377 relations: Abergavenny, Acacius of Amida, Aerial warfare, Albigensian Crusade, American Civil War, American Civil War prison camps, American Film Foundation, American Revolutionary War, Amu Darya, Andersonville (film), Andersonville National Historic Site, Andersonville, Georgia, András Toma, Angels of Bataan, Another Time, Another Place (1983 film), Antisemitism, Arbeitslager, Armistice, Arnaud Amalric, Arnold Krammer, Arqueología Mexicana, As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me, Ashley George Old, Australian Flying Corps, Austria-Hungary, Axis powers, Aztec warfare, Aztecs, Škabrnja massacre, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bataan Death March, Battle of Agincourt, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of Greece, Battle of Iwo Jima, Battle of Leipzig, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Tannenberg, Béziers, BBC News, Belligerent, Benjamin B. Fischer, Berga, Thuringia, Birthday, Blood Oath (1990 Australian film), Bohemia, Boxing, Buchenwald concentration camp, Burma Railway, Caedite eos. 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Abergavenny (Y Fenni, archaically Abergafenni meaning "Mouth of the River Gavenny") is a market town in Monmouthshire, Wales.
Saint Acacius of Amida (died 425) was Bishop of Amida, Mesopotamia (modern-day Turkey) from 400 to 425, during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Civil War Prison Camps were operated by both the Union and the Confederacy to handle the 409,000 soldiers captured during the war from 1861 to 1865.
The American Film Foundation is an award-winning production company based in Southern California.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Andersonville is a 1996 American television film directed by John Frankenheimer about a group of Union soldiers during the American Civil War who are captured by the Confederates and sent to an infamous Confederate prison camp.
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.
Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, Georgia, United States.
András Toma (Újfehértó, Hungary, December 5, 1925 – Nyíregyháza, March 30, 2004) was a Hungarian soldier who was taken prisoner by the Red Army in 1945, then discovered living in a Russian psychiatric hospital in 2000.
The Angels of Bataan (also known as the "Angels of Bataan and Corregidor" and "The Battling Belles of Bataan") were the members of the United States Army Nurse Corps and the United States Navy Nurse Corps who were stationed in the Philippines at the outset of the Pacific War and served during the Battle of the Philippines (1941–42).
Another Time, Another Place is a 1983 British drama film directed by Michael Radford and starring Phyllis Logan, Giovanni Mauriello and Denise Coffey.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Arbeitslager is a German language word which means labor camp.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
Arnaud Amaury (Arnoldus Amalricus; died 1225) was a Cistercian abbot who played a prominent role in the Albigensian Crusade.
Arnold Paul Krammer (born 1941) is a scholar of German and United States history who is a retired professor at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas.
Arqueología Mexicana (Mexican Archaeology) is a bimonthly magazine published by Editorial Raíces and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History).
As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me (So weit die Füße tragen) is a 2001 film about German World War II prisoner of war Clemens Forell's escape from a Siberian Gulag in the Soviet Union back to Germany.
Ashley George Old (born 1913, d. 2001) was an artist best known for documenting the lives of prisoners of war forced to construct the Thailand-Burma Railway.
The Australian Flying Corps (AFC) was the branch of the Australian Army responsible for operating aircraft during World War I, and the forerunner of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Aztec warfare concerns the aspects associated with the militaristic conventions, forces, weaponry and strategic expansions conducted by the Late Postclassic Aztec civilizations of Mesoamerica, including particularly the military history of the Aztec Triple Alliance involving the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan and other allied polities of the central Mexican region.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Škabrnja massacre was the killing of 62 Croatian civilians and five prisoners of war by Serbian Autonomous Oblast Krajina (SAO Krajina) Territorial Defence troops and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in the villages of Škabrnja and Nadin northeast of Zadar on 18–19 November 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
The Bataan Death March (Filipino: Martsa ng Kamatayan sa Bataan; Japanese: バターン死の行進, Hepburn: Batān Shi no Kōshin) was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war from Saysain Point, Bagac, Bataan and Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, via San Fernando, Pampanga, where the prisoners were loaded onto trains.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
Béziers (Besièrs) is a town in Languedoc in southern France.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Benjamin B. Fischer has worked for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for nearly 30 years.
Berga/Elster is a town in the district of Greiz, in Thuringia, Germany.
