Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Progesterone

Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. [1]

284 relations: Acetal, Active metabolite, Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Adrenarche, Agonist, Albumin, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Aldol condensation, Aldosterone, Alkene, Allopregnanolone, Allosteric modulator, Amphiregulin, Androstenedione, Antimineralocorticoid, Antioxidant, Antiprogestogen, Apoptosis, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Atrophy, Axon, Bast fibre, Biological activity, Biological half-life, Biotransformation, Birth, Blood, Blood proteins, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast development, Breastfeeding, Bronchus, Cannabis (drug), Capillary, Caspase 3, Cation channels of sperm, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chemotaxis, Childbirth, Chloroform, Cholesterol, ..., Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Circulatory system, Collagen, Copper, Corpus luteum, Corticosteroid, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cortisone, CYP17A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, Cytochrome, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome P450, Dairy, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Depolarization, Diketone, Diol, Dioscorea, Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea villosa, Diosgenin, Double bond, Downregulation and upregulation, Dydrogesterone, EC50, Edema, Elasticity (physics), Embryogenesis, Endogeny (biology), Endometrial cancer, Endometrium, Enol, Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermis, Epipregnanolone, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrone, Excitotoxicity, Excretion, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Fenugreek, Fertilisation, Fetus, Fibroblast, Functional group, GABAA receptor, Gallbladder, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gene expression, Gestation, Glossary of gene expression terms, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucuronidation, Ground substance, Growth factor, Hemodynamics, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human female sexuality, Human serum albumin, Human skin, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Immune response, Immune system, Implant (medicine), Inequality (mathematics), Inflammation, Intramuscular injection, Intravaginal administration, Isomer, Isopregnanolone, Juglans regia, Keratinocyte, Ketoconazole, Ketone, Kidney, Knockout mouse, Lactation, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Litre, Liver, London, Luteal phase, Macrophage, Male contraceptive, Mammary alveolus, Mammary gland, Marker degradation, Medication, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Membrane progesterone receptor, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Menstruation, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Mexico, Microglia, Mifepristone, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mitosis, Mole (unit), Morphology (biology), Mucous membrane, Mucus, Myelin, Natriuresis, Natural product, Neoplasm, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neuromodulation, Neuroprotection, Neuroregeneration, Neurosteroid, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Offspring, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Orders of magnitude (mass), Organolithium reagent, Orthoester, Ovary, Ovulation, Oxygen, Parke-Davis, Partial agonist, Pathophysiology, Percy Lavon Julian, PGRMC1, Phosphonium, Placenta, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnane X receptor, Pregnanediol, Pregnanetriol, Pregnanolone, Pregnenolone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progesterone receptor A, Progestogen, Prolactin, Protecting group, Puberty, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Reductase, Reference ranges for blood tests, Respiration (physiology), Russell Earl Marker, Saponin, Sebaceous gland, Semisynthesis, Serotonin, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Sexual dimorphism, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Soybean oil, Spasm, Sperm, Stem cell, Steroid, Stigmasterol, Subcutaneous injection, Sulfation, Taiwan, Tautomer, Testosterone, Tissue (biology), Tissue hydration, Topical medication, Total synthesis, Transcortin, Transcription factor, Transdermal, Traumatic brain injury, University of Portsmouth, Urine, Vaginal epithelium, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Voltage-gated ion channel, William Summer Johnson, Wittig reaction, Wrinkle, Xeroderma, Yam (vegetable), Yeast, Zinc, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, 20α-Dihydroprogesterone, 21-Hydroxylase, 22R-Hydroxycholesterol, 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-Dihydroprogesterone, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Dihydroprogesterone, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5-HT receptor, 5α-Dihydroprogesterone, 5α-Reductase, 5β-Dihydroprogesterone, 5β-Reductase. Expand index (234 more) »


An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.

New!!: Progesterone and Acetal · See more »

Active metabolite

An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.

New!!: Progesterone and Active metabolite · See more »

Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

New!!: Progesterone and Adipose tissue · See more »

Adolf Butenandt

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.

New!!: Progesterone and Adolf Butenandt · See more »

Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

New!!: Progesterone and Adrenal gland · See more »


Adrenarche is an early sexual maturation stage in some higher primates that in humans typically occurs at around 10-12 years of age and is responsible for pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne.

New!!: Progesterone and Adrenarche · See more »


An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

New!!: Progesterone and Agonist · See more »


The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.

New!!: Progesterone and Albumin · See more »


In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

New!!: Progesterone and Alcohol · See more »


An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

New!!: Progesterone and Aldehyde · See more »

Aldol condensation

An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.

