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Prime meridian

Index Prime meridian

A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. [1]

154 relations: Abraham Ortelius, Africa, Airy-0, Alexandria, Almagest, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Astronomer Royal, Atlantic Ocean, Azores, Bering Strait, Bern, Bologna, Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Bratislava, Bruce (crater), Brussels, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Cardinal Richelieu, Cádiz, Charon (moon), Christopher Columbus, Christopher Saxton, Connaissance des Temps, Copenhagen, Degree (angle), Den Store Danske Encyklopædi, Denotation (semiotics), Diogo Ribeiro, Earth, Easter Island, Eastern Hemisphere, Edmond Halley, El Hierro, Equator, Eratosthenes, Ferro Meridian, Florence, Florence meridian, Fortunate Isles, Fuerteventura, Gall–Peters projection, Geodetic datum, Geographer, Geographic coordinate system, Geography (Ptolemy), Georg von Peuerbach, George Biddell Airy, Gerardus Mercator, ..., Global Positioning System, Great circle, Great Pyramid of Giza, Greeks, Greenwich, Guillaume Delisle, Hemispheres of Earth, Hipparchus, History of Oradea, Hun Kal (crater), IERS Reference Meridian, International Date Line, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, International Meridian Conference, International Terrestrial Reference System, International Time Bureau, Jacob Roggeveen, James Bradley, Jerusalem, John Flamsteed, John Hadley, John Harrison, Jupiter, Kraków, Kyoto, Latitude, Lisbon, Longitude, Longitude (book), Lunar distance (navigation), Lunar eclipse, Madrid, Magnetic deviation, Magnetic field, Maimonides, Marine chronometer, Mars, Mecca, Mecca Time, Mercury (planet), Meridian (geography), Meridian circle, Meridian of Antwerp, Minute and second of arc, Monte Mario, Moon, Naples, Nevil Maskelyne, Nicolaus Copernicus, North Pole, Octant (instrument), Oslo, Paris, Paris meridian, Philadelphia, Pierre Janssen, Pisa, Plate tectonics, Plumb bob, Pluto, Portugal, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Ptolemy, Pulkovo meridian, Rhodes, Richard Christopher Carrington, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Rundetaarn, Saint Petersburg, Sandford Fleming, Sámuel Mikoviny, São Miguel Island, Sea level, South Pole, Spain, Stockholm, Stockholm Observatory, Strabo, Submarine communications cable, Sunspot, Tenerife, Tenerife meridian, The Nautical Almanac, Thomas Godfrey (inventor), Titan (moon), Treaty of Tordesillas, Ujjain, United Kingdom Ordnance Survey Zero Meridian, United States, United States Department of Defense, Venus, Warsaw, Warsaw meridian, Washington meridians, Washington, D.C., Westerkerk, Western Hemisphere, Winchester, World Geodetic System, 180th meridian, 1st meridian east, 1st meridian west. Expand index (104 more) »

Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defined the position of the prime meridian of that planet.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Astronomer Royal

Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.

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Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University

The Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University is a botanical garden, founded in 1783 in Kraków.

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Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.

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Bruce (crater)

Bruce is a small lunar impact crater located in the Sinus Medii.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Charon (moon)

Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Christopher Saxton

Christopher Saxton (c. 1540 – c. 1610) was an English cartographer who produced the first county maps of England and Wales.

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Connaissance des Temps

The Connaissance des temps (English: Knowledge of Time) is an official yearly publication of astronomical ephemerides in France.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Degree (angle)

A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.

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Den Store Danske Encyklopædi

Den Store Danske Encyklopædi (The Great Danish Encyclopedia) is the most comprehensive contemporary Danish language encyclopedia.

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Denotation (semiotics)

In semiotics, denotation is the surface or the literal meaning.

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Diogo Ribeiro

Diogo Ribeiro, also known as Diego Ribero, was a Portuguese cartographer and explorer who worked most of his life in Spain.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Eastern Hemisphere

The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, UK) and west of the antimeridian (which crosses the Pacific Ocean and relatively little land from pole to pole).

