126 relations: Afonso IV of Portugal, Afonso V of Portugal, Africa, Age of Discovery, Algarve, Alice Comyn, Countess of Buchan, Alvise Cadamosto, Antão Gonçalves, António de Noli, Arkan Simaan, Azores, Barbary pirates, Bartolomeu Dias, Batalha Monastery, Battle of Tangier (1437), Bay of Arguin, Beatrice of Castile (1293–1359), Blanche of Lancaster, Brazilian cruzado, Canary Islands, Cap-Vert, Cape Bojador, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Verde, Caravan (travellers), Caravel, Cartography, Casa do Infante, Castile (historical region), Catalans, Catholic Church, Ceuta, Christopher Columbus, Conquest of Ceuta, Denis of Portugal, Dinis Dias, Diogo de Silves, Dom (title), Duke of Viseu, Edward II of England, Edward III of England, Edward, King of Portugal, Elizabeth of Aragon, Ferdinand the Holy Prince, Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, Formigas, Fort of Leça de Palmeira, Gabriel de Vallseca, Gil Eanes, Gomes Eanes de Zurara, ..., Gonçalo Velho Cabral, Heinrich Schaefer, Henry de Beaumont, Henry IV of England, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, History of navigation, History of Portugal (1415–1578), House of Aviz, Iberian Peninsula, Isabel of Beaumont, Isabella of France, Jehuda Cresques, Joan of Valois, Countess of Hainaut, João de Barros, João Gonçalves Zarco, John I of Portugal, John of Gaunt, Knights Templar, Lagos, Portugal, Lateen, Madeira, Madeira Island, Mallorca, María de Molina, Maud Chaworth, Mauritania, Mint (facility), Moors, Morocco, Muslim, New World, North Africa, Nuno Tristão, Order of Christ (Portugal), Pedro Nunes, Peter I of Portugal, Peter, Duke of Coimbra, Philippa of Hainault, Philippa of Lancaster, Porto, Porto Santo Island, Portugal in the Middle Ages, Portuguese Cortes, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese House of Burgundy, Prester John, Prince Henry the Navigator Park, Ras Nouadhibou, Raymond Beazley, Sagres (Vila do Bispo), Sagres Point, Sahara, Sailing into the wind, Saint Vincent Panels, Sancho IV of Castile, Sargasso Sea, Sargassum, Senegal River, Sierra Leone, Slavery in Africa, Strait of Gibraltar, Teresa Lourenço, Tomar, Trade winds, Tristão Vaz Teixeira, University of Coimbra, University of Lisbon, University of Minnesota Press, Vasco da Gama, Volta do mar, West Africa, Westerlies, William I, Count of Hainaut, Winds in the Age of Sail, Yale University Press. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
Afonso IVEnglish: Alphonzo or Alphonse, or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin).
Afonso V KG (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Alice Comyn, Countess of Buchan, Lady Beaumont (1289 – 3 July 1349) was a Scottish noblewoman, a member of the powerful Comyn family which supported the Balliols, claimants to the disputed Scottish throne against their rivals, the Bruces.
Alvise Cadamosto or Alvide da Ca' da Mosto (also known in Portuguese as Luís Cadamosto; c. 1432 – July 18, 1488) was an Venetian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare.
Antão Gonçalves was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer and slave trader who was the first European to buy Africans as slaves from black slave traders.
Antonio de Noli (born 1415 or possibly 1419) was a 15th-century Genoese nobleman and navigator, and the first governor of the earliest European overseas colony in Subsaharan Africa.
Arkan Simaan is a French historian of science and a novelist.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Monastery of Batalha (Mosteiro da Batalha), literally the Monastery of the Battle, is a Dominican convent in the municipality of Batalha, in the district of Leiria, in the Centro Region of Portugal.
The 1437 Battle of Tangier, sometimes referred to as the Siege of Tangiers, refers to the attempt by a Portuguese expeditionary force to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier, and their subsequent defeat by the armies of the Marinid sultanate of Morocco.
The Bay of Arguin (Baie d'Arguin) is a bay on the Atlantic shore of Mauritania.
Beatrice of Castile or Beatriz (8 March 129325 October 1359), was an infanta of Castile, daughter of Sancho IV and María de Molina.
Blanche of Lancaster (25 March 1345/1347 – 12 September 1368) was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet and the daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest and most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
The cruzado was the currency of Brazil from 1986 to 1989.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cap-Vert or the Cape Verde Peninsula is a peninsula in Senegal, and the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland.
