199 relations: Administrative detention, Alcatraz Island, Alexander Paterson (penologist), Alexis de Tocqueville, American Civil War, American English, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Anarchism, Ancient Greek, Ancus Marcius, Anger management, Anti-authoritarianism, Auburn Correctional Facility, Auburn system, Authoritarianism, Authority, Babylon, Bedfordshire, Benjamin Rush, Bloody Code, Bridewell Palace, British America, British English, Cardiovascular disease, Cesare Lombroso, Chronic condition, City council, Closed-circuit television, Code of Hammurabi, Code of law, Coercion, Concertina wire, Conditional sentence (Canada), Continental Europe, Convict, Corrections, County (United States), Court (royal), Criminal justice, Curfew, Death row, Democracy in America, Demography, Dentistry, Detention (imprisonment), Deterrence (legal), Developed country, Devil's Island, Diabetes mellitus, ..., Dieting, Discharge (sentence), Due process, Electric fence, Elizabeth Fry, Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records, English-speaking world, Ergastulum, Eye for an eye, Felony, Fine (penalty), Flagellation, Fortification, French Guiana, French Revolutionary Wars, Frisking, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Galley slave, Gang, Gaols Act 1823, Groping, Guard tower, Guilt (law), Hermes Trismegistus, History of India, History of Russia, HM Prison Pentonville, Home Office, House arrest, House of correction, Howard League for Penal Reform, Hulk (ship type), Human branding, Human waste, Hypertension, Immigration detention, Incarceration and health, Incarceration in the United States, Indentured servitude, Inmate telephone system, International law, Internment, Israelites, Jeremy Bentham, John Howard (prison reformer), John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Joshua Jebb, Katorga, Kids for cash scandal, Law of Moses, Lawrence W. Sherman, Libertarian socialism, Life imprisonment, List of prisons, List of U.S. federal prisons, Louisiana, Malnutrition, Mamertine Prison, Mass incarceration, Mental disorder, Mental health, Middle Ages, Military prison, Millbank Prison, Minor (law), Misdemeanor, Motion detection, Mutilation, National Institute of Justice, National security, New York (state), New York State Department of Health, Newgate Prison, Norway, Old French, Ossining, New York (town), Panopticon, PBS, Penal colony, Penal labour, Penal transportation, Penitentiary Act, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Plato, Police dog, Political crime, Political prisoner, Political repression, Power (social and political), Primary care, Prison abolition movement, Prison commissary, Prison gang, Prison overcrowding, Prison reform, Prison riot, Prison sexuality, Prison ship, Prison uniform, Prison violence, Prison–industrial complex, Prisoner, Prisoner of war, Prisoner-of-war camp, Prisoners' rights, Private prison, Protective custody, Psychiatry, Public execution, Quakers, Quarry, Rationalism, Recidivism, Rehabilitation (penology), Remand (detention), Restorative justice, Road, Russian Far East, Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Sailing ship, Sentence (law), Sewerage, Siberia, Silent treatment, Simon & Schuster, Sing Sing, Slavery, Solitary confinement, Squatting position, State (polity), Stocks, Substance abuse, Sumer, Supermax prison, Surveyor General, Suspended sentence, Sweden, The Economist, The Observer, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Torture, Transportation Act 1717, United States Department of Justice, Unlawful combatant, Utilitarianism, Walnut Street (Philadelphia), White-collar crime, Written language. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Administrative detention is arrest and detention of individuals by the state without trial, usually for security reasons.
Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay, offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.
Sir Alexander Henry Paterson MC (20 November 1884 – 7 November 1947), known to his friends as Alec Paterson, was a British penologist who, as Commissioner of Prisons, introduced reforms that would provide a humane regime in penal institutions and encourage rehabilitation among inmates.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancus Marcius (–617 BC; reigned 642–617 BC)"Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Anger management is a psycho-therapeutic program for anger prevention and control.
Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.
Auburn Correctional Facility is a state prison on State Street in Auburn, New York, United States.
The Auburn system (also known as the New York or Congregate System) is a penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds.) is a county in the East of England.
