested mangabey, Black snub-nosed monkey, Black-and-white colobus, Blue monkey, Bonobo, Borneo, Brachiation, Breastfeeding, Bushmeat, Callitrichidae, Campbell's mona monkey, ..., Cantius, Capuchin monkey, Carbohydrate, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivora, Carnivore, Catarrhini, Cebidae, Cell (journal), Cercopithecinae, Cerebral cortex, Cheirogaleidae, Chester Zoo, Chimpanzee, Chlorocebus, CITES, Clade, Cladistics, Cladogram, Clavicle, Clone (cell biology), Colin Groves, Colobinae, Colugo, Common chimpanzee, Consciousness, Continental drift, Convergent evolution, Correlation and dependence, Crab-eating macaque, Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, Cross River gorilla, Crypsis, Cusp (anatomy), Darwinius, De Brazza's monkey, Deforestation, Delacour's langur, Dentition, Diana monkey, Dolly (sheep), Dominance hierarchy, Donrussellia, Drill (animal), Duiker, Eastern gorilla, Ebola virus disease, Ecology, Edge effects, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Eocene, Eosimiidae, Ethiopian Highlands, Euarchonta, Euarchontoglires, European Coalition to End Animal Experiments, European Union, Eutheria, Evolution of color vision in primates, Evolutionary Psychology (journal), Fission–fusion society, Flying squirrel, Folia Primatologica, French language, Frugivore, Fur, Galago, Gelada, Gene duplication, Generalist and specialist species, Gibbon, Glires, Gombe Stream National Park, Gorilla, Gorillini, Gravigrada, Gray langur, Gray-shanked douc, Great ape personhood, Great Ape Project, Grey-cheeked mangabey, Grooming claw, Group size measures, Guenon, Habitat fragmentation, Hamadryas baboon, Haplorhini, Hengduan Mountains, Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, Herpes B virus, Herpesviridae, Holocene, Hominidae, Homininae, Hominini, Homo, Honshu, Howler monkey, Human, Human body weight, Human evolution, Hybrid (biology), Hybrid zone, Hyoid bone, Inbreeding depression, Incisor, Indri, Indriidae, Infanticide (zoology), Insect, Insectivora, International Primate Day, International Primate Protection League, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Invertebrate, Island hopping, Jane Goodall, Japanese macaque, Jumping, Juvenile (organism), King colobus, Kinship, Knuckle-walking, Koala, Kyoto University, Lagomorpha, Language, Larynx, Latin, Lemur, Lemuridae, Lemuriformes, Lesser spot-nosed monkey, Leuser Ecosystem, Lion tamarin, Lipid, List of fossil primates, List of primates, List of primates described in the 2000s, List of primates described in the 2010s, Lizard, Locus (genetics), Loris, Lorisidae, Lorisoidea, Macaque, Madagascar, Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, Mammal, Mammal Species of the World, Mangrove, Mantled guereza, Marburg virus, Marmoset, Marsupial, Mating system, Measles, Menopause, Merriam-Webster, Mesozoic, Mexico–United States border, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Middle America (Americas), Mineral, Miocene, Miss Waldron's red colobus, Mobbing (animal behavior), Model organism, Molar (tooth), Molecular clock, Monkey, Monkey drive, Monkey lemur, Monkeys and apes in space, Monochromacy, Monophyly, Montane ecosystems, Motor cortex, Mountain gorilla, Muriqui, Nail (anatomy), NASA, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Neanderthal, Neocortex, Neontology, Nest-building in primates, Neuroscience, New World monkey, Night monkey, Nocturnality, Northern greater galago, Nova ScienceNow, Nuclear transfer, Oceanic dispersal, Old French, Old World monkey, Olfaction, Omnivore, Omomyidae, Ophthalmology, Opossum, Opsin, Orangutan, Order (biology), Orrorin, Ovulation, Pachydermata, Palaeos, Paleocene, Paleontology, Palm oil, Paranthropus robustus, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Patas monkey, Person, Phalanx bone, Pheromone, Philippine tarsier, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Pitheciidae, Plesiadapiformes, Plesiadapis, Poaching, Polygyny in animals, Population bottleneck, Postorbital bar, Poxviridae, Predation, Prehensile tail, Premolar, Primatology, Primatomorpha, Proboscis monkey, Promiscuity, Prosimian, Quadrupedalism, Quaternates, Rabies, Rainforest, Red slender loris, Red-tailed monkey, Relict, Reptile, Retina, Rhesus macaque, Rhinarium, Richard Wrangham, Ring-tailed lemur, Rodent, Ruminantia, Scapula, Science (journal), Secundates, Senegal bushbaby, Sense, Service animal, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual selection, Shoulder girdle, Shoulder joint, Sifaka, Silky sifaka, Simia, Simian, Simian shelf, Skull, Sloth lemur, Slow loris, Snout, Social grooming, Social structure, Somatosensory system, Sooty mangabey, Spider monkey, Sportive lemur, Springer Science+Business Media, Squirrel, Squirrel monkey, Starvation, Stereopsis, Strepsirrhini, Strontium, Subsistence agriculture, Subtropics, Sumatran orangutan, Supraorbital ridge, Systema Naturae, Taï National Park, Tactile pad, Tarsier, Tarsiiformes, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Teilhardina, Termite, Terrestrial animal, Territory (animal), Tertiates, Tethys Ocean, Tetrachromacy, Tetraplegia, The New York Times, The Stationery Office, The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, Three-toed sloth, Thumb, Tonkin snub-nosed monkey, Tool use by animals, Tooth enamel, Toothcomb, Treeshrew, Trichromacy, Tropical forest, Tropical rainforest, United Nations, United States dollar, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Venomous snake, Vertebra, Vertebrate, Vervet monkey, Vespertilio, Vestigiality, Viral hepatitis, Virunga Mountains, Visual perception, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Vomeronasal organ, Warm-blooded, Weaning, Western lowland gorilla, Western red colobus, White-headed langur, Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, Wired (magazine), Wolf's mona monkey, Woolly lemur, Woolly monkey, X chromosome, Year, Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, Zoo, Zoonosis, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (348 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Adapiformes is an extinct group of early primates.

