284 relations: Acetal, Active metabolite, Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Adrenarche, Agonist, Albumin, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Aldol condensation, Aldosterone, Alkene, Allopregnanolone, Allosteric modulator, Amphiregulin, Androstenedione, Antimineralocorticoid, Antioxidant, Antiprogestogen, Apoptosis, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Atrophy, Axon, Bast fibre, Biological activity, Biological half-life, Biotransformation, Birth, Blood, Blood proteins, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast development, Breastfeeding, Bronchus, Cannabis (drug), Capillary, Caspase 3, Cation channels of sperm, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chemotaxis, Childbirth, Chloroform, Cholesterol, ..., Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Circulatory system, Collagen, Copper, Corpus luteum, Corticosteroid, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cortisone, CYP17A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, Cytochrome, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome P450, Dairy, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Depolarization, Diketone, Diol, Dioscorea, Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea villosa, Diosgenin, Double bond, Downregulation and upregulation, Dydrogesterone, EC50, Edema, Elasticity (physics), Embryogenesis, Endogeny (biology), Endometrial cancer, Endometrium, Enol, Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermis, Epipregnanolone, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrone, Excitotoxicity, Excretion, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Fenugreek, Fertilisation, Fetus, Fibroblast, Functional group, GABAA receptor, Gallbladder, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gene expression, Gestation, Glossary of gene expression terms, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucuronidation, Ground substance, Growth factor, Hemodynamics, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human female sexuality, Human serum albumin, Human skin, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Immune response, Immune system, Implant (medicine), Inequality (mathematics), Inflammation, Intramuscular injection, Intravaginal administration, Isomer, Isopregnanolone, Juglans regia, Keratinocyte, Ketoconazole, Ketone, Kidney, Knockout mouse, Lactation, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Litre, Liver, London, Luteal phase, Macrophage, Male contraceptive, Mammary alveolus, Mammary gland, Marker degradation, Medication, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Membrane progesterone receptor, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Menstruation, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Mexico, Microglia, Mifepristone, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mitosis, Mole (unit), Morphology (biology), Mucous membrane, Mucus, Myelin, Natriuresis, Natural product, Neoplasm, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neuromodulation, Neuroprotection, Neuroregeneration, Neurosteroid, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Offspring, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Orders of magnitude (mass), Organolithium reagent, Orthoester, Ovary, Ovulation, Oxygen, Parke-Davis, Partial agonist, Pathophysiology, Percy Lavon Julian, PGRMC1, Phosphonium, Placenta, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnane X receptor, Pregnanediol, Pregnanetriol, Pregnanolone, Pregnenolone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progesterone receptor A, Progestogen, Prolactin, Protecting group, Puberty, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Reductase, Reference ranges for blood tests, Respiration (physiology), Russell Earl Marker, Saponin, Sebaceous gland, Semisynthesis, Serotonin, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Sexual dimorphism, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Soybean oil, Spasm, Sperm, Stem cell, Steroid, Stigmasterol, Subcutaneous injection, Sulfation, Taiwan, Tautomer, Testosterone, Tissue (biology), Tissue hydration, Topical medication, Total synthesis, Transcortin, Transcription factor, Transdermal, Traumatic brain injury, University of Portsmouth, Urine, Vaginal epithelium, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Voltage-gated ion channel, William Summer Johnson, Wittig reaction, Wrinkle, Xeroderma, Yam (vegetable), Yeast, Zinc, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, 20α-Dihydroprogesterone, 21-Hydroxylase, 22R-Hydroxycholesterol, 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-Dihydroprogesterone, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Dihydroprogesterone, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5-HT receptor, 5α-Dihydroprogesterone, 5α-Reductase, 5β-Dihydroprogesterone, 5β-Reductase. Expand index (234 more) » « Shrink index
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenarche is an early sexual maturation stage in some higher primates that in humans typically occurs at around 10-12 years of age and is responsible for pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The Archives of Sexual Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal in sexology.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9.
The cation channels of sperm also known as Catsper channels or CatSper, are ion channels that are related to the two-pore channels and distantly related to TRP channels.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
A diketone or dione is a molecule containing two ketone groups.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
Dioscorea mexicana, Mexican yam or cabeza de negro is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea.
Dioscorea villosa is a species of a twining tuberous vine that is native to eastern North America.
Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Dydrogesterone, sold under the brand name Duphaston among others, is a progestin medication which is used for a variety of indications, including threatened or recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, dysfunctional bleeding, infertility due to luteal insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, secondary amenorrhea, irregular cycles, premenstrual syndrome, and as a component of menopausal hormone therapy.
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epipregnanolone, also known as 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, 3β,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone, or 3β,5β-THP, is an endogenous neurosteroid.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT; Politechnika Gdańska) is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Ground substance is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix except for fibrous materials such as collagen and elastin.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Human female sexuality encompasses a broad range of behaviors and processes, including female sexual identity and sexual behavior, the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, political, and spiritual or religious aspects of sexual activity.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isopregnanolone, also known as isoallopregnanolone and epiallopregnanolone, as well as sepranolone, and as 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one or 3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3β,5α-THP), is an endogenous neurosteroid and a natural 3β-epimer of allopregnanolone.
Juglans regia, the Persian walnut, English walnut, Circassian walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
A mammary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
The Marker degradation is a three-step synthetic route in steroid chemistry developed by American chemist Russell Earl Marker in 1938–40.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family which bind the endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid progesterone, as well as the neurosteroid allopregnanolone.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Natriuresis is the process of sodium excretion in the urine through the action of the kidneys.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
In organic chemistry, an orthoester is a functional group containing three alkoxy groups attached to one carbon atom, i.e. with the general formula RC(OR′)3.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899 – April 19, 1975) was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.
Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (abbreviated PGRMC1) is a protein which co-purifies with progesterone binding proteins in the liver and ovary.
The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
In the field of molecular biology, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), also known as the steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor (SXR) or nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I2 (nuclear Receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2) gene.
Pregnanediol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, is an inactive metabolic product of progesterone.
Pregnanetriol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol is a steroid and inactive metabolite of progesterone.
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
The progesterone receptor A (PR-A) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target of the endogenous progestogen sex hormone progesterone.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Russell Earl Marker (March 12, 1902 – March 3, 1995) was an American chemist who invented the octane rating system when he was working at the Ethyl Corporation.
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Stigmasterol (also known as Wulzen anti-stiffness factor) is a plant sterol, or phytosterol.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The University of Portsmouth is a public university in the city of Portsmouth, Hampshire, England.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
William Summer Johnson (February 24, 1913 – August 19, 1995) was an American chemist and teacher.
The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.
A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or simply deoxycorticosterone, also known as 21-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as desoxycortone (INN), deoxycortone, and cortexone, is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that possesses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, NADH, NADPH, and H+.
20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,20,22-triol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.
20α-Dihydroprogesterone (20α-DHP), also known as 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20α-OHP), is a naturally occurring, endogenous progestogen.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
22R-Hydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,22-diol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.
In enzymology, a 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 17beta-hydroxyandrostan-3-one, NADH, and H+.
3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP), also known as 3α-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid.
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP), also known as 3β-hydroxyprogesterone, or pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one (4-pregnenolone, δ4-pregnenolone), is an endogenous steroid.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione, as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), also known as pregnanedione, as well as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous neurosteroid and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of pregnanolone and epipregnanolone from progesterone.
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.