Benjamin Rush (– April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States.
"Bloody Code" is a term used to refer to the system of crimes and punishments in England in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Bridewell Palace in London was built as a residence of King Henry VIII and was one of his homes early in his reign for eight years.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Concertina wire or Dannert Wire is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a concertina (a small hand-held bellows-type instrument in the same family as the accordion).
A conditional sentence is a non-custodial punishment for crime.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison".
In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
De La Démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.
Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat which is considered as a means to prevent people from offending or to reduce the probability and/or level of offending.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The penal colony of Cayenne (French: Bagne de Cayenne), commonly known as Devil's Island (Île du Diable), was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation's Islands of French Guiana.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.
A discharge is a type of sentence where no punishment is imposed, and which (arguably) vitiates the court's guilty verdict.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
An electric fence is a barrier that uses electric shocks to deter animals from crossing a boundary.
Elizabeth Fry (née Gurney, often referred to as Betsy; 21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845) was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist.
discrimination against persons with criminal records varies from country to country.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
An ergastulum (plural: ergastula) was a Roman building used to hold in chains dangerous slaves, or to punish other slaves.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Frisking (also called a patdown or pat down) is a search of a person's outer clothing wherein a person runs his or her hands along the outer garments to detect any concealed weapons.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
A galley slave is a slave rowing in a galley, either a convicted criminal sentenced to work at the oar (French: galérien), or a kind of human chattel, often a prisoner of war, assigned to his duty of rowing.
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.
The Gaols Act 1823 (4 Geo IV c 64).
When used in a sexual context, groping is touching or fondling another person in an unwelcome sexual way using the hands.
A guard tower is any military tower used for guarding an area.
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Mercurius ter Maximus; חרם תלת מחזות) is the purported author of the ''Hermetic Corpus'', a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
HM Prison Pentonville (informally "The Ville") is an English Category B men's prison, operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
The house of correction was a type of establishment built after the passing of the Elizabethan Poor Law (1601), places where those who were "unwilling to work", including vagrants and beggars, were set to work.
The Howard League for Penal Reform is a registered charity in the United Kingdom.
A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea.
Human branding or stigmatizing is the process which a mark, usually a symbol or ornamental pattern, is burned into the skin of a living person, with the intention that the resulting scar makes it permanent.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Immigration detention is the policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations, illegal entry or unauthorised arrival, and those subject to deportation and removal in detention until a decision is made by immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, or to repatriate them to their country of departure.
The relationship between incarceration and health, compared to research on other social effects of incarceration, has been a topic of research for a relatively short period of time.
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
An inmate telephone system, also known as an Inmate Calling Service (ICS) or Inmate telephone service, is a type of specialized telephone service provisioned for use by inmates at correctional facilities in the United States.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Howard FRS (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and early English prison reformer.
The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a senior college of the City University of New York in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Sir Joshua Jebb, (8 May 1793 – 26 June 1863) was a Royal Engineer and the British Surveyor-General of convict prisons.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
The "kids for cash" scandal centered on judicial kickbacks to two judges at the Luzerne County Court of Common Pleas in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
The Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Law or in תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה, Torat Moshe, refers primarily to the Torah or first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
Lawrence W. Sherman (born October 25, 1949) is an American experimental criminologist and police educator who is the founder of evidence-based policing.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
This page provides a list of prisons by country.
The Federal Bureau of Prisons classifies prisons into several categories.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Mamertine Prison (Carcere Mamertino), in antiquity the Tullianum, was a prison (carcer) located in the Comitium in ancient Rome.
Mass incarceration is a term used by historians and sociologists to describe the substantial increase in the number of incarcerated people in the United States' prisons over the past forty years.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military prison is a prison operated by the military.
Millbank Prison was a prison in Millbank, Pimlico, London, originally constructed as the National Penitentiary, and which for part of its history served as a holding facility for convicted prisoners before they were transported to Australia.
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Motion detection is the process of detecting a change in the position of an object relative to its surroundings or a change in the surroundings relative to an object.
Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) is the department of the New York state government responsible for public health.
Newgate Prison was a prison in London, at the corner of Newgate Street and Old Bailey just inside the City of London.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Ossining is a town located along the Hudson River in Westchester County, New York, United States.
The Panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
The Penitentiary Act (19 Geo. III, c.74) was a British Act of Parliament passed in 1779 which introduced a policy of state prisons for the first time.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A police dog, known in some English-speaking countries as a "K-9" or "K9" (a homophone of "canine"), is a dog that is specifically trained to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel.
In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
The prison abolition movement is a loose network of groups and activists that seek to reduce or eliminate prisons and the prison system, and replace them with systems of rehabilitation that do not place a focus on punishment and government institutionalization.
A prison commissary (commissary being a word taken out of context in such situations) or canteen is a store within a correctional facility, from which inmates may purchase products such as hygiene items, snacks, writing instruments, etc.
A prison gang is an inmate organization that operates within a prison system.
Prison overcrowding is a social phenomenon occurring when the demand for space in prisons in a jurisdiction exceeds the capacity for prisoners in the place.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
A prison riot is an act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against the prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners.
Prison sexuality (or prison sex or penitentiary sex) consists of sexual relationships between prisoners or between a prisoner and a prison employee or other persons to whom prisoners have access.
A prison ship, often more precisely described as a prison hulk, is a current or former seagoing vessel that has been modified to become a place of substantive detention for convicts, prisoners of war or civilian internees.
A prison uniform is the unified outward appearance of detainees in a situation of imprisonment.
Prison violence is a daily occurrence due to the diverse inmates with varied criminal backgrounds that penitentiaries house.
The term "prison–industrial complex" (PIC), derived from the "military–industrial complex" of the 1950s, describes the attribution of the rapid expansion of the US inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses that supply goods and services to government prison agencies for profit.
A prisoner, (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law.
A private prison, or for-profit prison, is a place in which individuals are physically confined or incarcerated by a third party that is contracted by a government agency.
Protective custody is a type of imprisonment (or care) to protect a person from harm, either from outside sources or other prisoners.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A public execution is a form of capital punishment which "members of the general public may voluntarily attend." This definition excludes the presence of a small number of witnesses randomly selected to assure executive accountability.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Recidivism (from recidive and ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring", from re- "back" and cadō "I fall") is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been trained to extinguish that behavior.
Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy, to counter habitual offending, also known as criminal recidivism.
Remand (also known as pre-trial detention or provisional detention) is the process of detaining a person who has been arrested and charged with a criminal offense until their trial.
Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which the response to a crime is to organize a mediation between the victim and the offender, and sometimes with representatives of a wider community as well.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Ruth Wilson Gilmore is Director of the Center for Place, Culture, and Politics and professor of geography in Earth and Environmental Sciences at The City University of New York.
The term "sailing ship" is most often used to describe any large vessel that uses sails to harness the power of wind.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The silent treatment is the refusal of somebody to speak to another person or persons and is often referred to as sulking.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, in the U.S. state of New York.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact, often with the exception of members of prison staff, for 22–24 hours a day, with a sentence ranging from days to decades.
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stocks are restraining devices that were used as a form of corporal punishment and public humiliation.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Supermax (super-maximum security or administrative maximum (ADX)) is a term used to describe "control-unit" prisons, or units within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in the prison systems of certain countries.
The Surveyor General is an official responsible for government surveying in a specific country or territory.
A suspended sentence is a legal term for a judge's delaying of a defendant's serving of a sentence after they have been found guilty, in order to allow the defendant to perform a period of probation.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
The Transportation Act 1717 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that established a regulated, bonded system to transport criminals to colonies in North America for indentured service, as a punishment for those convicted or attained in Great Britain, excluding Scotland.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a person who directly engages in armed conflict in violation of the laws of war.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Walnut Street is located in downtown Philadelphia and extends from the city's Delaware River waterfront through Center City and West Philadelphia.
White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
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