Cape Bojador (رأس بوجادور, trans. Rā's Būjādūr; ⴱⵓⵊⴷⵓⵔ, Bujdur; Spanish and Cabo Bojador; Cap Boujdour) is a headland on the northern coast of Western Sahara, at 26° 07' 37"N, 14° 29' 57"W (various sources give various locations: this is from the Sailing Directions for the region), as well as the name of the large nearby town with a population of 41,178.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Caravans A caravan (from کاروان) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Casa do Infante (House of the Prince), or alternately as the Alfândega Velha (Old Customshouse) is a historical house in the civil parish of Cedofeita, Santo Ildefonso, Sé, Miragaia, São Nicolau e Vitória, in the municipality of Porto, in northern Portuguese.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
Dinis Dias was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer.
Diogo de Silves (fl. 15th century) is the presumed name of an obscure Portuguese explorer of the Atlantic who allegedly discovered the Azores islands in 1427.
Dom is an honorific prefixed to the given name.
Duke of Viseu (in Portuguese Duque de Viseu) was a Portuguese Royal Dukedom created in 1415 by King John I of Portugal for his third male child, Henry the Navigator, following the conquest of Ceuta.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Duarte (31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438), known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher (o Rei-Filósofo) or the Eloquent (o Eloquente), was King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death.
Elizabeth of Aragon, also known as Elizabeth of Portugal, T.O.S.F. (1271 – 4 July 1336; Elisabet in Catalan, Isabel in Aragonese, Portuguese and Spanish), was queen consort of Portugal, a tertiary of the Franciscan Order and is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church.
Ferdinand the Holy Prince (Fernando o Infante Santo; 29 September 1402 – 5 June 1443), sometimes called the "Saint Prince" or the "Constant Prince", was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal.
Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beja (or Fernando,, 1433 – 1470) was the third son of Edward, King of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon.
The Formigas (Ants) Islets, sometimes referred to as the Formigas Bank, are a group of rock outcroppings in the eastern group of the Azores archipelago, an autonomous region of Portugal.
The Fort of Leça da Palmeira (Forte de Leça da Palmeira), or alternately the Castle of Matosinhos (Castelo de Matosinhos) is a 17th-century fort located in civil parish of Leça da Palmeira, municipality of Matosinhos in the Greater Porto region of Portugal.
Gabriel de Vallseca, also referred to as Gabriel de Valseca and Gabriel de Valsequa (before 1408 - after 1467) was a Catalan cartographer of Jewish descent connected to the Majorcan cartographic school.
Gil Eanes (or Eannes, in the old Portuguese spelling) was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator and explorer.
Gomes Eanes de Zurara (c. 1410 – c. 1474), sometimes spelled Eannes or Azurara, was a Portuguese chronicler of the Age of Discovery, the most notable after Fernão Lopes.
Gonçalo Velho Cabral (1400 – c. 1460) was a Portuguese monk and Commander in the Order of Christ, explorer (credited with the discovery of the Formigas, the re-discovery of the islands of Santa Maria and São Miguel in the Azores) and hereditary landowner responsible for administering Crown lands on the same islands, during the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
Heinrich Schaefer (1883–1943) was a German writer.
Henry de Beaumont, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Buchan and suo jure 1st Baron Beaumont (bef. 1280 - 10 March 1340) was a key figure in the Anglo-Scots wars of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, known as the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier.
Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster (c. 1281 – 22 September 1345) was a grandson of King Henry III (1216–1272) of England and was one of the principals behind the deposition of King Edward II (1307–1327), his first cousin.
The history of navigation is the history of seamanship, the art of directing vessels upon the open sea through the establishment of its position and course by means of traditional practice, geometry, astronomy, or special instruments.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
The House of Aviz (modern Portuguese: Avis) known as the Joanine Dynasty was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Isabel de Beaumont, Duchess of Lancaster, of the House of Brienne (– 1361) was an English noblewoman, being the youngest daughter and child of Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan and Alice Comyn.
Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330.
Jehudà Cresques (1360-1410), also known as Jafudà Cresques, Jaume Riba, and Cresques lo Juheu ("Cresques the Jew"), was a converso cartographer in the early 15th century.
Joan of Valois (c. 1294 – 7 March 1342) was the second eldest daughter of the French prince Charles of Valois and his first wife, Margaret, Countess of Anjou.
João de Barros (1496 – 20 October 1570), called the Portuguese Livy, is one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia ("Decades of Asia"), a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.
João Gonçalves Zarco (1390 – 21 November 1471) was a Portuguese explorer who established settlements and recognition of the Madeira Islands, and was appointed first captain of Funchal by Henry the Navigator.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Lagos (literally lakes; Lacobriga) is a municipality at the mouth of Bensafrim River and along the Atlantic Ocean, in the Barlavento region of the Algarve, in southern Portugal.