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Alarm signal

In animal communication, an alarm signal is an antipredator adaptation in the form of signals emitted by social animals in response to danger.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Allen's swamp monkey

The Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopithecus nigroviridis) is a primate species categorized in its own genus Allenopithecus in the Old World monkey family.

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Allyn & Bacon

Allyn & Bacon, founded in 1868, is a higher education textbook publisher in the areas of education, humanities and social sciences.

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Altanius is a genus of extinct primates found in the early Eocene of Mongolia.

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Altiatlasius is potentially the oldest known "euprimate" (primate of modern aspect), dating to the Late Paleocene from Morocco.

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American Journal of Human Genetics

The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.

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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

The American Journal of Physical Anthropology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official journal of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Animal Diversity Web

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database that collects the natural history, classification, species characteristics, conservation biology, and distribution information on thousands of species of animals.

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The Anomaluridae are a family of rodents found in central Africa.

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Anthropomorpha is a defunct taxon, replaced by Primates.

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Anti-predator adaptation

Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.

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Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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Apex predator

An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.

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Arboreal locomotion

Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.

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Arboreal theory

This theory is proposed by Grafton Elliott-Smith (1912) who was a neuroanatomist who was chiefly concerned with the emergence of the primate brain.

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Archaeoindris fontoynontii is an extinct giant lemur and the largest primate known to have evolved on Madagascar, comparable in size to a male gorilla.

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Archicebus is a genus of fossil primates that lived in the early Eocene forests (~55 million years ago) of what is now Jingzhou in the Hubei Province in central China, discovered in 2003.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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The Atelidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

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Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.

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The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a lemur, a strepsirrhine primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth that perpetually grow and a special thin middle finger.

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Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

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In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.

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Barbara Smuts

Barbara B. Smuts is an American anthropologist and psychologist noted for her research into baboons, dolphins, and chimpanzees.

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Barbary macaque

The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Binocular vision

In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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Black crested mangabey

The black crested mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

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Black snub-nosed monkey

The black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), also known as the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey, is an endangered species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

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Black-and-white colobus

Black-and-white colobuses (or colobi) are Old World monkeys of the genus Colobus, native to Africa.

