239 relations: Abdication, Accountability, Act of Settlement 1701, Air transport of the British royal family and government, Alec Douglas-Home, American Revolutionary War, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Anthony King (political scientist), Appointment of Church of England bishops, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of York, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Arthur Balfour, Arthur Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, At Her Majesty's pleasure, Backbencher, Benjamin Disraeli, Bill of Rights 1689, Bonar Law, British Armed Forces, British–Irish Council, Budget of the United Kingdom, Butler Review, Cabinet (government), Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet Office, Cameron–Clegg coalition, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Chequers, Chequers Estate Act 1917, Chris Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Clare Short, Clement Attlee, Coalition government, Commander-in-chief, Conservative Party (UK), Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional convention (political custom), Constitutional monarchy, Constitutional Reform Act 2005, David Cameron, David Lloyd George, De facto, ..., Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher, Defence Council of the United Kingdom, Delegated legislation in the United Kingdom, Department for Constitutional Affairs, Divine right of kings, Dunstan, Earl, Earl Grey, Earl of Home, Earl of Stockton, Edgar the Peaceful, Education Act, Edward Heath, Elizabeth II, England and Wales, English country house, European Council, Ex officio member, Excellency, Exclusion Crisis, Executive (government), First Lord of the Treasury, Frederick North, Lord North, George Grenville, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, George V, Glorious Revolution, Gordon Brown, Government of the United Kingdom, Government of Wales Act 1998, Graham Allen (politician), Great Britain in the Seven Years' War, Great Offices of State, H. H. Asquith, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Head of government, Head of state, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Henry VIII of England, Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (United Kingdom), High commissioner, Historical rankings of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Honours of Winston Churchill, Horace Mann, Horace Walpole, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1909, Human Rights Act 1998, Hung parliament, James Callaghan, James II of England, John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, John Major, Kingdom of England, Kinross and Western Perthshire by-election, 1963, Kissing hands, Labour Exchanges Act 1909, Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Legal fiction, Life peer, List of children of the Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, List of current heads of government in the United Kingdom and dependencies, List of fictional Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, List of Moderators of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, List of peerages held by Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, List of political parties in the United Kingdom, List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age, List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by tenure, List of residents of 10 Downing Street, List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies represented by sitting Prime Ministers, Living Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, London, Lord Chancellor, Lord High Treasurer, Loss of supply, Magna Carta, Margaret Thatcher, Marquess of Lansdowne, Michael Foley (academic), Middle class, Midlothian campaign, Minister (government), Minister for the Civil Service, Ministerial Code, Ministers of the Crown Act 1937, Minority government, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Motion of no confidence, Motions of no confidence in the United Kingdom, Mutiny Acts, Northern Ireland, Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom, Official residence, Old-Age Pensions Act 1908, Order of Merit, Order of Saint John (chartered 1888), Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom, Parliament Act 1911, Parliament Act 1949, Parliament of England, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Peerage, People's Budget, Porphyria, Presbyterian Church in Ireland, President of the Board of Trade, Prime minister, Prime Minister's Questions, Prime Ministerial Car, Primus inter pares, Prince regent, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Ramsay MacDonald, Ranulf Flambard, Records of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Reform Act 1832, Reserve power, Richard Crossman, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Robert Peel, Robert Walpole, Royal assent, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal prerogative, Royal prerogative in the United Kingdom, Royal Victorian Order, Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys, Scotland Act 1998, Scottish Militia Bill, Secretary of State for Defence, Sedgefield (UK Parliament constituency), Separation of powers, Short-lived ministry, Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, South Sea Company, Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, Spouse of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin, Statutory law, Tamworth Manifesto, The Crown, The English Constitution, The Right Honourable, Theresa May, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Thomas Wolsey, Timeline of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Tony Benn, Tony Blair, Tories (British political party), Total Politics, Trade Boards Act 1909, Trade Disputes Act 1906, Treason Act 1695, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Triennial Acts, United Kingdom general election, 1997, United Kingdom general election, 2010, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Kingdom general election, February 1974, United Kingdom general election, October 1974, Walter Bagehot, Westminster, Westminster system, Whigs (British political party), Whip (politics), William Ewart Gladstone, William II of England, William III of England, William IV of the United Kingdom, William Pitt the Younger, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, Winston Churchill, Workmen's Compensation Act 1906, 10 Downing Street. 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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
Air transport for the British Royal Family and the Government of the United Kingdom is provided, depending on circumstances and availability, by a variety of military and civilian operators.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885), styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851 and then Lord Shaftesbury following the death of his father, was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer.