A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution.
Blood Oath is a 1990 Australian feature film, known in some countries as Prisoners of the Sun.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a railway between Ban Pong, Thailand, and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II.
Caesarius of Heisterbach (ca. 1180 – ca. 1240) (sometimes erroneously called in English Caesar of Heisterbach) was the prior of the former Cistercian monastery Heisterbach Abbey, in the Siebengebirge near the little town of Oberdollendorf, Germany.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Camp Douglas, in Chicago, Illinois, sometimes described as "The North's Andersonville" was one of the largest Union Army prisoner-of-war camps for Confederate soldiers taken prisoner during the American Civil War.
Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland that existed during 1919–1924 housed two main categories of detainees: the personnel of the Imperial Russian Army and civilians, captured by Germany during World War I and left on Polish territory after the end of the war; and the Soviet military personnel captured during the Polish–Soviet War, the vast majority of them captured as a result of the battles of 1920.
Captivity narratives are usually stories of people captured by enemies whom they consider uncivilized, or whose beliefs and customs they oppose.
Cartel ships, in international law in the 18th and the 19th centuries, were ships employed on humanitarian voyages, in particular, to carry prisoners for exchange between places agreed upon in the terms of the exchange.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The Chichijima incident (also known as the Ogasawara incident) occurred in late 1944, when Japanese soldiers killed and consumed five American airmen on Chichi Jima, in the Bonin Islands.
Childeric I (Childéric; Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hildirīk; – 481) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a King (Latin Rex), both on his Roman-style seal ring, which was buried with him, and in fragmentary later records of his life.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
A civilian internee is a civilian detained by a party to a war for security reasons.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
The Code of the U.S. Fighting Force is a code of conduct that is an ethics guide and a United States Department of Defense directive consisting of six articles to members of the United States Armed Forces, addressing how they should act in combat when they must evade capture, resist while a prisoner or escape from the enemy.
Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group.
The Commando Order was issued by the OKW, the High Command of the German armed forces, on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even if in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Danger Within (American title: Breakout) is a 1959 British war film set in a prisoner of war camp in Northern Italy during the summer of 1943.
Demobilization or demobilisation (see spelling differences) is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
The death and destruction during the 13th century Mongol conquests have been widely noted in both the scholarly literature and popular memory.
Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF), less commonly, Surrendered Enemy Forces, was a US designation for soldiers who surrendered to an adversary after hostilities ended and for those who had already surrendered POWs and held in camps in occupied German territory at that time.
The Dix–Hill Cartel was the first official system for exchanging prisoners during the American Civil War.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The site was selected partially due to its proximity to the Erie Railway and the Northern Central Railway, which crisscrossed in the midst of the city, making it a prime location for a Union Army training and muster point early in the Civil War.
Elsa Brändström (26 March 1888 – 4 March 1948) was a Swedish nurse and philanthropist.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empire of the Sun is a 1987 American epic coming-of-age war film based on J. G. Ballard's semi-autobiographical novel of the same name.
Erich Alfred Hartmann (19 April 1922 – 20 September 1993), nicknamed "Bubi" ("The Kid") by his German comrades and the "Black Devil" by his Soviet adversaries, was a German fighter pilot during World War II and the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial warfare.
Erich Maschke (March 2, 1900 – February 11, 1982) was a Nazi and a German historian and history professor.
Escape from Sobibor is a 1987 British television film which aired on CBS.
Escape to Athena is a 1979 British war adventure film directed by George P. Cosmatos.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory is a history book about World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
Faith of My Fathers is a 2005 American television film, directed by Peter Markle.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
The topic of forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II was not researched until the fall of Communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Francs-tireurs (French for "free shooters") was a term for irregular military applied to formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71).
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Funker Vogt is a German electronic music project with an aggressive style, formed by vocalist Jens Kästel and programmer Gerrit Thomas in 1995.