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Blue monkey

The blue monkey or diademed monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) is a species of Old World monkey native to Central and East Africa, ranging from the upper Congo River basin east to the East African Rift and south to northern Angola and Zambia.

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The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

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Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Brachiation (from "brachium", Latin for "arm"), or arm swinging, is a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.

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The Callitrichidae (also called Arctopitheci or Hapalidae) are a family of New World monkeys, including marmosets, tamarins and lion tamarins.

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Campbell's mona monkey

The Campbell's mona monkey, also known as Campbell's guenon and Campbell's monkey, (Cercopithecus campbelli), is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in the Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone.

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Cantius is a genus of adapiform primate that lived in North America and Europe during the early Eocene.

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Capuchin monkey

The capuchin monkeys are New World monkeys of the subfamily Cebinae.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine (New World monkeys).

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The Cebidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised.

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Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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The Cercopithecinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkeys, which comprises roughly 71 species, including the baboons, the macaques, and the vervet monkeys.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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The Cheirogaleidae are the family of strepsirrhine primates containing the various dwarf and mouse lemurs.

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Chester Zoo

Chester Zoo is a zoo at Upton by Chester, in Cheshire, England.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Chlorocebus is a genus of medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys.

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CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.

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Clone (cell biology)

A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell.

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Colin Groves

Colin Peter Groves (24 June 1942 – 30 November 2017) was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia.

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The Colobinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkey family that includes 61 species in 11 genera, including the black-and-white colobus, the large-nosed proboscis monkey, and the gray langurs.

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Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.

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Common chimpanzee

The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Continental drift

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Crab-eating macaque

The crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), also known as the long-tailed macaque, is a cercopithecine primate native to Southeast Asia.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary, formerly known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) boundary, is a geological signature, usually a thin band of rock.

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Cross River gorilla

The Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) is a subspecies of the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla).

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In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.

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Cusp (anatomy)

A cusp is a pointed, projecting, or elevated feature.

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Darwinius is a genus within the infraorder Adapiformes, a group of basal strepsirrhine primates from the middle Eocene epoch.

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De Brazza's monkey

The De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is an Old World monkey endemic to the wetlands of central Africa.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Delacour's langur

The Delacour's langur, or Delacour's lutung, (Trachypithecus delacouri) is a critically endangered species of lutung endemic to northern Vietnam.

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Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.

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Diana monkey

The Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) is an Old World monkey found in West Africa, from Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire.

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Dolly (sheep)

Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.

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Dominance hierarchy

Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.

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Donrussellia is a genus of adapiform primate that lived in Europe during the early Eocene.

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Drill (animal)

The drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills.

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A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown in colour antelope native to Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Eastern gorilla

The eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is a critically endangered species of the genus Gorilla and the largest living primate.

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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Edge effects

In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Eosimiidae is the family of extinct primates believed to be the earliest simians.

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Ethiopian Highlands

The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.

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The Euarchonta are a proposed grandorder of mammals containing four orders: the Scandentia or treeshrews, the Dermoptera or colugos, the extinct Plesiadapiformes, and the Primates.

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Euarchontoglires (synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.

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European Coalition to End Animal Experiments

The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) is a European organisation actively operating in favor of animal rights and in particularly, an abolishment of testing on animals.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.

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Evolution of color vision in primates

The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals.

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Evolutionary Psychology (journal)

Evolutionary Psychology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal published since 2003.

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Fission–fusion society

In ethology, a fission–fusion society is one in which the size and composition of the social group change as time passes and animals move throughout the environment; animals merge into a group (fusion)—e.g. sleeping in one place—or split (fission)—e.g. foraging in small groups during the day.

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Flying squirrel

Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.

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Folia Primatologica

Folia Primatologica is an international peer-reviewed journal focusing on primatology, the study of monkeys, apes, lemurs, and other primates.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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A frugivore is a fruit eater.

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Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Galagos, also known as bushbabies, bush babies, or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae).

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The gelada (Theropithecus gelada, translit), sometimes called the bleeding-heart monkey or the gelada baboon, is a species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands, with large populations in the Semien Mountains.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Generalist and specialist species

A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).

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Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.

