Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Alan Stuart Franken (born May 21, 1951) is an American comedian, writer, producer, author, and politician who served as a United States Senator from Minnesota from 2009 to 2018.
Alan Furman Westin (October 11, 1929 – February 18, 2013) was a Professor of Public Law & Government Emeritus, Columbia University, former publisher of Privacy & American Business, and former President of the Center for Social & Legal Research.
Amitai Etzioni (born Werner Falk, 4 January 1929) is an Israeli-American sociologist, best known for his work on socioeconomics and communitarianism.
Andrew Stephen 'Andy' Grove (born András István Gróf; 2 September 193621 March 2016) was a Hungarian-born American businessman, engineer, author and a pioneer in the semiconductor industry.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
Banking secrecy, alternately known as financial privacy, banking discretion, or bank safety,Guex (2000), p. 240 is a conditional agreement between a bank and its clients that all foregoing activities remain secure, confidential, and private.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A sheet is a rectangular piece of cloth used as bedding, being placed immediately below or above bed occupants.
Behavioral targeting comprises a range of technologies and techniques used by online website brands, publishers and advertisers aimed at increasing the effectiveness of marketing and advertising using user web-browsing behavior information.
Big data is data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.
A blanket is a large piece of soft cloth.
Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies.
Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986), is a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld, in a 5–4 ruling, the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults, in this case with respect to homosexual sodomy, though the law did not differentiate between homosexual sodomy and heterosexual sodomy.
Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.
The California Law Review is a law journal published by the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law.
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.
Canadian privacy law is derived from the common law, statutes of the Parliament of Canada and the various provincial legislatures, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Cathedral glass is the name given commercially to monochromatic sheet glass.
Charles Fried (born April 15, 1935) is an American jurist and lawyer.
The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) is a United States federal law, located at.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil inattention is the process whereby strangers who are in close proximity demonstrate that they are aware of one another, without imposing on each other – a recognition of the claims of others to a public space, and of their own personal boundaries.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
The Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL,; National Commission on Informatics and Liberty) is an independent French administrative regulatory body whose mission is to ensure that data privacy law is applied to the collection, storage, and use of personal data.
Communication privacy management (CPM), originally known as communication boundary management, is a systematic research theory designed to develop an evidence-based understanding of the way people make decisions about revealing and concealing private information.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
The Constitution of the Republic of Korea is the basic law of South Korea.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
Contraceptive security (CS) is a situation in which people are able to reliably choose, obtain, and use quality contraceptives for family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Daniel J. Solove (born 1972) is a professor of law at the George Washington University Law School.
Data aggregation is the compiling of information from databases with intent to prepare combined datasets for data processing.
A data breach is the intentional or unintentional release of secure or private/confidential information to an untrusted environment.
The Data Protection Act 1998 was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.
The Data Protection Directive (officially Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (PII (US)) and on the free movement of such data) was a European Union directive adopted in 1995 which regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union.
Data security means protecting digital data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users, such as a cyberattack or a data breach.
De-anonymization is a strategy in data mining in which anonymous data is cross-referenced with other sources of data to re-identify the anonymous data source.
De-identification is the process used to prevent a person's identity from being connected with information.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
A digital identity is information on an entity used by computer systems to represent an external agent.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
Earnings are the net benefits of a corporation's operation.
Edwin Lawrence Godkin (October 2, 1831 – May 21, 1902) was an Irish-born American journalist and newspaper editor.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is an independent non-profit research center in Washington, D.C. EPIC's mission is to focus public attention on emerging privacy and related human rights issues.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
Employee Monitoring is the act of employers surveying employee activity through different surveillance methods.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The Environmental Information Regulations 2004 (EIR) is a UK Statutory Instrument (SI 2004 No. 3391) that provides a statutory right of access to environmental information held by UK public authorities.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.
Expectation of privacy is a legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
Florida International University (FIU) is a metropolitan public research university in Greater Miami, Florida.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c.36) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The United States Federal Trade Commission's fair information practice principles (FIPPs) are guidelines that represent widely accepted concepts concerning fair information practice in an electronic marketplace.
Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA), also known as the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, is an act of the 106th United States Congress (1999–2001).
Griswold v. Connecticut,, is a landmark case in the United States about access to contraception.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.
An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication.
Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss.
Identity theft involves obtaining somebody else's identifying information and using it for a criminal purpose.
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO; stylised as ico.) in the United Kingdom, is a non-departmental public body which reports directly to Parliament and is sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).
Information privacy, or data privacy (or data protection), is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.
Information privacy law or data protection laws prohibit the disclosure or misuse of information about private individuals.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via of the Internet.
An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy.
iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system.
iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James W. Rachels (May 30, 1941 – September 5, 2003) was an American philosopher who specialized in ethics and animal rights.
Jeffrey Rosen (born February 13, 1964) is an American academic and commentator on legal affairs.
Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an American actress and producer.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001), held in a 5–4 decision that the use of a thermal imaging, or FLIR, device from a public vantage point to monitor the radiation of heat from a person's home was a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment, and thus required a warrant.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A location-based service (LBS) is a software-level service that uses location data to control features.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.