New!!: Progesterone and Aldol condensation · See more »


Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

New!!: Progesterone and Aldosterone · See more »


In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

New!!: Progesterone and Alkene · See more »


Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.

New!!: Progesterone and Allopregnanolone · See more »

Allosteric modulator

In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.

New!!: Progesterone and Allosteric modulator · See more »


Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.

New!!: Progesterone and Amphiregulin · See more »


Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

New!!: Progesterone and Androstenedione · See more »


An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.

New!!: Progesterone and Antimineralocorticoid · See more »


Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

New!!: Progesterone and Antioxidant · See more »


Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.

New!!: Progesterone and Antiprogestogen · See more »


Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

New!!: Progesterone and Apoptosis · See more »

Archives of Sexual Behavior

The Archives of Sexual Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal in sexology.

New!!: Progesterone and Archives of Sexual Behavior · See more »


Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

New!!: Progesterone and Atrophy · See more »


An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

New!!: Progesterone and Axon · See more »

Bast fibre

Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.

New!!: Progesterone and Bast fibre · See more »

Biological activity

In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.

New!!: Progesterone and Biological activity · See more »

Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

New!!: Progesterone and Biological half-life · See more »


Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.

New!!: Progesterone and Biotransformation · See more »


Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

New!!: Progesterone and Birth · See more »


Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

New!!: Progesterone and Blood · See more »

Blood proteins

Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.

New!!: Progesterone and Blood proteins · See more »

Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

New!!: Progesterone and Blood–brain barrier · See more »


The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

New!!: Progesterone and Brain · See more »


The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.

New!!: Progesterone and Breast · See more »

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

New!!: Progesterone and Breast cancer · See more »

Breast development

Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.

New!!: Progesterone and Breast development · See more »


Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

New!!: Progesterone and Breastfeeding · See more »


A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

New!!: Progesterone and Bronchus · See more »

Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

New!!: Progesterone and Cannabis (drug) · See more »


A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

New!!: Progesterone and Capillary · See more »

Caspase 3

Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9.

New!!: Progesterone and Caspase 3 · See more »

Cation channels of sperm

The cation channels of sperm also known as Catsper channels or CatSper, are ion channels that are related to the two-pore channels and distantly related to TRP channels.

New!!: Progesterone and Cation channels of sperm · See more »

Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

New!!: Progesterone and Cell (biology) · See more »

Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

New!!: Progesterone and Central nervous system · See more »

Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

New!!: Progesterone and Chemical structure · See more »

Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

New!!: Progesterone and Chemical synthesis · See more »


Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.

New!!: Progesterone and Chemotaxis · See more »


Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

New!!: Progesterone and Childbirth · See more »


Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

New!!: Progesterone and Chloroform · See more »


Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

New!!: Progesterone and Cholesterol · See more »

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.

New!!: Progesterone and Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme · See more »

Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

New!!: Progesterone and Circulatory system · See more »


Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

New!!: Progesterone and Collagen · See more »


Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

New!!: Progesterone and Copper · See more »

Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.

New!!: Progesterone and Corpus luteum · See more »


Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

New!!: Progesterone and Corticosteroid · See more »


Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

New!!: Progesterone and Corticosterone · See more »


Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

New!!: Progesterone and Cortisol · See more »


Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Cortisone · See more »


Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.

New!!: Progesterone and CYP17A1 · See more »


Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.

New!!: Progesterone and CYP2C19 · See more »


Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.

New!!: Progesterone and CYP2C9 · See more »


Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

New!!: Progesterone and CYP3A4 · See more »


Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.

New!!: Progesterone and Cytochrome · See more »

Cytochrome c

The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

New!!: Progesterone and Cytochrome c · See more »

Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

New!!: Progesterone and Cytochrome P450 · See more »


A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.

New!!: Progesterone and Dairy · See more »


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone · See more »


In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.

New!!: Progesterone and Depolarization · See more »


A diketone or dione is a molecule containing two ketone groups.

New!!: Progesterone and Diketone · See more »


A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).

New!!: Progesterone and Diol · See more »


Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.

New!!: Progesterone and Dioscorea · See more »

Dioscorea mexicana

Dioscorea mexicana, Mexican yam or cabeza de negro is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea.

New!!: Progesterone and Dioscorea mexicana · See more »

Dioscorea villosa

Dioscorea villosa is a species of a twining tuberous vine that is native to eastern North America.

New!!: Progesterone and Dioscorea villosa · See more »


Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.

New!!: Progesterone and Diosgenin · See more »

Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

New!!: Progesterone and Double bond · See more »

Downregulation and upregulation

In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.

New!!: Progesterone and Downregulation and upregulation · See more »


Dydrogesterone, sold under the brand name Duphaston among others, is a progestin medication which is used for a variety of indications, including threatened or recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, dysfunctional bleeding, infertility due to luteal insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, secondary amenorrhea, irregular cycles, premenstrual syndrome, and as a component of menopausal hormone therapy.

New!!: Progesterone and Dydrogesterone · See more »


Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.

New!!: Progesterone and EC50 · See more »


Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

New!!: Progesterone and Edema · See more »

Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.

New!!: Progesterone and Elasticity (physics) · See more »


Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

New!!: Progesterone and Embryogenesis · See more »

Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

New!!: Progesterone and Endogeny (biology) · See more »

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).

New!!: Progesterone and Endometrial cancer · See more »


The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.

New!!: Progesterone and Endometrium · See more »


Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.

New!!: Progesterone and Enol · See more »


Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

New!!: Progesterone and Enzyme · See more »

Enzyme inducer

An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.

New!!: Progesterone and Enzyme inducer · See more »

Epidermal growth factor

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.

New!!: Progesterone and Epidermal growth factor · See more »


The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

New!!: Progesterone and Epidermis · See more »


Epipregnanolone, also known as 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, 3β,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone, or 3β,5β-THP, is an endogenous neurosteroid.

New!!: Progesterone and Epipregnanolone · See more »


Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Estradiol · See more »


Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Estrogen · See more »

Estrogen receptor

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.

New!!: Progesterone and Estrogen receptor · See more »

Estrogen receptor alpha

Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.

New!!: Progesterone and Estrogen receptor alpha · See more »


Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Estrone · See more »


Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.

New!!: Progesterone and Excitotoxicity · See more »


Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

New!!: Progesterone and Excretion · See more »

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.

New!!: Progesterone and Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology · See more »


Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets.

New!!: Progesterone and Fenugreek · See more »


Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

New!!: Progesterone and Fertilisation · See more »


A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

New!!: Progesterone and Fetus · See more »


A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

New!!: Progesterone and Fibroblast · See more »

Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

New!!: Progesterone and Functional group · See more »

GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

New!!: Progesterone and GABAA receptor · See more »


In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.

New!!: Progesterone and Gallbladder · See more »

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.

New!!: Progesterone and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry · See more »


Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

New!!: Progesterone and Gdańsk · See more »

Gdańsk University of Technology

The Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT; Politechnika Gdańska) is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland.

New!!: Progesterone and Gdańsk University of Technology · See more »

Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

New!!: Progesterone and Gene expression · See more »


Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.

New!!: Progesterone and Gestation · See more »

Glossary of gene expression terms

No description.

New!!: Progesterone and Glossary of gene expression terms · See more »


Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

New!!: Progesterone and Glucocorticoid · See more »

Glucocorticoid receptor

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.

New!!: Progesterone and Glucocorticoid receptor · See more »


Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

New!!: Progesterone and Glucuronidation · See more »

Ground substance

Ground substance is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix except for fibrous materials such as collagen and elastin.

New!!: Progesterone and Ground substance · See more »

Growth factor

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.

New!!: Progesterone and Growth factor · See more »


Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.

New!!: Progesterone and Hemodynamics · See more »


A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

New!!: Progesterone and Hormone · See more »

Hormone replacement therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.

New!!: Progesterone and Hormone replacement therapy · See more »

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.

New!!: Progesterone and Human chorionic gonadotropin · See more »

Human female sexuality

Human female sexuality encompasses a broad range of behaviors and processes, including female sexual identity and sexual behavior, the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, political, and spiritual or religious aspects of sexual activity.

New!!: Progesterone and Human female sexuality · See more »

Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

New!!: Progesterone and Human serum albumin · See more »

Human skin

The human skin is the outer covering of the body.

New!!: Progesterone and Human skin · See more »

Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

New!!: Progesterone and Hydroxy group · See more »


Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

New!!: Progesterone and Hydroxylation · See more »

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids.

New!!: Progesterone and Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase · See more »

Immune response

The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.

New!!: Progesterone and Immune response · See more »

Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

New!!: Progesterone and Immune system · See more »

Implant (medicine)

An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.

New!!: Progesterone and Implant (medicine) · See more »

Inequality (mathematics)

In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).

New!!: Progesterone and Inequality (mathematics) · See more »


Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

New!!: Progesterone and Inflammation · See more »

Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

New!!: Progesterone and Intramuscular injection · See more »

Intravaginal administration

Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina.

New!!: Progesterone and Intravaginal administration · See more »


An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

New!!: Progesterone and Isomer · See more »


Isopregnanolone, also known as isoallopregnanolone and epiallopregnanolone, as well as sepranolone, and as 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one or 3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3β,5α-THP), is an endogenous neurosteroid and a natural 3β-epimer of allopregnanolone.