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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El Hierro

El Hierro, nicknamed Isla del Meridiano (the "Meridian Island"), is the smallest and farthest south and west of the Canary Islands (an Autonomous Community of Spain), in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa, with a population of 10,162 (2003).

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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Ferro Meridian

The line of longitude running through El Hierro (Ferro), the westernmost of the Canary Islands, was known in European history as the prime meridian in common use outside of the future British Empire.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Florence meridian

The Meridian 11°15' East was proposed as prime meridian by Arno Peters in the Peters World Map.

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Fortunate Isles

The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed (μακάρων νῆσοι, makárōn nêsoi) were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology.

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Fuerteventura (literally meaning "strong fortune" but translated by some as "Strong Winds" or a corruption of the French term for "Great Adventure") is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the North Africa region, politically part of Spain.

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Gall–Peters projection

The Gall–Peters projection is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other.

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Geodetic datum

A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).

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A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Georg von Peuerbach

Georg von Peuerbach (also Purbach, Peurbach, Purbachius; born May 30, 1423 – April 8, 1461) was an Austrian astronomer, mathematician and instrument maker, best known for his streamlined presentation of Ptolemaic astronomy in the Theoricae Novae Planetarum.

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George Biddell Airy

Sir George Biddell Airy (27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Great circle

A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.

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Guillaume Delisle

Guillaume Delisle, also spelled Guillaume de l'Isle, (28 February 1675, Paris – 25 January 1726, Paris) was a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas.

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Hemispheres of Earth

In geography and cartography, the hemispheres of Earth refer to any division of the globe into two hemispheres (from Ancient Greek ἡμισφαίριον hēmisphairion, meaning "half of a sphere").

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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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History of Oradea

Oradea is a city 12 km from the Hungarian border, dating back to a small 10th-century castle.

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Hun Kal (crater)

Hun Kal is a small crater on Mercury that serves as the reference point for the planet's system of longitude.

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IERS Reference Meridian

The IERS Reference Meridian (IRM), also called the International Reference Meridian, is the prime meridian (0° longitude) maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).

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International Date Line

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next.

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International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service

The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), formerly the International Earth Rotation Service, is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups.

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International Meridian Conference

The International Meridian Conference was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States, to determine a prime meridian for international use.

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International Terrestrial Reference System

The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface.

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International Time Bureau

The International Time Bureau (Bureau International de l'Heure, abbreviated BIH) seated at the Paris Observatory, was the international bureau responsible for combining different measurements of Universal Time.

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Jacob Roggeveen

Jacob Roggeveen (1 February 1659 – 31 January 1729) was a Dutch explorer who was sent to find Terra Australis, but instead came across Easter Island (called Easter Island because he landed there on Easter Day).

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James Bradley

James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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John Flamsteed

John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.

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John Hadley

John Hadley (16 April 1682 – 14 February 1744) was an English mathematician, and laid claim to the invention of the octant, two years after Thomas Godfrey claimed the same.

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John Harrison

John Harrison (– 24 March 1776) was a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker who invented a marine chronometer, a long-sought-after device for solving the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Longitude (book)

Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time is a best-selling book by Dava Sobel about John Harrison, an 18th-century clockmaker who created the first clock (chronometer) sufficiently accurate to be used to determine longitude at sea—an important development in navigation.

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Lunar distance (navigation)

In celestial navigation, lunar distance is the angular distance between the Moon and another celestial body.

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Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.

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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Magnetic deviation

Magnetic deviation is the error induced in a compass by local magnetic fields, which must be allowed for, along with magnetic declination, if accurate bearings are to be calculated.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Marine chronometer

A marine chronometer is a timepiece that is precise and accurate enough to be used as a portable time standard; it can therefore be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Mecca Time

Mecca Time was a proposed time standard that uses the line of longitude that goes through Mecca, Saudi Arabia (39°49′34″ E of the Greenwich Meridian) as its Prime Meridian.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Meridian (geography)

A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.