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Glires (Latin glīrēs, dormice) is a clade (sometimes ranked as a grandorder) consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares, and pikas).

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Gombe Stream National Park

Gombe National Park (often, but incorrectly, called "Gombe Stream National Park"), is located in western Kigoma Region, Tanzania, 10 miles (20 km) north of Kigoma, the capital of Kigoma Region.

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Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Gorillini is a taxonomic tribe containing two genera: Gorilla and the extinct Chororapithecus.

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Gravigrada is the name of a suborder of Mammals established by the French naturalist Henri-Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1839, within the order Quaternates.

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Gray langur

Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of the Indian Subcontinent, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus (from Ancient Greek σεμνός semnós, “revered, august, holy”, and πίθηκος píthēkos, “ape, monkey”).

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Gray-shanked douc

The grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea) is a douc species native to the Vietnamese provinces of Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Kon Tum, and Gia Lai.

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Great ape personhood

Great ape personhood is a movement to extend personhood and some legal protections to the non-human members of the Hominidae or great ape family: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.

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Great Ape Project

The Great Ape Project (GAP), founded in 1993, is an international organization of primatologists, anthropologists, ethicists, and others who advocate a United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Great Apes that would confer basic legal rights on non-human great apes: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.

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Grey-cheeked mangabey

The grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), also known as the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of Central Africa.

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Grooming claw

A grooming claw (or toilet claw) is the specialized claw or nail on the foot of certain primates, used for personal grooming.

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Group size measures

Many animals, including humans, tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, bands, packs, shoals, or colonies (hereafter: groups) of conspecific individuals.

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The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys.

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Habitat fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.

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Hamadryas baboon

The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family.

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Haplorhini (the haplorhines or the "dry-nosed" primates, the Greek name means "simple-nosed") is a suborder of primates containing the tarsiers and the simians (Simiiformes or anthropoids), as sister of the Strepsirrhini.

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Hengduan Mountains

The Hengduan Mountains are a group of mountain ranges in southwest China that connect the southeast portions of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau.

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Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (12 September 1777 – 1 May 1850) was a French zoologist and anatomist.

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Herpes B virus

Herpes simian B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1 (formerly Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1), Herpesvirus simiae, B virus) is the endemic simplexvirus of macaque monkeys.

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Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

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Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.

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Howler monkey

Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hybrid zone

A hybrid zone exists where the ranges of two interbreeding species or diverged intraspecific lineages meet and cross-fertilize.

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Hyoid bone

The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage.

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Inbreeding depression

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.

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Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.

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The indri (Indri indri), also called the babakoto, is one of the largest living lemurs, with a head-and-body length of about and a weight of between.

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The Indriidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Indridae) are a family of strepsirrhine primates.

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Infanticide (zoology)

In animals, infanticide involves the killing of young offspring by a mature animal of the same species, and is studied in zoology, specifically in the field of ethology.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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The order Insectivora (from Latin insectum "insect" and vorare "to eat") is a now-abandoned biological grouping within the class of mammals.

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International Primate Day

International Primate Day, September 1, is an annual educational observance event organized since 2005 largely by British-based Animal Defenders International (ADI) and supported annually by various primate-oriented advocacy organizations, speaks for all higher and lower primates, typically endorsing humane agendas where primates are at risk, as in research institutions or species endangerment in precarious environmental situations.

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International Primate Protection League

The International Primate Protection League (IPPL), founded in 1973 in Thailand by Dr.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Island hopping

Island hopping is the crossing of an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly to the destination.

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Jane Goodall

Dame Jane Morris Goodall (born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall, 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is a British primatologist and anthropologist.

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Japanese macaque

The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also known as the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species that is native to Japan.

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Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living (e.g., robotic) mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory.

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Juvenile (organism)

A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size.

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King colobus

The king colobus (Colobus polykomos), also known as the western black-and-white colobus, is a species of Old World monkey, found in lowland and mountain rain forests in a region stretching from Senegal, through Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia to the Ivory Coast.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Knuckle-walking is a form of quadrupedal walking in which the forelimbs hold the fingers in a partially flexed posture that allows body weight to press down on the ground through the knuckles.

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The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.

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Kyoto University

, or is a national university in Kyoto, Japan.