Medical privacy or health privacy is the practice of maintaining the security and confidentiality of patient records.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
"Mind your own business" is a common English saying which asks for a respect of other people's privacy.
Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.
The National Do Not Call Registry is a database maintained by the United States federal government, listing the telephone numbers of individuals and families who have requested that telemarketers not contact them.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olmstead v. United States,, was a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the Court reviewed whether the use of wiretapped private telephone conversations, obtained by federal agents without judicial approval and subsequently used as evidence, constituted a violation of the defendant’s rights provided by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Personal boundaries are guidelines, rules or limits that a person creates to identify reasonable, safe and permissible ways for other people to behave towards them and how they will respond when someone passes those limits.
The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) (the Act) is a Canadian law relating to data privacy.
Personal rights are the rights that a person has over their own body.
The right of publicity, often called personality rights, is the right of an individual to control the commercial use of his or her name, image, likeness, or other unequivocal aspects of one's identity.
Personal information, described in United States legal fields as either personally identifiable information (PII), or sensitive personal information (SPI), as used in information security and privacy laws, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.
Personhood is the status of being a person.
Philosophy & Public Affairs is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons.
Physical intimacy is sensual proximity or touching.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The Privacy Act (Loi sur la protection des renseignements personnels) is Canadian federal legislation that came into effect on July 1, 1983.
The Privacy Act 1988 is an Australian law dealing with privacy.
The Privacy Act of 1974, a United States federal law, establishes a Code of Fair Information Practice that governs the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals that is maintained in systems of records by federal agencies.
The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 is a law in the United Kingdom which made it unlawful to, amongst other things, transmit an automated recorded message for direct marketing purposes via a telephone, without prior consent of the subscriber.
Privacy by design calls for privacy to be taken into account throughout the whole engineering process.
Privacy engineering is an emerging discipline within, at least, the software or information systems domain which aims to provide methodologies, tools and techniques such that the engineered systems provide acceptable levels of privacy.
Privacy law refers to the laws that deal with the regulating, storing, and using of personally identifiable information of individuals, which can be collected by governments, public or private organizations, or other individuals.
The privacy laws of the United States deal with several different legal concepts.
Privacy software is software built to protect the privacy of its users.
Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PET) is the standardized term that refers to specific methods that act in accordance with the laws of data protection - PETs' allow online users to protect the privacy of their personally identifiable information (PII) provided to and handled by services or applications.
The private sphere is the complement or opposite to the public sphere.
In information science, profiling refers to the process of construction and application of user profiles generated by computerized data analysis.
A public figure is a person such as a politician, celebrity, or business leader, who has a certain social position within a certain scope and a significant influence and so is often widely concerned by the public, can benefit enormously from society, and is closely related to public interests in society.
Publilius Syrus (fl. 85–43 BC), was a Latin writer, best known for his sententiae.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
Robert Ellis Smith (born September 6, 1940) is an American attorney, author, and a publisher/journalist whose focus is mainly privacy rights.
Ruth Gavison (Hebrew: רות גביזון) (born March 28, 1945, Jerusalem) is an Israeli Law professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
Samuel Dennis Warren (1852 – February 18, 1910), also Samuel Dennis Warren II, was a Boston attorney.
Seclusion is the act of secluding, i.e. shutting out or keeping apart from society, or the state of being secluded, or a place that facilitates it (a secluded place).
Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
A selfie is a self-portrait photograph, typically taken with a smartphone which may be held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick.
Sissela Bok (born Sissela Myrdal on 2 December 1934) is a Swedish-born American philosopher and ethicist, the daughter of two Nobel Prize winners: Gunnar Myrdal who won the Economics prize with Friedrich Hayek in 1974, and Alva Myrdal who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982.
Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people.
Sousveillance is the recording of an activity by a participant in the activity, typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies.
Stalking is unwanted or repeated surveillance by an individual or group towards another person.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Surveillance capitalism is a term first introduced by John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney in Monthly Review in 2014 and later popularized by academic Shoshana Zuboff that denotes a new genus of capitalism that monetizes data acquired through surveillance.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Naked Society is a 1964 book on privacy by Vance Packard.
The Pelican Brief is a legal-suspense thriller written by John Grisham in 1992.
The Pelican Brief is a 1993 American legal political thriller based on the novel of the same name by John Grisham.
"The Right to Privacy" (4 Harvard L.R. 193 (Dec. 15, 1890)) is a law review article written by Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis, and published in the 1890 Harvard Law Review.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or paper used for drying or wiping a body or a surface.
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Understanding Privacy is a 2008 book on privacy by Daniel J. Solove.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Untranslatability is a property of a text, or of any utterance, in one language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another language when translated.
A urinal is a sanitary plumbing fixture for urination only, predominantly used by males.
Vance Oakley Packard (May 22, 1914 – December 12, 1996) was an American journalist and social critic.
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.
The West Wing of the White House houses the offices of the President of the United States.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF, or simply Wikimedia) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
William Lloyd Prosser (March 15, 1898 – 1972) was the Dean of the College of Law at UC Berkeley from 1948 to 1961.
Yellow journalism and the yellow press are American terms for journalism and associated newspapers that present little or no legitimate well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.