The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Saint Genevieve (Sainte Geneviève; Sancta Genovefa, Genoveva; from Gaullish geno "race, lineage" and uida "sage") (Nanterre, 419/422 AD – Paris 502/512 AD), is the patron saint of Paris in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
Members of the German military were interned as prisoners of war in the United States during World War I and World War II.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giovannino Oliviero Giuseppe Guareschi (1 May 1908 – 22 July 1968) was an Italian journalist, cartoonist and humorist whose most famous creation is the priest Don Camillo.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Grigoriy Fedotovich Krivosheyev (Григорий Федотович Кривошеев, born in 1929) is a Russian military historian and a retired Colonel General of the Russian military.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
is the name used to describe Japanese swords produced for use by the Japanese army and navy after the end of the samurai era in 1868.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hart's War is a 2002 American thriller drama film about a World War II prisoner of war (POW) camp based on the novel by John Katzenbach.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hỏa Lò Prison was a prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam for political prisoners, and later by North Vietnam for U.S. Prisoners of War during the Vietnam War.
Heinz Nawratil (1937 in Suchdol nad Odrou, Czechoslovakia – 2015) is a German lawyer, legal author and human rights activist.
A hell ship is a ship with extremely unpleasant living conditions or with a reputation for cruelty among the crew.
Herbert P. Bix (born 1938) is an American historian.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (2000) is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.
The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962.
Hogan's Heroes is an American television sitcom set in a German prisoner of war (POW) camp during World War II.
A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Indoctrination is the process of inculcating a person with ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or professional methodologies (see doctrine).
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
"Italian military internees" (Italienische Militärinternierte, IMI) was the official name given by Germany to the Italian soldiers captured, rounded up and deported in the territories of Nazi Germany in Operation Achse in the days immediately following the World War II armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces (September 8, 1943).
Jack Bridger Chalker (10 October 1918 – 15 November 2014), was a British artist and teacher best known for his work recording the lives of the prisoners of war building the Burma Railway during World War Two.
James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.
James J. Weingartner (born 1940) is professor emeritus of history at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville.
Japanese Surrendered Personnel (JSP) is a designation for captive Japanese soldiers (similar to Disarmed Enemy Forces and Surrendered Enemy Personnel).
Jeffrey Guy Grey (19 March 1959 – 26 July 2016) was an Australian military historian.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Friedrich Rochlitz (12 February 1769 – 16 December 1842) was a German playwright, musicologist and art and music critic.
John H. Noble (September 4, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American survivor of the Soviet Gulag system, who wrote two books relating to his experiences after being permitted to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States.
John Lorin Borling (born 1940 in Chicago) is a retired Major General of the United States Air Force whose military career spanned 37 years.
John Rodgers Jewitt (21 May 1783 – 7 January 1821) was an English armourer who entered the historical record with his memoirs about the 28 months he spent as a captive of Maquinna of the Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) people on the Pacific Northwest Coast of what is now Canada.
John Arthur Hickman (born September 10, 1956) is an American musician best known as the lead guitarist and co-founder of the rock band Cracker.
The Kalmunai massacre refers to a series of mass killings that occurred in June 1990 in Kalmunai, a municipality within the Ampara District of Sri Lanka's Eastern Province.
Katyń is a 2007 Polish film about the 1940 Katyn massacre, directed by Academy Honorary Award winner Andrzej Wajda.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Keith Lowe (born 1970, in London) is a British author and historian.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–78 between American Indian inhabitants of the New England region of North America versus New England colonists and their Indian allies.
King Rat is a 1965 World War II film directed by Bryan Forbes, and starring George Segal as Corporal King and James Fox as Marlowe, two World War II prisoners of war in a squalid camp near Singapore.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Tens of thousands of South Korean soldiers were captured by the North Korean and Chinese forces during the Korean War (1950–53) but were not returned during the prisoner exchanges under the 1953 Armistice Agreement.
La Grande Illusion (also known as The Grand Illusion) is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leonard George (Len) Siffleet (14 January 1916 – 24 October 1943) was an Australian commando of World War II.
Life Is Beautiful (La vita è bella) is a 1997 Italian comedy-drama film directed by and starring Roberto Benigni, who co-wrote the film with Vincenzo Cerami.
This list of prisoner-of-war escapes includes successful and unsuccessful attempts in chronological order, where possible.
This is a list of notable prisoners of war (POW) whose imprisonment attracted notable attention or influence, or who became famous afterwards.
The London Cage was an MI19 prisoner of war facility during and immediately after World War II that was subject to frequent allegations of torture.