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The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two living families: the Leporidae (hares and rabbits) and the Ochotonidae (pikas).

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.

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Lemuridae is a family of strepsirrhine primates native to Madagascar, and the Comoros Islands.

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Lemuriformes is an infraorder of primate that falls under the suborder Strepsirrhini.

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Lesser spot-nosed monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus petaurista) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

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Leuser Ecosystem

The Leuser Ecosystem is an area of forest located in the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia.

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Lion tamarin

The four species of lion tamarins make up the genus Leontopithecus.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of fossil primates

This is a list of fossil primates—extinct primates for which a fossil record exists.

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List of primates

List of primates contains the species in the order Primates and currently contains 16 families and 72 genera.

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List of primates described in the 2000s

This page is a list of species of the order Primates described in the 2000s.

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List of primates described in the 2010s

This is a list of species of the order Primates that were described in the 2010s.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Loris is the common name for the strepsirrhine primates of the subfamily Lorinae (sometimes spelled Lorisinae) in the family Lorisidae.

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Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates.

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Lorisoidea is a superfamily of nocturnal primates found throughout Africa and Asia.

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The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Madame Berthe's mouse lemur

Madame Berthe's mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae) or Berthe's mouse lemur is the smallest of the mouse lemurs and the smallest primate in the world; the average body length is and seasonal weight is around.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mammal Species of the World

Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Mantled guereza

The mantled guereza (Colobus guereza), also known simply as the guereza, the eastern black-and-white colobus, or the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, is a black-and-white colobus, a type of Old World monkey.

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Marburg virus

Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.

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The marmosets,, also known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella and Mico.

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Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Mating system

A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.

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Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.

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Middle America (Americas)

Middle America is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Miss Waldron's red colobus

Miss Waldron's red colobus (Piliocolobus badius waldronae) is a subspecies of the western red colobus native to West Africa.

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Mobbing (animal behavior)

Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it, usually to protect their offspring.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Molar (tooth)

The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.

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Monkey drive

A monkey drive is an operation where large numbers of wild monkeys are rounded up and killed in order to protect agriculture such as crops, planted rice, banana and citrus fruit trees.

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Monkey lemur

The monkey lemurs or baboon lemurs (Archaeolemuridae) are a recently extinct family of lemurs known from skeletal remains from sites on Madagascar dated to 1000 to 3000 years ago.

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Monkeys and apes in space

Before humans went into space, several other animals were launched into space, including numerous other primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel.

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Monochromacy (from Greek mono, meaning "one "and chromo, meaning "color") is the ability of organisms or machines to distinguish only one single frequency of the electromagnetic light spectrum.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Montane ecosystems

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.

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Motor cortex

The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.

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Mountain gorilla

The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is one of the two subspecies of the eastern gorilla.

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The muriquis, also known as woolly spider monkeys, are the monkeys of the genus Brachyteles.

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Nail (anatomy)

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Nest-building in primates

Nest-building in primates refers to the behaviour of building nests by extant strepsirrhines (lemurs and lorisoids) and hominid apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and humans).

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New World monkey

New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.

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Night monkey

The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae).

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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.

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Northern greater galago

The northern greater galago (Otolemur garnettii), also known as Garnett's greater galago or small-eared greater galago, is a nocturnal, arboreal primate endemic to Africa.

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Nova ScienceNow

Nova ScienceNow (styled NOVA scienceNOW) is a spinoff of the long-running and venerable PBS science program Nova.

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Nuclear transfer

Nuclear transfer is a form of cloning.

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Oceanic dispersal

Oceanic dispersal is a type of biological dispersal that occurs when terrestrial organisms transfer from one land mass to another by way of a sea crossing.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old World monkey

The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a family of catarrhines, the only family in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.

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Omomyidae is a family of early primates that radiated during the Eocene epoch between about (mya).

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.

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Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.

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The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Orrorin tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at and discovered in 2000.

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Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

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Pachydermata (from two Greek words παχύς pachys, "thick" and δερμα derma, "skin", meaning 'thick skin') is an obsolete order of mammals described by Gottlieb Storr, Georges Cuvier and others, at one time recognized by many systematists.

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Palaeos.com is a web site on biology, paleontology, phylogeny and geology and which covers the history of Earth.

