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Process (computing)

Index Process (computing)

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. [1]

63 relations: Asynchrony (computer programming), Auxiliary memory, Call stack, CD-ROM, Central processing unit, Child process, Communication protocol, Computer data storage, Computer multitasking, Computer network, Computer program, Computer security, Concurrency (computer science), Context (computing), Context switch, Deadlock, Embedded system, Execution (computing), Exit (system call), File descriptor, Fork (system call), Handle (computing), Hard disk drive, Hyper-threading, IBM 7090/94 IBSYS, Input/output, Instance (computer science), Instruction set architecture, Intel, Inter-process communication, Interrupt, John Wiley & Sons, Kernel (operating system), Light-weight process, Machine code, Microsoft Windows, Multi-core processor, Multiprocessing, Operating system, Orphan process, Parallel computing, Parent process, Process calculus, Process control block, Process group, Process state, Processor register, Reentrancy (computing), Scheduling (computing), Shared memory, ..., Simultaneous multithreading, Subroutine, System resource, Task (computing), Thrashing (computer science), Thread (computing), Time-sharing, Uniprocessor system, Unix, Virtual memory, Wait (system call), Working directory, Zombie process. Expand index (13 more) »

Asynchrony (computer programming)

Asynchrony, in computer programming, refers to the occurrence of events independent of the main program flow and ways to deal with such events.

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Auxiliary memory

Auxiliary memory, also known as auxiliary storage, secondary storage, secondary memory or external memory, is a non-volatile memory (does not lose stored data when the device is powered down) that is not directly accessible by the CPU, because it is not accessed via the input/output channels (it is an external device).

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Call stack

In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.

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A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Child process

A child process in computing is a process created by another process (the parent process).

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Communication protocol

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer multitasking

In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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Concurrency (computer science)

In computer science, concurrency refers to the ability of different parts or units of a program, algorithm, or problem to be executed out-of-order or in partial order, without affecting the final outcome.

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Context (computing)

In computer science, a task context is the minimal set of data used by a task (which may be a process or thread) that must be saved to allow a task to be interrupted, and later continued from the same point.

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Context switch

In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later.

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In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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Execution (computing)

Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.

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Exit (system call)

On many computer operating systems, a computer process terminates its execution by making an exit system call.

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File descriptor

In Unix and related computer operating systems, a file descriptor (FD, less frequently fildes) is an abstract indicator (handle) used to access a file or other input/output resource, such as a pipe or network socket.

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Fork (system call)

In computing, particularly in the context of the Unix operating system and its workalikes, fork is an operation whereby a process creates a copy of itself.

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Handle (computing)

In computer programming, a handle is an abstract reference to a resource.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Hyper-threading (officially called Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology, and abbreviated as HTT or HT) is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on x86 microprocessors.

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IBM 7090/94 IBSYS

IBSYS is the discontinued tape-based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers.

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In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Instance (computer science)

In object-oriented programming (OOP), an instance is a concrete occurrence of any object, existing usually during the runtime of a computer program.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Inter-process communication

In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.

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In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Kernel (operating system)

The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.

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Light-weight process

In computer operating systems, a light-weight process (LWP) is a means of achieving multitasking.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Multi-core processor

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.

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Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Orphan process

An orphan process is a computer process whose parent process has finished or terminated, though it remains running itself.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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Parent process

In computing, a parent process is a process that has created one or more child processes.

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Process calculus

In computer science, the process calculi (or process algebras) are a diverse family of related approaches for formally modelling concurrent systems.

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Process control block

Process Control Block (PCB, also called Task Controlling Block, Entry of the Process Table, Task Struct, or Switchframe) is a data structure in the operating system kernel containing the information needed to manage the scheduling of a particular process.

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Process group

In a POSIX-conformant operating system, a process group denotes a collection of one or more processes.

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Process state

In a multitasking computer system, processes may occupy a variety of states.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Reentrancy (computing)

In computing, a computer program or subroutine is called reentrant if it can be interrupted in the middle of its execution and then safely be called again ("re-entered") before its previous invocations complete execution.

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Scheduling (computing)

In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.

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Shared memory

In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.

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Simultaneous multithreading

Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is a technique for improving the overall efficiency of superscalar CPUs with hardware multithreading.

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In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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System resource

In computing, a system resource, or simply resource, is any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.

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Task (computing)

In computing, a task is a unit of execution or a unit of work.

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Thrashing (computer science)

In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory resources become saturated, leading to a constant state of paging (rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk), to the exclusion of most application-level processing.

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Thread (computing)

In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.

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In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.

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Uniprocessor system

A uniprocessor system is defined as a computer system that has a single central processing unit that is used to execute computer tasks.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Virtual memory

In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.

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Wait (system call)

In computer operating systems, a process (or task) may wait on another process to complete its execution.

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Working directory

In computing, the working directory of a process is a directory of a hierarchical file system, if any, dynamically associated with each process.

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Zombie process

On Unix and Unix-like computer operating systems, a zombie process or defunct process is a process that has completed execution (via the exit system call) but still has an entry in the process table: it is a process in the "Terminated state".

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_(computing)

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