126 relations: A3 problem solving, Abraham S. Luchins, Abstraction, Actuarial science, Algorithm, Allen Newell, Analogy, Analysis, Analytical skill, Artificial intelligence, Behaviorism, Brainstorming, Bretton Woods system, Chess, Cognition, Cognitive science, Collaboration, Collective impact, Collective intelligence, Command and control, Complexity, Computer science, Computer simulation, Confirmation bias, Creative problem-solving, Crowdsourcing, Daniel Schacter, Data deduplication, Decomposition (computer science), Dietrich Dörner, Divergent thinking, Domain knowledge, Donald Broadbent, Douglas Engelbart, Dynamics (mechanics), Eight Disciplines Problem Solving, Engineering, Experiment, Expert, Failure, Failure analysis, Failure mode and effects analysis, Forensic engineering, Functional fixedness, Gender typing, George Pólya, Germany, Gestalt psychology, Global issue, Grey problem, ..., Groupthink, GROW model, Henry Jenkins, Herbert A. Simon, Heuristic, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, How to Solve It, Hygge, Information technology, Innovation, Instrumentalism, Intelligence, Internet, Introspection, Karl Duncker, Lateral thinking, Mathematical problem, Mathematics, Means-ends analysis, Medicine, Method of focal objects, Michigan Department of Education, Military rank, Military science, Morphological analysis (problem-solving), Motivation, Neuropsychology, Norman Maier, OODA loop, Optimization problem, Organism, Participatory culture, PDCA, Personal life, Peter Cathcart Wason, Polytely, Pragmatics, Predictability, Problem finding, Problem shaping, Problem statement, Problem structuring methods, Proof (truth), Psychedelics in problem-solving experiment, Psychology, Queueing theory, Reality, Recursively enumerable set, Reduction (complexity), Research, Rigidity (psychology), Root cause analysis, RPR problem diagnosis, Russian language, Science, Scientific method, Semantics, Simulation, Social issue, Socioemotional selectivity theory, Statistical hypothesis testing, Structural fix, Subgoal labeling, Swarm intelligence, System dynamics, Tower of Hanoi, Trial and error, TRIZ, Troubleshooting, United Nations, United States Joint Forces Command, Valence (psychology), Wicked problem, Witch-hunt, World Trade Organization, World War II. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
A3 is a structured problem solving and continuous improvement approach, first employed at Toyota and typically used by lean manufacturing practitioners.
Abraham S. Luchins (March 8, 1914 – December 27, 2005) was one of the most important American Gestalt Psychologists and a pioneer of group psychotherapy.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.
Analytical skill is the ability to use critical thinking and problem-solving skills in order to find a solution or complete an exercise.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
Collective Impact (CI) is the commitment of a group of actors from different sectors to a common agenda for solving a specific social problem, using a structured form of collaboration.
Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.
Creative problem-solving is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
Daniel Lawrence Schacter (born June 17, 1952) is an American psychologist.
In computing, data deduplication is a specialized data compression technique for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data.
Decomposition in computer science, also known as factoring, is breaking a complex problem or system into parts that are easier to conceive, understand, program, and maintain.
Dietrich Dörner (born 28 September 1938, Berlin) is emeritus professor for General and Theoretical Psychology at the at the Otto-Friedrich University in Bamberg, Germany.
Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.
Domain knowledge is knowledge of a specific, specialized discipline or field, in contrast to general knowledge, or domain-independent knowledge.
Donald Eric (D.E.) Broadbent FRS (Birmingham, 6 May 1926 – 10 April 1993) was an influential experimental psychologist from the UK His career and research bridged the gap between the pre-World War II approach of Sir Frederic Bartlett and what became known as Cognitive Psychology in the late 1960s.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
Eight Disciplines (8Ds) Problem Solving is a method developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by engineers or other professionals.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
An expert is someone who has a prolonged or intense experience through practice and education in a particular field.
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
Failure analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or liability.