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The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Palm oil

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.

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Paranthropus robustus

Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) is an early hominin, originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Patas monkey

The patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), also known as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa.

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A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.

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Phalanx bone

The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Philippine tarsier

The Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta), known locally as mawmag in Cebuano/Visayans and mamag in Luzon, is a species of tarsier endemic to the Philippines.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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The Pitheciidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised.

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Plesiadapiformes ("Adapid-like" or "near Adapiformes") is an extinct (and possibly paraphyletic or polyphyletic) order of mammals.

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Plesiadapis is one of the oldest known primate-like mammal genera which existed about 55–58 million years ago in North America and Europe.

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Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.

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Polygyny in animals

Polygyny (from Neo-Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females, but each female only mates with a single male.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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Postorbital bar

The postorbital bar (or postorbital bone) is a bony arched structure that connects the frontal bone of the skull to the zygomatic arch, which runs laterally around the eye socket.

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Poxviridae is a family of viruses.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prehensile tail

A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp or hold objects.

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The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth.

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Primatology is the scientific study of primates.

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The Primatomorpha are a mirorder of mammals containing two orders: the Dermoptera or colugos and the Primates (Plesiadapiformes, Tarsiiformes, Simiiformes).

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Proboscis monkey

The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) or long-nosed monkey, known as the bekantan in Indonesia, is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey with an unusually large nose.

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Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.

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Prosimians are a group of primates that includes all living and extinct strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorisoids, and adapiforms), as well as the haplorhine tarsiers and their extinct relatives, the omomyiforms, i.e. all primates excluding the simians.

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Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Quaternates is an obsolete order of mammals created by Henri-Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1839, imitating Linnean nomenclature (Primates).

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Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Red slender loris

The red slender loris (Loris tardigradus) is a small, nocturnal strepsirrhine primate native to the rainforests of Sri Lanka.

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Red-tailed monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon (Cercopithecus ascanius) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

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A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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The rhinarium (New Latin, "belonging to the nose"; plural: rhinaria) is the naked skin surface surrounding the external openings of the nostrils in most mammals.

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Richard Wrangham

Richard Walter Wrangham (born 1948) is a British primatologist.

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Ring-tailed lemur

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a large strepsirrhine primate and the most recognized lemur due to its long, black and white ringed tail.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Ruminantia is a taxon within the order Artiodactyla that includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope.

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In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Secundates is an obsolete order of mammals created by Henri-Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1839, imitating Linnean nomenclature (Primates).

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Senegal bushbaby

The Senegal bushbaby (Galago senegalensis), also known as the Senegal galago, the lesser galago or the lesser bush baby, is a small, nocturnal primate, a member of the galago family Galagidae.

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Service animal

Service animals are animals that have been trained to perform tasks that assist people with disabilities.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Shoulder girdle

The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones in the appendicular skeleton which connects to the arm on each side.

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Shoulder joint

The shoulder joint (or glenohumeral joint from Greek glene, eyeball, + -oid, 'form of', + Latin humerus, shoulder) is structurally classified as a synovial ball and socket joint and functionally as a diarthrosis and multiaxial joint.

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Sifakas (singular "sifaka") are a genus (Propithecus) of lemur from the family Indriidae within the order Primates.

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Silky sifaka

The silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus) is a large lemur characterized by long, silky, white fur.

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In his Systema Naturae of 1758, Carolus Linnaeus divided the Order Primates into four genera: Homo, Simia, Lemur, and Vespertilio.

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The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).

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Simian shelf

The simian shelf is a bony thickening on the front of the ape mandible.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Sloth lemur

The sloth lemurs (Palaeopropithecidae) comprise an extinct clade of lemurs that includes four genera.

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Slow loris

Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus.

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A snout is the protruding portion of an animal's face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw.

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Social grooming

Social grooming is a behaviour in which social animals, including humans, clean or maintain one another's body or appearance.

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Sooty mangabey

The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to Ghana.

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Spider monkey

Spider monkeys are New World monkeys belonging to the genus Ateles, part of the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae.

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Sportive lemur

The sportive lemurs are the medium-sized primates that make up the family Lepilemuridae.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.