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Lycaon (Λυκάων; gen.: Λυκάονος) was a son of Priam and Laothoe, daughter of the Lelegian king Altes.
Mary Rowlandson, née White, later Mary Talcott (c. 1637January 5, 1711) was a colonial American woman who was captured by Native Americans during King Philip's War and held for 11 weeks before being ransomed.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Megadeth is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California.
Melrose (Maolros, "bald moor") is a small town and civil parish in the Scottish Borders, historically in Roxburghshire.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Merry Christmas, Mr.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
MI19 was a section of the British Directorate of Military Intelligence, part of the War Office.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
Missing in Action is a 1984 American action film directed by Joseph Zito and starring Chuck Norris.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
A name is a term used for identification.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
Count Nikolai Dmitrievich Tolstoy-Miloslavsky (born 23 June 1935) is an English-Russian author who writes under the name Nikolai Tolstoy.
NKVD special camps (Speziallager) were NKVD-run late and post–World War II internment camps in the Soviet-occupied parts of Germany from May 1945 to January 6, 1950.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
Norman Cross lies near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Nuu-chah-nulth (Nuučaan̓uł), also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth or Tahkaht, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in Canada.
The October 13 Massacre took place on 13 October 1990, during the final period of the Lebanese Civil War, when hundreds of Lebanese Army soldiers were executed after they surrendered to the Syrian Army.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Keelhaul was a forced repatriation of former Soviet Armed Forces POWs of the Nazis to the Soviet Union, carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces between 14 August 1946 and 9 May 1947.
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Other Losses is a 1989 book by Canadian writer James Bacque, in which Bacque alleges that U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower intentionally caused the deaths by starvation or exposure of around a million German prisoners of war held in Western internment camps briefly after the Second World War.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
P.O.W. - Bandi Yuddh Ke is an Indian political thriller television finite series developed by Nikkhil Advani, and is loosely based on the Israeli drama Hatufim.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Palestinian Jew is the term used to refer to a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine (known in Hebrew as Eretz Israel, the "Land of Israel") prior to the establishment of the modern state of Israel.
Paradise Road is a 1997 Australian war film that tells the story of a group of English, American, Dutch and Australian women who are imprisoned by the Japanese in Sumatra during World War II.
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words").
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.
Philip Meninsky (born 1919 in Fulham, England, died in 2007) was the son of Bernard Meninsky.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
As a result of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, hundreds of thousands of Polish soldiers became prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.
Postal censorship is the inspection or examination of mail, most often by governments.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A prison escape (or prison break) is the act of an inmate leaving prison through unofficial or illegal ways.
A prisoner exchange or prisoner swap is a deal between opposing sides in a conflict to release prisoners: prisoners of war, spies, hostages, etc.
The Prisoner of War Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was authorized by Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 8 November 1985.
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.
During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war (POWs) was very different from the standards of modern warfare.
The Pritzker Military Museum & Library (formerly Pritzker Military Library) is a museum and a research library for the study of military history in Chicago, Illinois, US.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Rambo: First Blood Part II (also known as Rambo II or First Blood II) is a 1985 American action film directed by George P. Cosmatos and starring Sylvester Stallone, who reprises his role as Vietnam veteran John Rambo.
Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand.
Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.
Raphael Holinshed (1529–1580) was an English chronicler, whose work, commonly known as Holinshed's Chronicles, was one of the major sources used by William Shakespeare for a number of his plays.
Raptio (in archaic or literary English rendered as rape) is a Latin term for the large-scale abduction of women, i.e. kidnapping for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery).
In international relations and treaties, the principle of reciprocity states that favours, benefits, or penalties that are granted by one state to the citizens or legal entities of another, should be returned in kind.
Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official title given to the prison camps operated by the Communist government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
Rescue Dawn is a 2006 American epic war drama film written and directed by Werner Herzog, based on an adapted screenplay written from his 1997 documentary film Little Dieter Needs to Fly.
Restoring Family Links (RFL) is a program of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, more specifically the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies involving activities that aim to prevent separation and disappearance, look for missing persons, restore and maintain contact between family members and clarify the fate of persons reported missing.
Return with Honor is a 1999 documentary film about American prisoners of war in the Vietnam War.
The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were a group of 19 camps built in the Allied-occupied part of Germany by the U.S. Army to hold captured German soldiers at the close of the Second World War.