A lateen (from French latine, meaning "Latin") or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Madeira is a Portuguese island, and is the largest and most populous of the Madeira Archipelago.
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
María Alfonso Téllez de Meneses (c. 1265 – 1321), known as María de Molina, was queen consort of Castile and León from 1284 to 1295 by marriage to Sancho IV of Castile, and served as regent for her minor son Ferdinand IV (1295 - c.1301) and later her grandson Alfonso XI of Castile (1312-1321).
Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282 – 3 December 1322) was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nuno Tristão was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer and slave trader, active in the early 1440s, traditionally thought to be the first European to reach the region of Guinea (legendarily, as far as Guinea-Bissau, but more recent historians believe he did not go beyond the Gambia River).
The Military Order of Christ (Ordem Militar de Cristo), previously the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo), was the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church.
Pedro Nunes (Latin: Petrus Nonius; 1502 – 11 August 1578) was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family.
Peter I (Portuguese: Pedro I (8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just or the Cruel) (Portuguese: o Justo, O Cruel), was King of Portugal and of the Algarves from 1357 until his death.
Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra KG (Peter), (9 December 1392 – 20 May 1449) was a Portuguese ''infante'' (prince) of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt.
Philippa of Hainault (Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June c.1310/15 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.
Philippa of Lancaster (Filipa; 31 March 1360 – 19 July 1415) was Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 by marriage to King John I. Born into the royal family of England, her marriage secured the Treaty of Windsor and produced several children who became known as the "Illustrious Generation" in Portugal.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.
The kingdom of Portugal was established from the county of Portugal in the 1130s, ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese House of Burgundy or the Afonsine Dynasty is a cadet branch of the House of Burgundy, descended from Henry, Count of Portugal.
Prester John (Presbyter Johannes) was a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder) and king who was popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries.
Prince Henry the Navigator Park on Pope's Island in New Bedford, Massachusetts is dedicated to Prince Henry the Navigator, and was created in 1994.
Ras Nouadhibou (رأس نواذيبو) is a 40-mile peninsula or headland divided between Mauritania and Western Sahara on the African coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Sir Charles Raymond Beazley (1868–1955) was a British historian.
Sagres is a civil parish in the municipality of Vila do Bispo, in the southern Algarve of Portugal.
Sagres Point (Ponta de Sagres,, from the Latin Promontorium Sacrum ‘Holy Promontory’) is a windswept shelf-like promontory located in the southwest Algarve region of southern Portugal.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sailing into the wind is a sailing expression that refers to a sail boat's ability to move forward despite being headed into (or very nearly into) the wind.
The Saint Vincent Panels, or the Adoration of Saint Vincent panels, are a polyptych consisting of six panels that were perhaps painted in the 1450s.
Sancho IV of Castile (12 May 1258 – 25 April 1295) called the Brave (el Bravo), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1284 to his death.
The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.
Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.
The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Teresa Gille Lourenço (Lisbon, 1330 – ?), was the lover of King Peter I of Portugal and mother of King John I of Portugal.
Tomar, also known in English as Thomar, is a city and a municipality in Santarém District in Portugal.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
Tristão Vaz Teixeira (c. 1395–1480) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer who, together with João Gonçalves Zarco and Bartolomeu Perestrelo, was the official discoverer and one of the first settlers of the archipelago of Madeira (1419–1420).
The University of Coimbra (UC; Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal.
The University of Lisbon (ULisboa; Universidade de Lisboa) is a public research university in Lisbon, and the largest university in Portugal.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
"Volta do mar", "volta do mar largo" or "volta do largo", (the phrase in Portuguese means literally turn of the sea but also return from the sea) is a navigational technique perfected by Portuguese navigators during the Age of Discovery in the late fifteenth century, using the dependable phenomenon of the great permanent wind circle, the North Atlantic Gyre.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
William I, Count of Hainaut (– 7 June 1337), was Count William III of Avesnes, Count William III of Holland and Count William II of Zeeland from 1304 to his death.
The captain of a steam ship naturally chooses the shortest route to his destination.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Dom Henrique O Navegador, Dom henrique, Heinrich der Seefahrer, Heinrich seefahrer, Henrique o Navegador, Henrique the Navigator, Henrique, Duke of Viseu, Henrique, the Navigator, Henry the Navigator, Henry the Seafarer, Henry the navigator, Henry, Duke of Viseu, Henry, the Navigator, Infante Henrique of Portugal, Prince Henrique of Portugal, Prince Henrique the Navigator, Prince Henrique, the Navigator, Prince Henry The Navigator, Prince Henry VII the Navigator, Prince Henry of Portugal, Prince Henry, the Navigator, The Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu.