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Index Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. [1]

158 relations: Abraham de Moivre, Actuarial science, Adolphe Quetelet, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Albert Einstein, Almost surely, An Anthology of Chance Operations, Andrey Kolmogorov, Andrey Markov, Ars Conjectandi, Artemas Martin, Artificial intelligence, Augustus De Morgan, Aumann's agreement theorem, Authority, Avogadro constant, Bayes' theorem, Bayesian probability, Behavioral economics, Blaise Pascal, Bruno de Finetti, Burden of proof (law), Cache language model, Cambridge University Press, Car, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Chance, Chaos theory, Christiaan Huygens, Christian August Friedrich Peters, Classical mechanics, Complementary event, Complex system, Computer science, Conditional probability, Copenhagen interpretation, Cox's theorem, Daniel Bernoulli, Dempster–Shafer theory, Determinism, Edwin Thompson Jaynes, Empirical evidence, Environmental law, Equiprobability, Erwin Schrödinger, Estimation theory, Estimator, Etymology, Eudaemons, Europe, ..., Event (probability theory), Experiment, Finance, Financial regulation, Frequentist probability, Friedrich Bessel, Function (mathematics), Gambling, Game of chance, Game theory, George Boole, Gerolamo Cardano, Giovanni Schiaparelli, Glossary of probability and statistics, GNU Free Documentation License, Groupthink, Heuristics in judgment and decision-making, Ian Hacking, Independence (probability theory), Inductive reasoning, Instrumentalism, Integral geometry, Inverse probability, Italians, Jacob Bernoulli, James Franklin (philosopher), James Ivory (mathematician), James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, John E. Freund, John Herschel, Joint probability distribution, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Karl Pearson, Kinetic theory of gases, Language model, Laplace's demon, Law, Least squares, Legal case, Likelihood function, Machine learning, Market (economics), Markov chain, Mathematics, Max Born, Measure (mathematics), Morgan Crofton, Mutual exclusivity, Natural language processing, Nobility, Objectivity (philosophy), Odds, Olav Kallenberg, Outline of academic disciplines, Paul Matthieu Hermann Laurent, Philosophy, Physics, Pierre de Fermat, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Possibility theory, Posterior probability, Power set, Prior probability, Probabilistic classification, Probability (disambiguation), Probability axioms, Probability density function, Probability distribution, Probability space, Probability theory, Probable error, Propagation of uncertainty, Propensity probability, Quantum decoherence, Quantum mechanics, Randomness, Real number, Reality, Reliability (statistics), Reliability theory of aging and longevity, Richard Dedekind, Richard Jeffrey, Richard Threlkeld Cox, Risk, Robert Adrain, Roger Cotes, Roulette, Sample space, Science, Set (mathematics), Statistical inference, Statistical model, Statistics, Stochastic process, Sylvestre François Lacroix, The Doctrine of Chances, Theory, Thomas Simpson, UbuWeb, Undefined (mathematics), Uniform distribution (continuous), Warranty, Wave function, Wave function collapse, Webster's Dictionary, Well-defined, William Fishburn Donkin, Witness. Expand index (108 more) »

Abraham de Moivre

Abraham de Moivre (26 May 166727 November 1754) was a French mathematician known for de Moivre's formula, a formula that links complex numbers and trigonometry, and for his work on the normal distribution and probability theory.

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Actuarial science

Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.

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Adolphe Quetelet

Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet FRSFor FRSE (22 February 1796 – 17 February 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist.

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Adrien-Marie Legendre

Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Almost surely

In probability theory, one says that an event happens almost surely (sometimes abbreviated as a.s.) if it happens with probability one.

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An Anthology of Chance Operations

An Anthology of Chance Operations (An Anthology) was an artist's book publication from the early 1960s of experimental neodada art and music composition that used John Cage inspired indeterminacy.

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Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

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Andrey Markov

Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.

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Ars Conjectandi

Ars Conjectandi (Latin for "The Art of Conjecturing") is a book on combinatorics and mathematical probability written by Jacob Bernoulli and published in 1713, eight years after his death, by his nephew, Niklaus Bernoulli.

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Artemas Martin

Artemas Martin (August 3, 1835 – November 7, 1918) was a self-educated American mathematician.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Augustus De Morgan

Augustus De Morgan (27 June 1806 – 18 March 1871) was a British mathematician and logician.

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Aumann's agreement theorem

Aumann's agreement theorem says that two people acting rationally (in a certain precise sense) and with common knowledge of each other's beliefs cannot agree to disagree.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Avogadro constant

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

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Bayes' theorem

In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem (alternatively Bayes’ law or Bayes' rule, also written as Bayes’s theorem) describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event.

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Bayesian probability

Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.

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Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.

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Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

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Bruno de Finetti

Bruno de Finetti (13 June 1906 – 20 July 1985) was an Italian probabilist statistician and actuary, noted for the "operational subjective" conception of probability.

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Burden of proof (law)

The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.

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Cache language model

A cache language model is a type of statistical language model.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Chance may refer to.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christian August Friedrich Peters

Christian August Friedrich Peters (September 7, 1806 – May 8, 1880) was a German astronomer.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Complementary event

In probability theory, the complement of any event A is the event, i.e. the event that A does not occur.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Conditional probability

In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event (some particular situation occurring) given that (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence) another event has occurred.

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Copenhagen interpretation

The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

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Cox's theorem

Cox's theorem, named after the physicist Richard Threlkeld Cox, is a derivation of the laws of probability theory from a certain set of postulates.

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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

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Dempster–Shafer theory

The theory of belief functions, also referred to as evidence theory or Dempster–Shafer theory (DST), is a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, with understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.

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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Edwin Thompson Jaynes

Edwin Thompson Jaynes (July 5, 1922 – April 30, 1998) was the Wayman Crow Distinguished Professor of Physics at Washington University in St. Louis.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Environmental law

Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.

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Equiprobability is a property for a collection of events that each have the same probability of occurring.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.

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In statistics, an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule (the estimator), the quantity of interest (the estimand) and its result (the estimate) are distinguished.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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The Eudaemons were a small group headed by graduate physics students J. Doyne Farmer and Norman Packard at the University of California Santa Cruz in the late 1970s.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Event (probability theory)

In probability theory, an event is a set of outcomes of an experiment (a subset of the sample space) to which a probability is assigned.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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Financial regulation

Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system.

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Frequentist probability

Frequentist probability or frequentism is an interpretation of probability; it defines an event's probability as the limit of its relative frequency in a large number of trials.

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Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

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Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.

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Game of chance

A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants may choose to wager money or anything of monetary value.

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Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

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George Boole

George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.

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Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.

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Giovanni Schiaparelli

Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli FRS(For) HFRSE (14 March 1835 Savigliano – 4 July 1910 Milan) was an Italian astronomer and science historian.

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Glossary of probability and statistics

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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GNU Free Documentation License

The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project.

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Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.

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Heuristics in judgment and decision-making

In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions.

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Ian Hacking

Ian MacDougall Hacking (born February 18, 1936) is a Canadian philosopher specializing in the philosophy of science.

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Independence (probability theory)

In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.

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Integral geometry

In mathematics, integral geometry is the theory of measures on a geometrical space invariant under the symmetry group of that space.

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Inverse probability

In probability theory, inverse probability is an obsolete term for the probability distribution of an unobserved variable.

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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Jacob Bernoulli

Jacob Bernoulli (also known as James or Jacques; – 16 August 1705) was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

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James Franklin (philosopher)

James Franklin (born 1953 in Sydney) is an Australian philosopher, mathematician and historian of ideas.

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James Ivory (mathematician)

James Ivory, FRS FRSE KH LLD (17 February 1765 – 21 September 1842) was a British mathematician.

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James Whitbread Lee Glaisher

James Whitbread Lee Glaisher FRS FRSE FRAS (5 November 1848, Lewisham – 7 December 1928, Cambridge), son of James Glaisher the meteorologist and Cecilia Glaisher the photographer, was a prolific English mathematician and astronomer.

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John E. Freund

John Ernst Freund (August 6, 1921 – 2004) was a prominent author of university level textbooks on statistics.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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Joint probability distribution

Given random variables X, Y,..., that are defined on a probability space, the joint probability distribution for X, Y,...

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Journal of the American Statistical Association

The Journal of the American Statistical Association (JASA) is the primary journal published by the American Statistical Association, the main professional body for statisticians in the United States.

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Karl Pearson

Karl Pearson HFRSE LLD (originally named Carl; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician and biostatistician. He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics. Pearson was also a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.

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Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.

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Language model

A statistical language model is a probability distribution over sequences of words.

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Laplace's demon

In the history of science, Laplace's demon was the first published articulation of causal or scientific determinism by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1814.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.

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Legal case

A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process.

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Likelihood function

In frequentist inference, a likelihood function (often simply the likelihood) is a function of the parameters of a statistical model, given specific observed data.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Markov chain

A Markov chain is "a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event".

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Measure (mathematics)

In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.

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Morgan Crofton

Morgan Crofton (1826, Dublin, Ireland – 1915, Brighton, England) was an Irish mathematician who contributed to the field of geometric probability theory.

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Mutual exclusivity

In logic and probability theory, two events (or propositions) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur (be true).

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Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

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Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Odds are a numerical expression, usually expressed as a pair of numbers, used in both gambling and statistics.

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Olav Kallenberg

Olav Kallenberg is a probability theorist known for his work on exchangeable stochastic processes and for his graduate-level textbooks and monographs.

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Outline of academic disciplines

An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.

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Paul Matthieu Hermann Laurent

Paul Matthieu Hermann Laurent (2 September 1841 Luxembourg City – 19 February 1908 Paris, France) was a French mathematician.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat (Between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Possibility theory

Possibility theory is a mathematical theory for dealing with certain types of uncertainty and is an alternative to probability theory.

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Posterior probability

In Bayesian statistics, the posterior probability of a random event or an uncertain proposition is the conditional probability that is assigned after the relevant evidence or background is taken into account.

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Power set

In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of any set is the set of all subsets of, including the empty set and itself, variously denoted as, 𝒫(), ℘() (using the "Weierstrass p"),,, or, identifying the powerset of with the set of all functions from to a given set of two elements,.

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Prior probability

In Bayesian statistical inference, a prior probability distribution, often simply called the prior, of an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account.

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Probabilistic classification

In machine learning, a probabilistic classifier is a classifier that is able to predict, given an observation of an input, a probability distribution over a set of classes, rather than only outputting the most likely class that the observation should belong to.

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Probability (disambiguation)

Probability is the measure of an event's likelihood.

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Probability axioms

In Kolmogorov's probability theory, the probability P of some event E, denoted P(E), is usually defined such that P satisfies the Kolmogorov axioms, named after the Russian mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov, which are described below.

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Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.

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Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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Probability space

In probability theory, a probability space or a probability triple (\Omega, \mathcal, P) is a mathematical construct that models a real-world process (or “experiment”) consisting of states that occur randomly.

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Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

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Probable error

In statistics, probable error defines the half-range of an interval about a central point for the distribution, such that half of the values from the distribution will lie within the interval and half outside.

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Propagation of uncertainty

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them.

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Propensity probability

The propensity theory of probability is one interpretation of the concept of probability.

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Quantum decoherence

Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

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Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.

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Reliability (statistics)

Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.

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Reliability theory of aging and longevity

The reliability theory of aging is an attempt to apply the principles of reliability theory to create a mathematical model of senescence.

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Richard Dedekind

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), axiomatic foundation for the natural numbers, algebraic number theory and the definition of the real numbers.

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Richard Jeffrey

Richard Carl Jeffrey (August 5, 1926 – November 9, 2002) was an American philosopher, logician, and probability theorist.

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Richard Threlkeld Cox

Richard Threlkeld Cox (August 5, 1898 – May 2, 1991) was a professor of physics at Johns Hopkins University, known for Cox's theorem relating to the foundations of probability.

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Robert Adrain

Robert Adrain (30 September 1775 – 10 August 1843) was an Irish mathematician, whose career was spent in the USA.

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Roger Cotes

Roger Cotes FRS (10 July 1682 – 5 June 1716) was an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication.

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Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel.

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Sample space

In probability theory, the sample space of an experiment or random trial is the set of all possible outcomes or results of that experiment.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

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Statistical inference

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution.

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Statistical model

A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stochastic process

--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.

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Sylvestre François Lacroix

Sylvestre François Lacroix (28 April 1765, Paris24 May 1843, Paris) was a French mathematician.

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The Doctrine of Chances

The Doctrine of Chances was the first textbook on probability theory, written by 18th-century French mathematician Abraham de Moivre and first published in 1718.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Thomas Simpson

Thomas Simpson FRS (20 August 1710 – 14 May 1761) was a British mathematician and inventor known for the eponymous Simpson's rule to approximate definite integrals.

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UbuWeb is a large web-based educational resource for avant-garde material available on the internet, founded in 1996 by poet Kenneth Goldsmith.

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Undefined (mathematics)

In mathematics, undefined has several different meanings, depending on the context.

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Uniform distribution (continuous)

In probability theory and statistics, the continuous uniform distribution or rectangular distribution is a family of symmetric probability distributions such that for each member of the family, all intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable.

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In contract law, a warranty has various meanings but generally means a guarantee or promise which provides assurance by one party to the other party that specific facts or conditions are true or will happen.

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Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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Wave function collapse

In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse is said to occur when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—appears to reduce to a single eigenstate (by "observation").

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Webster's Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.

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In mathematics, an expression is called well-defined or unambiguous if its definition assigns it a unique interpretation or value.

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William Fishburn Donkin

William Fishburn Donkin FRS FRAS (16 February 1814 – 15 November 1869) was an astronomer and mathematician, Savilian Professor of Astronomy at the University of Oxford.

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A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability

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