Rhonda Cornum (born October 31, 1954) is a former United States Army officer and the Director of Health Strategy for TechWerks.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI (3 March 1920 – 30 December 2011) was a British artist and satirical cartoonist.
The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC Project) is an initiative of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights to support the application and implementation of the international law of armed conflict.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Saint Helen's Island (Île Sainte-Hélène) is an island in the Saint Lawrence River, in the territory of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Saipan (formerly in Spanish: Saipán) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean.
Santo Tomas Internment Camp, also known as the Manila Internment Camp, was the largest of several camps in the Philippines in which the Japanese interned enemy civilians, mostly Americans, in World War II.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Schindler's List is a 1993 American historical period drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg and written by Steven Zaillian.
Sean Longden (born 1965 in Clapham, Bedfordshire, England) is an author and historian who specialises in British social history during World War II, his work extensively uses oral history interviews and first person accounts.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbian and Bosnian: Срби у Босни и Херцеговини / Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (State-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
A service number is an identification code used to identify a person within a large group.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.
The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
Slaughterhouse-Five is a 1972 science fiction film film based on Kurt Vonnegut's novel of the same name about a writer who tells a story in random order of how he was a soldier in World War II and was abducted by aliens.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Japan had an official slave system from the Yamato period (3rd century A.D.) until Toyotomi Hideyoshi abolished it in 1590.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Some Kind of Hero is a 1982 film starring Richard Pryor as a returning Vietnam War veteran having trouble adjusting to civilian life.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
Stalag 17 is a 1953 comedy-drama war film which tells the story of a group of American airmen held in a German World War II prisoner of war camp, who come to suspect that one of their number is an informant.
Stalag IX-B (also known as Bad Orb-Wegscheide) was a German World War II prisoner-of-war camp located south-east of the town of Bad Orb in Hesse, Germany on the hill known as Wegscheideküppel.
Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Studies in Intelligence is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on intelligence that is published by the Center for the Study of Intelligence, a group within the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
The Suffolk Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army with a history dating back to 1685.
Summer of My German Soldier is a 1978 American made-for-television war drama romance film based on the novel of the same name written by Bette Greene.
The Supreme War Council was a central command that coordinate Allied military strategy during World War I. It was founded in 1917, and was based in Versailles.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Tea with Mussolini is a 1999 Anglo-Italian semi-autobiographical film directed by Franco Zeffirelli, scripted by John Mortimer, telling the story of a young Italian boy's upbringing by a circle of British and American women before and during the Second World War.
The Templo Mayor (Spanish for " Greater Temple") was the main temple of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.
Termez (Termiz/Термиз; Термез; Тирмиз; ترمذ Termez, Tirmiz; ترمذ Tirmidh) is a city in the southernmost part of Uzbekistan near the Hairatan border crossing of Afghanistan.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Bridge on the River Kwai is a 1957 British-American epic war film directed by David Lean and based on the novel Le Pont de la Rivière Kwai (1952) by Pierre Boulle.
The Brylcreem Boys is a 1998 romantic comedy film set in the Republic of Ireland during the Second World War.
The Colditz Story is a 1955 prisoner of war film starring John Mills and Eric Portman and directed by Guy Hamilton.
The Deer Hunter is a 1978 American epic war drama film co-written and directed by Michael Cimino about a trio of Russian American steelworkers whose lives are changed forever after they fought in the Vietnam War.
The Great Escape is a 1963 American World War II epic film based on an escape by British Commonwealth prisoners of war from a German POW camp, starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, and Richard Attenborough, filmed in Panavision.
The Great Raid is a 2005 war film about the Raid at Cabanatuan on the island of Luzon, Philippines during World War II.
The Hanoi Hilton is a 1987 Vietnam War film which focuses on the experiences of American prisoners of war who were held in the infamous Hoa Lo Prison in Hanoi during the 1960s and 1970s and the story is told from their perspectives.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (1826) is a historical novel by James Fenimore Cooper.
"The March" refers to a series of forced marches during the final stages of the Second World War in Europe.
The McKenzie Break is a 1970 DeLuxe Color British war drama film directed by Lamont Johnson, starring Brian Keith as Jack Connor, an intelligence officer investigating recent disturbances at a prisoner of war (POW) camp in Scotland.
The One That Got Away is a 1957 Second World War film starring Hardy Krüger and featuring Michael Goodliffe, Jack Gwillim and Alec McCowen.
The Pianist is a 2002 biographical drama film co-produced and directed by Roman Polanski, scripted by Ronald Harwood, and starring Adrien Brody.
The Purple Heart is a 1944 American war film directed by Lewis Milestone.
The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region.
The Walking Dead is a 1995 war film written and directed by Preston A. Whitmore II starring Allen Payne, Joe Morton and Eddie Griffin.
The Wooden Horse is a 1950 British Second World War war film starring Leo Genn, David Tomlinson and Anthony Steel.
The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
To End All Wars is a 2001 war film starring Robert Carlyle, Kiefer Sutherland and Sakae Kimura and directed by David L. Cunningham.
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker.
Thomas Edmund Walsh, Sr. (October 31, 1942 – January 1, 2010), known as Tom Walsh, was a retired lieutenant colonel in the United States Army, a Wyoming educator, a mayor of Casper, and a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives from Natrona County from 2003 to 2008.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Unbroken is a 2014 American war film produced and directed by Angelina Jolie, written by the Coen brothers, Richard LaGravenese, and William Nicholson, based on the 2010 non-fiction book by Laura Hillenbrand, Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption.
Uncommon Valor is a 1983 American action war film directed by Ted Kotcheff and starring Gene Hackman, Fred Ward, Reb Brown, Robert Stack and Patrick Swayze in an early screen appearance.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Navy Nurse Corps was officially established by Congress in 1908; however, unofficially, women had been working as nurses aboard Navy ships and in Navy hospitals for nearly 100 years.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a person who directly engages in armed conflict in violation of the laws of war.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vietnam War POW/MIA issue concerns the fate of United States servicemen who were reported as missing in action (MIA) during the Vietnam War and associated theaters of operation in Southeast Asia.
Von Ryan's Express is a World War II adventure film, released in 1965, about a group of Allied prisoners of war who conduct a daring escape by hijacking a freight train and fleeing through German-occupied Italy to Switzerland.
The Vukovar massacre, also known as the Vukovar hospital massacre or the Ovčara massacre, was the killing of Croatian prisoners of war and civilians by Serb paramilitaries, to whom they had been turned over by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), at the Ovčara farm southeast of Vukovar on 20 November 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Weider History Group is a magazine publishing company headquartered in Leesburg, Virginia.
Who Goes Next? is a 1938 British war drama film directed by Maurice Elvey and starring Barry K. Barnes, Sophie Stewart and Jack Hawkins.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The situation of World War I prisoners of war in Germany is an aspect of the conflict little covered by historical research.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II Radio Heroes: Letters of Compassion is a book by psychologist Lisa Spahr, co-authored with Austin Camacho, that recounts her personal investigation of the activities of shortwave radio listeners who notified families of captured U.S. military personnel of their status as prisoners of war during World War II.
Wounded in action (WIA) describes combatants who have been wounded while fighting in a combat zone during wartime, but have not been killed.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yitzhak Ben-Aharon (יצחק בן אהרון;17 July 1906 – 19 May 2006) was an Israeli left-wing politician.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
The 13th Psychological Operations Battalion (originally, the 13th Psychological Warfare Battalion (Enemy Prisoner of War)) is a Battalion in the United States Army Reserve.
The 1952 Inter-Camp P.O.W. Olympics was a mock Olympic games held during the Korean War in 1952 in which United Nations POWs held in North Korea competed.
1971 is a 2007 Indian Hindi war drama film directed by Amrit Sagar, and written by Piyush Mishra and Amrit Sagar, based on a true story of prisoners of war after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Captured soldier, Enemy Prisoner of War, Enemy Prisoners of War, Enemy prisoner of war, P.O.W, P.O.W., POW, POW status, POWs, PoW, Prisoner of War, Prisoner-of-war, Prisoners of War, Prisoners of War (POWs), Prisoners of war, Prisoners of war,, Prisoners-of war, Prisoners-of-war, Prisoners-of-war (POW), Surrendered soldier, Treatment Of An Enemy, Treatment of an enemy, War Prisoner, War captivity, War prisoners.