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Squirrel monkey

Squirrel monkeys are New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. They are the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae. The name of the genus is of Tupi origin (sai-mirim or gai-mbirin Simpson, George Gaylord. 1941. "Vernacular Names of South American Mammals." In Journal of Mammalogy 22(1): 1-17. and was also used as an English name by early researchers. Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central and South America in the canopy layer. Most species have parapatric or allopatric ranges in the Amazon, while S. oerstedii is found disjunctly in Costa Rica and Panama. The common squirrel monkey is captured for the pet trade and for medical research but it is not threatened. Two squirrel monkey species are threatened: the Central American squirrel monkey and the black squirrel monkey are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.

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Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.

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Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.

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Subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.

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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Sumatran orangutan

The Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) is one of the three species of orangutans.

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Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge or brow ridge, known as superciliary arches in medicine, refers to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates.

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Systema Naturae

(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

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Taï National Park

Taï National Park (Parc National de Taï) is a national park in Côte d'Ivoire that contains one of the last areas of primary rainforest in West Africa.

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Tactile pad

A tactile pad is an area of skin that is particularly sensitive to pressure, temperature, or pain.

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Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.

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Tarsiiformes are a group of primates that once ranged across Europe, northern Africa, Asia, and North America, but whose extant species are all found in the islands of Southeast Asia.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Teilhardina was an early marmoset-like primate that lived in Europe, North America and Asia during in the Early Eocene epoch, about 56-47 million years ago.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Terrestrial animal

Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).

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Territory (animal)

In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).

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Tertiates is an obsolete order of mammals created by Henri-Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1839, imitating Linnean nomenclature (Primates).

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.

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Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Stationery Office

The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.

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The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates

The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates is a list of highly endangered primate species selected and published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC PSG), the International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI).

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Three-toed sloth

The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America.

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The thumb is the first digit of the hand.

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Tonkin snub-nosed monkey

The Tonkin snub-nosed monkey or Dollman's snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) is a slender-bodied arboreal Old World monkey, endemic to northern Vietnam.

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Tool use by animals

Tool use by animals is a phenomenon in which an animal uses any kind of tool in order to achieve a goal such as acquiring food and water, grooming, defense, recreation or construction.

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Tooth enamel

Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.

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A toothcomb (also tooth comb or dental comb) is a dental structure found in some mammals, comprising a group of front teeth arranged in a manner that facilitates grooming, similar to a hair comb.

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The treeshrews (or tree shrews or banxrings) are small Euarchontoglire mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia.

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Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.

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Tropical forest

Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions: i.e. land areas approximately bounded by the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but possibly affected by other factors such as prevailing winds.

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Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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Venomous snake

Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vervet monkey

The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), or simply vervet, is an Old World monkey of the family Cercopithecidae native to Africa.

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Vespertilio is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

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Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

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Viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.

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Virunga Mountains

The Virunga Mountains (also known as Mufumbiro) are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.

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Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.

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Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.

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Western lowland gorilla

The western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is one of two subspecies of the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) that lives in montane, primary and secondary forests and lowland swamps in central Africa in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

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Western red colobus

The western red colobus (Procolobus badius), also known as the rust red colobus, is a species of Old World monkey found in West African forests from Senegal to Ghana.

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White-headed langur

The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus) is a critically endangered langur.

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Wilfrid Le Gros Clark

Sir Wilfrid Edward Le Gros Clark (June 1895 – 28 June 1971) was a British anatomist surgeon, primatologist and palaeoanthropologist, today best remembered for his contribution to the study of human evolution.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Wolf's mona monkey

The Wolf's mona monkey (Cercopithecus wolfi), also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae.

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Woolly lemur

The woolly lemurs, also known as avahis or woolly indris, are nine species of strepsirrhine primates in the genus Avahi.

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Woolly monkey

The woolly monkeys are the genus Lagothrix of New World monkeys, usually placed in the family Atelidae.

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X chromosome

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua

Zhong Zhong (born 27 November 2017) and Hua Hua (born 5 December 2017) are a pair of identical crab-eating macaques (also referred to as cynomolgus monkeys) that were created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the same cloning technique that produced Dolly the sheep in 1996.

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A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primate

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