Anthony Stephen King (17 November 1934 – 12 January 2017) was a Canadian-British professor of government, psephologist and commentator.
The appointment of Church of England diocesan bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process, reflecting the church's traditional tendency towards compromise and ad hoc solutions, traditional ambiguity between hierarchy and democracy, and traditional role as a semi-autonomous state church.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
Arthur Hamilton Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham, (8 November 1868 – 21 July 1947) was an English soldier, diplomat, politician, philanthropist and patron of the arts.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
At Her Majesty's pleasure (sometimes abbreviated to Queen's pleasure or, when appropriate, at His Majesty's pleasure or King's pleasure) is a legal term of art referring to the indeterminate or undetermined length of service of certain appointed officials or the indeterminate sentences of some prisoners.
In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a Member of Parliament (MP) or a legislator who holds no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesperson in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file".
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923), commonly called Bonar Law, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation that aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.
The Autumn Budget of the British Government is an annual budget set by HM Treasury for the following financial year, with the revenues to be gathered by HM Revenue and Customs and the expenditures of the public sector, in compliance with government policy.
The Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction, widely known as the Butler Review after its chairman Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, was announced on 3 February 2004 by the British Government and published on 4 July 2004.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, (13 March 1764 – 17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon.
Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Chequers Estate Act 1917 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that designates Chequers as the official country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Christopher Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, PC (born 24 July 1951) is a British politician and a peer; a former Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Minister; and former chairman of the Environment Agency.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British Labour Party politician.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Baroness Thatcher died of a stroke in London on 8 April 2013 at the age of 87.
The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence.
Delegated legislation is law that is not passed by an Act of Parliament but by a government minister, a delegated person or an entity in the United Kingdom.
The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) was a United Kingdom government department.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dunstan (909 – 19 May 988 AD)Lapidge, "Dunstan (d. 988)" was successively Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, and Archbishop of Canterbury, later canonised as a saint.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
Earl Grey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl of Home is a title in the Peerage of Scotland.
Earl of Stockton is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Edgar (Ēadgār; 8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death.
Education Act (with its variations) is a stock short title used for legislation in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States that relates to education.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.
George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, (28 January 178414 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Government of Wales Act 1998 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Graham William Allen (born 11 January 1953) is a British Labour Party politician, who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Nottingham North from 1987 to 2017.
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763.
The Great Offices of State in the United Kingdom are the four most senior and prestigious posts in the British government.
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition, in the United Kingdom is led by the Leader of the Opposition.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
The Times constructed a poll for the first time of all British prime ministers in the lead-up to the 2010 general election.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, RA received numerous honours and awards throughout his career as a British Army officer, statesman and author.
Horace Mann (May 4, 1796August 2, 1859) was an American educational reformer and Whig politician dedicated to promoting public education.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Housing, Town Planning, &c.
The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, (27 June 1786 – 3 June 1869), known as Sir John Hobhouse, Bt, from 1831 to 1851, was an English politician and diarist.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kinross and Western Perthshire by-election of 7 November 1963 was a by-election to the House of Commons.
To kiss hands is a constitutional term used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of Crown-appointed British government ministers to their office.
The Labour Exchanges Act 1909 was an Act of Parliament which saw the state-funded creation of labour exchanges.
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (more commonly known as the Leader of the Opposition) is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom.
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.
This is a list of children and grandchildren of the Prime Ministers of Great Britain and the United Kingdom.
In the United Kingdom, various titles are used for the head of government of each of the countries of the United Kingdom, Crown dependencies, and Overseas Territories.
Fictional stories featuring the political scene in Westminster or Whitehall in the United Kingdom, often feature fictional Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom – invented characters with the position of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most senior office-bearer within the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, which is Northern Ireland's largest Protestant denomination.
This page lists all peerages held by Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, whether created or inherited before or after their premiership.
This article lists political parties in the United Kingdom.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age.
This article lists each Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in order of term length.
Number 10 Downing Street is the residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
This is a chronological list of parliamentary constituencies in the Kingdom of Great Britain and its successor state the United Kingdom which were represented by sitting Prime Ministers.
This is a chronological list of all the living persons who have served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at each moment in British history.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707.
Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Marquess of Lansdowne is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain created in 1784, and held by the head of the Petty-FitzMaurice family.
Michael Foley (1948–2016) was an international relations scholar and head of the Department of International Politics at Aberystwyth University in Wales, United Kingdom.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
The Midlothian campaign of 1878–80 was a series of foreign policy speeches given by William Ewart Gladstone, leader of Britain's Liberal Party.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
In the Government of the United Kingdom, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies.
The Ministerial Code is a document setting out "rules" and standards for government ministers in the United Kingdom.
The Ministers of the Crown Act 1937 (C.38) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that set salaries for members of the Government and Opposition.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the minister or elder chosen to moderate (chair) the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which is held for a week in Edinburgh every year.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Motions of no confidence, also called votes of confidence, votes of no-confidence or censure motions, are a feature of the Westminster system of government used in the United Kingdom that requires an executive to retain the confidence of the House of Commons.
The Mutiny Acts were an almost 200-year series of annual Acts passed by the Parliament of England, the Parliament of Great Britain, and the Parliament of the United Kingdom for governing, regulating, provisioning, and funding the English and later British Army.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
In October 1952, the United Kingdom (UK) became the third country to independently develop and test nuclear weapons.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
The Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1908.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (l'ordre très vénérable de l'Hôpital de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem) and also known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom.
The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Parliament Act 1949 (12, 13 & 14 Geo 6 c 103) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The 1909/1910 People's Budget was a proposal of the Liberal government that introduced unprecedented taxes on the lands and high incomes of Britain's wealthy to fund new social welfare programmes.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Prime Minister's Questions (often abbreviated to PMQs and officially known as Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, currently held as a single session every Wednesday at noon when the House of Commons is sitting, during which the Prime Minister spends around half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs).
The Prime Ministerial Car refers to a number of British manufactured vehicles used by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
Ranulf Flambard (c. 1060 – 5 September 1128) was a medieval Norman Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of King William Rufus of England.
The article lists the records of Prime Ministers of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom since 1721.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 – 5 April 1974), sometimes known as Dick Crossman, was a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, as well as a key figure among the party's Zionists and anti-communists.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724) was an English and later British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods.
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British statesman and Prime Minister (1812–27).
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in the United Kingdom as the sole prerogative of the Sovereign and the source of many of the executive powers of the British government.
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys, (10 August 169521 April 1770) was a British politician in the 18th century.
The Scotland Act 1998 (c. 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established the devolved Scottish Parliament with tax varying powers and the Scottish Government (then Scottish Executive).
The Scottish Militia Bill (known formerly as the Scotch Militia Bill) is the usual name given to a bill that was passed by the House of Commons and House of Lords of the Parliament of Great Britain in early 1708.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Sedgefield is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Phil Wilson, a member of the Labour Party.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The "short-lived" ministry, also known as the Bath–Granville ministry or derisively as the "Silly Little Ministry", was a British government that existed briefly in 1746.
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, (15 June 1645 – 15 September 1712) was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.
Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, (– 2 July 1743) was a British Whig statesman who served continuously in government from 1715 until his death.
The spouse of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the wife or husband of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who dominated the government in his country between the world wars.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century.
Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
This is a graphical timeline of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom from when the first Prime Minister in the modern sense, Robert Walpole, took office in 1721, until the present day.
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
Total Politics is a British political magazine described as "a lifestyle magazine for the political community".
The Trade Boards Act 1909 was a piece of social legislation passed in the United Kingdom in 1909.
The Trade Disputes Act 1906 (6 Edw. 7 c. 47) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed under the Liberal government of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.
The Treason Act 1695 (7 & 8 Will 3 c 3) is an Act of the Parliament of England which laid down rules of evidence and procedure in high treason trials.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1) (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,, Accessed 7 May 2008 by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years.
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The October 1974 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 10 October 1974 to elect 635 members of the British House of Commons.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
A whip is an official of a political party whose task is to ensure party discipline in a legislature.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William II (Old Norman: Williame; – 2 August 1100), the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, (22 March 16847 July 1764) was an English Whig politician who was created the first Earl of Bath by King George II in 1742; he is sometimes stated to have been Prime Minister, for the shortest term ever (two days), though most modern sources reckon that he cannot be considered to have held the office.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Workmen's Compensation Act 1906 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which deals with the right of working people for compensation for personal injury.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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