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Meridian circle

The meridian circle is an instrument for timing of the passage of stars across the local meridian, an event known as a culmination, while at the same time measuring their angular distance from the nadir.

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Meridian of Antwerp

The meridian of Antwerp is one of several prime meridians that have been used for geographic referencing.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Monte Mario

Monte Mario is the highest (139 m) hill in Rome, Italy.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Nevil Maskelyne

The Rev Dr Nevil Maskelyne DD FRS FRSE (6 October 1732 – 9 February 1811) was the fifth British Astronomer Royal.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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North Pole

The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

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Octant (instrument)

The octant, also called reflecting quadrant, is a measuring instrument used primarily in navigation.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paris meridian

The Paris meridian is a meridian line running through the Paris Observatory in Paris, France—now longitude 2°20′14.03″ east.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Pierre Janssen

Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.

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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Plumb bob

A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.

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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Prime meridian (Greenwich)

A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pulkovo meridian

The Pulkovo meridian, which passes through the center of the main building of the Pulkovo Observatory and is at 30°19,6‘ east of Greenwich, was the point of departure for all former geographical maps of Russia.

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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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Richard Christopher Carrington

Richard Christopher Carrington (26 May 1826 – 27 November 1875) was an English amateur astronomer whose 1859 astronomical observations demonstrated the existence of solar flares as well as suggesting their electrical influence upon the Earth and its aurorae; and whose 1863 records of sunspot observations revealed the differential rotation of the Sun.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Royal Observatory, Greenwich

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.

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The Rundetaarn, or Rundetårn (Round Tower in English), is a 17th-century tower located in central Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Sandford Fleming

Sir Sandford Fleming (January 7, 1827 – July 22, 1915) was a Scottish Canadian engineer and inventor.

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Sámuel Mikoviny

Sámuel Mikoviny (Mikoviny Sámuel, Samuel Mikovíni ? – 23 March 1750) was a Hungarian mathematician, engineer, cartographer, and professor.

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São Miguel Island

São Miguel Island (named for the Archangel Michael or, literally, Portuguese for Saint Michael), is also referred to locally as "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Stockholm Observatory

The Stockholm Observatory (Stockholms observatorium, 050) is an astronomical observatory and institution in Stockholm, Sweden, founded in the 18th century and today part of Stockholm University.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Submarine communications cable

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.

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Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.

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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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Tenerife meridian

The Tenerife meridian was the prime meridian of choice for Dutch cartographers and navigators from the 1640s until the beginning of the 19th century.

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The Nautical Almanac

The Nautical Almanac has been the familiar name for a series of official British almanacs published under various titles since the first issue of The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris, for 1767: this was the first nautical almanac ever to contain data dedicated to the convenient determination of longitude at sea.

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Thomas Godfrey (inventor)

Thomas Godfrey (December 1704 – December 1749) was an optician and inventor in the American colonies, who around 1730 invented the octant.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

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Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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United Kingdom Ordnance Survey Zero Meridian

The United Kingdom Ordnance Survey Zero Meridian is the prime meridian used by the Ordnance Survey (OSGB36 datum).

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Warsaw meridian

The Warsaw meridian (południk warszawski) is a meridian line running through Warsaw.

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Washington meridians

The Washington meridians are four meridians that were used as prime meridians in the United States and pass through Washington, D.C..

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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The Westerkerk (Western Church) is a Reformed church within Dutch Protestant church in central Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Western Hemisphere

The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.

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Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.

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World Geodetic System

The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.

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180th meridian

The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian, with which it forms a great circle dividing the earth into the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.

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1st meridian east

The meridian 1° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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1st meridian west

The meridian 1° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

0th Meridian, 0th meridian, History of prime meridians, Prime Meridian, Prime meridian (planets), Universal prime meridian, Zero meridian.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_meridian

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