173 relations: Alternative dispute resolution, Amersham plc, Anarcho-capitalism, Ancient Greece, Andrei Shleifer, Arms industry, Asset stripping, Auction, BBC, BP, British Aerospace, British Gas, British Gas plc, British Leyland, British Rail, British Steel (1967–1999), Britoil, BT Group, Bureaucracy, Business, Capital market, China, Co-operative Press, Cochabamba Water War, Competition, Competition law, Conservative Party (UK), Consumer, Contract theory, Controlling interest, Cooperative, Corporate governance, Corporatization, Crony capitalism, Czech Republic, Debt, Demutualization, Departmentalization, Deregulation, Developing country, Distribution (economics), Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Economic growth, Economic inequality, Economic policy, Economy, Economy of Nazi Germany, Education, Egyptian revolution of 2011, ..., Electoral district, Employee stock ownership plan, Enclosure, Euronext, European Commission, Externality, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Farm (revenue leasing), Feudalism, Free market, Fuzzy logic, Great Britain, Gross domestic product, Han dynasty, Harold Macmillan, Health care, Highland Clearances, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Hosni Mubarak, Impact of the privatisation of British Rail, In These Times, Industrial Revolution, Inflation, Japan Post, Japanese general election, 2005, John Major, Joint-stock company, Journal of Economic Literature, Junichiro Koizumi, Karl Polanyi, Laissez-faire, Law enforcement, London Stock Exchange, Lowland Clearances, Management buyout, Margaret Thatcher, Market failure, Marketization, Microeconomics, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ming dynasty, Moyers & Company, Mutual organization, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, National security, Nationalization, Natural monopoly, Nazi Germany, Necessity good, Neoliberalism, New York Stock Exchange, Nico Perrone, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Non-governmental organization, NPR, Oliver Hart (economist), Orange S.A., Outsourcing, Parliament, Penology, Perestroika, Poland, Political corruption, Political risk, Politician, Politics, Population, Populism, Princeton University Press, Principal–agent problem, Private defense agency, Private equity, Private prison, Private sector development, Privately owned public space, Privatisation of British Rail, Privatization in Russia, Privatization in the United States, Public company, Public good, Public housing in the United Kingdom, Rail subsidies, Red tape, Renaissance, Retraining, Revolutions of 1989, Right to Buy, Robert W. Vishny, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Ronald Reagan, Rover Group, Sealink, Secured loan, Shares outstanding, Slovakia, Song dynasty, Soviet Union, Special economic zone, State-owned enterprise, Steel, Stock exchange, Stock market, Structural adjustment, Supermajority, Taoism, Telecommunication, The Economist, The Lancet, The Wealth of Nations, Transition economy, Treuhandanstalt, Unemployment, United Kingdom general election, 1979, University of Oxford, Volkswagen, Voucher privatization, Walter Scheidel, Water resource management, West Germany, World Bank, Wu wei. Expand index (123 more) » « Shrink index
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR; known in some countries, such as India, as external dispute resolution) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation.
The company had its roots in a national centre set up in 1946 for the development and manufacture of radioactive materials for peacetime uses in medicine, scientific research and industry.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andrei Shleifer (born February 20, 1961) is a Russian American economist and Professor of Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1991.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Asset stripping is a term used to refer to the practice of selling off a company's assets in order to improve returns for equity investors.
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
British Gas is an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.
British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
British Steel plc was a major British steel producer.
Britoil was originally a privatised British oil company operating in the North Sea.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Co-operative Press is a British small co-operative society whose principal activity is the publication of The Co-operative News.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
In economics, contract theory studies how economic actors can and do construct contractual arrangements, generally in the presence of asymmetric information.
A controlling interest is an ownership interest in a corporation with enough voting stock shares to prevail in any stockholders' motion.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.
Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
Crony capitalism is an economy in which businesses thrive not as a result of risks they take, but rather as a return on money amassed through a nexus between a business class and the political class.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Demutualization is the process by which a customer-owned mutual organization (mutual) or co-operative changes legal form to a joint stock company.
Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
The German economy, like those of many other western nations, suffered the effects of the Great Depression with unemployment soaring around the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is an employee-owner program that provides a company's workforce with an ownership interest in the company.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon, Dublin and Paris.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, abb.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The impact of the privatisation of British Rail in the 1990s has been the subject of much debate, which has continued to the present day.
In These Times is an American politically progressive/democratic socialist monthly magazine of news and opinion published in Chicago, Illinois.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
was a government-owned corporation in Japan that existed from 2003 to 2007, offering postal and package delivery services, banking services, and life insurance.
A general election in Japan was held on 11 September 2005 for all 480 seats of the House of Representatives of Japan, the lower house of the Diet of Japan, almost two years before the end of the term taken from the last election in 2003.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
The Journal of Economic Literature is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics.
is a Japanese politician who was the 56th Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006.
Karl Paul Polanyi (Polányi Károly; October 25, 1886 – April 23, 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century.
A management buyout (MBO) is a form of acquisition where a company's existing managers acquire a large part or all of the company from either the parent company or from the private owners.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient, often leading to a net social welfare loss.
Marketization or marketisation is a restructuring process that enables state enterprises to operate as market-oriented firms by changing the legal environment in which they operate.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Moyers & Company is a commentary and interview television show hosted by Bill Moyers, and broadcast via syndication on public television stations in the United States.
A mutual, mutual organization, or mutual society is an organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality.
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is an Indian governmental commission, established by an Act of Parliament, the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act in December 2005, thus is a statutory body.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In Economics, a necessity good or a necessary good is a type of normal good.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Nico Perrone (born April 27, 1935) is an Italian essayist, historian and journalist.
, commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Oliver Simon D'Arcy Hart (born on October 9, 1948) is a British-born American economist, currently the Andrew E. Furer Professor of Economics at Harvard University.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Political risk is a type of risk faced by investors, corporations, and governments that political decisions, events, or conditions will significantly affect the profitability of a business actor or the expected value of a given economic action.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions and/or take actions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".
A private defense agency (PDA) is an enterprise which would provide personal protection and military defense services to individuals who would voluntarily contract for its services.
Private equity typically refers to investment funds organized as limited partnerships that are not publicly traded and whose investors are typically large institutional investors, university endowments, or wealthy individuals.
A private prison, or for-profit prison, is a place in which individuals are physically confined or incarcerated by a third party that is contracted by a government agency.
Private Sector Development (PSD) is a term in the international development industry to refer to a range of strategies for promoting economic growth and reducing poverty in developing countries by building private enterprises.
Privately owned public space (POPS), or alternatively, privately owned public open spaces (POPOS), are terms used to describe a type of public space that, although privately owned, is legally required to be open to the public under a city's zoning ordinance or other land-use law.
The Privatisation of British Rail was the process by which ownership and operation of the railways of Great Britain passed from government control into private hands.
Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets, particularly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.
State, county, and city economies are constantly challenged in running government operations.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Public housing in the United Kingdom provided the majority of rented accommodation in the country until 2011.
Many countries offer subsidies to their railways because of the social and economic benefits that it brings.
Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Refresher/Retraining is the process of learning a new or the same old skill or trade for the same group of personnel.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The Right to Buy scheme is a policy in the United Kingdom (with the exception of Scotland since August 1, 2016) which gives secure tenants of councils and some housing associations the legal right to buy, at a large discount, the council house they are living in.
Robert Ward Vishny (born c. 1959) is an American economist and is the Myron S. Scholes Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Rover Group plc was the name given in 1986 to the British vehicle manufacturer BL (formerly British Leyland), which had been state-owned company since 1975.
Sealink was a ferry company based in the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1984, operating services to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Channel Islands, Isle of Wight and Ireland.
A secured loan, is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset (e.g. a car or property) as collateral for the loan, which then becomes a secured debt owed to the creditor who gives the loan.
Shares outstanding are all the shares of a corporation or financial asset that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
The Treuhandanstalt ("Trust agency"), colloquially referred to as Treuhand, was an agency established by the government of the German Democratic Republic to reprivatize / privatize East German enterprises, Volkseigene Betriebe (VEBs), prior to the German reunification.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The 1979 United Kingdom general election was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
Voucher privatization is a privatization method where citizens are given or can inexpensively buy a book of vouchers that represent potential shares in any state-owned company.
Walter Scheidel (born 9 July 1966) is an Austrian historian who teaches ancient history at Stanford University, California.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.
Denationalisation, Denationalization, EU liberalisation, Go private, Industrial privatization, Partial privatization, Privatisation, Privatise, Privatised, Privatize, Privatized, Privatizing, Privitisation, Privitization, Reverse privatization.