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)—also "failure modes", plural, in many publications—was one of the first highly structured, systematic techniques for failure analysis.
Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.
Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits a person to use an object only in the way it is traditionally used.
Gender typing is the process by which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own.
George Pólya (Pólya György; December 13, 1887 – September 7, 1985) was a Hungarian mathematician.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
In IT, a grey problem (or, gray problem) is a problem where the causing technology is unknown or unconfirmed.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
The GROW model (or process) is a simple method for goal setting and problem solving.
Henry Jenkins III (born June 4, 1958) is an American media scholar and Provost Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts, a joint professorship at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism and the USC School of Cinematic Arts.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
How to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving.
Hygge is a Norwegian and Danish word for a mood of coziness and comfortable conviviality with feelings of wellness and contentment.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
Karl Duncker (2 February 1903, in Leipzig – 23 February 1940) was a Gestalt psychologist.
Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic.
A mathematical problem is a problem that is amenable to being represented, analyzed, and possibly solved, with the methods of mathematics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Means-ends analysis (MEA) is a problem solving technique used commonly in artificial intelligence (AI) for limiting search in AI programs.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Method of focal objects is technique for problem solving or creative thinking and involves synthesizing the seemingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new.
The Michigan Department of Education (MDE) is a state agency of Michigan, in the United States.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
Morphological analysis or general morphological analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified complex problem.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Norman Raymond Frederick Maier (1900–1977) was an American experimental psychologist who worked primarily at the University of Michigan.
The OODA loop is the decision cycle of observe, orient, decide, and act, developed by military strategist and United States Air Force Colonel John Boyd.
In mathematics and computer science, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Participatory culture is an opposing concept to consumer culture — in other words a culture in which private individuals (the public) do not act as consumers only, but also as contributors or producers (prosumers).
PDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continual improvement of processes and products.
Personal life is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity.
Peter Cathcart Wason (22 April 1924 – 17 April 2003) was a cognitive psychologist at University College, London who pioneered the Psychology of Reasoning.
Polytely (from Greek roots poly- and -tel- meaning "many goals") comprises complex problem-solving situations characterized by the presence of multiple simultaneous goals.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.
Problem finding means problem discovery.
Problem shaping means revising a question so that the solution process can begin or continue.
A problem statement is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or a condition to be improved upon.
Problem structuring methods (PSMs) are a group of techniques used to model or to map the nature or structure of a situation or state of affairs that some people want to change.
A proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.
Psychedelic agents in creative problem-solving experiment was a study designed to evaluate whether the use of a psychedelic substance with supportive setting can lead to improvement of performance in solving professional problems.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
In computability theory, traditionally called recursion theory, a set S of natural numbers is called recursively enumerable, computably enumerable, semidecidable, provable or Turing-recognizable if.
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a reduction is an algorithm for transforming one problem into another problem.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
In psychology, rigidity refers to an obstinate inability to yield or a refusal to appreciate another person's viewpoint or emotions characterized by a lack of empathy.
Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems.
RPR (rapid problem resolution) is a method of problem diagnosis designed to determine the root cause of IT problems.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; developed by Stanford psychologist Laura L. Carstensen) is a life-span theory of motivation.
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.
A structural fix refers to solving a problem or resolving a conflict by bringing about structural changes that change the underlying structures that provoked or sustain these problems.
Subgoal labeling is giving a name to a group of steps, in a step-by-step description of a process, to explain how the group of steps achieve a related subgoal.
Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
The Tower of Hanoi (also called the Tower of Brahma or Lucas' Tower and sometimes pluralized) is a mathematical game or puzzle.
Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.
TRIZ (теория решения изобретательских задач,, literally: "theory of the resolution of invention-related tasks") is "a problem-solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature".
Troubleshooting or dépanneuring is a form of problem solving, often applied to repair failed products or processes on a machine or a system.a logical, systematic search for the source of a problem in order to solve it, and make the product or process operational again.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Armed Forces.
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.
A wicked problem is a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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