New!!: Progesterone and Isopregnanolone · See more »

Juglans regia

Juglans regia, the Persian walnut, English walnut, Circassian walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China.

New!!: Progesterone and Juglans regia · See more »


A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

New!!: Progesterone and Keratinocyte · See more »


Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.

New!!: Progesterone and Ketoconazole · See more »


In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

New!!: Progesterone and Ketone · See more »


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

New!!: Progesterone and Kidney · See more »

Knockout mouse

A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

New!!: Progesterone and Knockout mouse · See more »


Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

New!!: Progesterone and Lactation · See more »


Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

New!!: Progesterone and Libido · See more »

Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

New!!: Progesterone and Ligand (biochemistry) · See more »


The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

New!!: Progesterone and Litre · See more »


The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

New!!: Progesterone and Liver · See more »


London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

New!!: Progesterone and London · See more »

Luteal phase

The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).

New!!: Progesterone and Luteal phase · See more »


Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

New!!: Progesterone and Macrophage · See more »

Male contraceptive

Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.

New!!: Progesterone and Male contraceptive · See more »

Mammary alveolus

A mammary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland.

New!!: Progesterone and Mammary alveolus · See more »

Mammary gland

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.

New!!: Progesterone and Mammary gland · See more »

Marker degradation

The Marker degradation is a three-step synthetic route in steroid chemistry developed by American chemist Russell Earl Marker in 1938–40.

New!!: Progesterone and Marker degradation · See more »


A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

New!!: Progesterone and Medication · See more »

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.

New!!: Progesterone and Medroxyprogesterone acetate · See more »

Membrane progesterone receptor

Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family which bind the endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid progesterone, as well as the neurosteroid allopregnanolone.

New!!: Progesterone and Membrane progesterone receptor · See more »


Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

New!!: Progesterone and Menopause · See more »

Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.

New!!: Progesterone and Menstrual cycle · See more »


Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.

New!!: Progesterone and Menstruation · See more »

Metabolic intermediate

Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.

New!!: Progesterone and Metabolic intermediate · See more »

Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

New!!: Progesterone and Metabolic pathway · See more »


Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

New!!: Progesterone and Metabolism · See more »


A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

New!!: Progesterone and Metabolite · See more »


Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

New!!: Progesterone and Mexico · See more »


Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.

New!!: Progesterone and Microglia · See more »


Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.

New!!: Progesterone and Mifepristone · See more »

Mineralocorticoid receptor

The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.

New!!: Progesterone and Mineralocorticoid receptor · See more »


In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

New!!: Progesterone and Mitosis · See more »

Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

New!!: Progesterone and Mole (unit) · See more »

Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

New!!: Progesterone and Morphology (biology) · See more »

Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

New!!: Progesterone and Mucous membrane · See more »


Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

New!!: Progesterone and Mucus · See more »


Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

New!!: Progesterone and Myelin · See more »


Natriuresis is the process of sodium excretion in the urine through the action of the kidneys.

New!!: Progesterone and Natriuresis · See more »

Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

New!!: Progesterone and Natural product · See more »


Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

New!!: Progesterone and Neoplasm · See more »

Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

New!!: Progesterone and Nervous system · See more »

Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

New!!: Progesterone and Nervous tissue · See more »


Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.

New!!: Progesterone and Neuromodulation · See more »


Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.

New!!: Progesterone and Neuroprotection · See more »


Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products.

New!!: Progesterone and Neuroregeneration · See more »


Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.

New!!: Progesterone and Neurosteroid · See more »


Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).

New!!: Progesterone and Neurotransmission · See more »


Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

New!!: Progesterone and Neurotransmitter · See more »


Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

New!!: Progesterone and Nicotine · See more »

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

New!!: Progesterone and Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor · See more »


In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

New!!: Progesterone and Offspring · See more »

Oral administration

| name.

New!!: Progesterone and Oral administration · See more »

Oral contraceptive pill

Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.

New!!: Progesterone and Oral contraceptive pill · See more »

Orders of magnitude (mass)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.

New!!: Progesterone and Orders of magnitude (mass) · See more »

Organolithium reagent

Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.

New!!: Progesterone and Organolithium reagent · See more »


In organic chemistry, an orthoester is a functional group containing three alkoxy groups attached to one carbon atom, i.e. with the general formula RC(OR′)3.

New!!: Progesterone and Orthoester · See more »


The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

New!!: Progesterone and Ovary · See more »


Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

New!!: Progesterone and Ovulation · See more »


Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

New!!: Progesterone and Oxygen · See more »


Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.

New!!: Progesterone and Parke-Davis · See more »

Partial agonist

In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.

New!!: Progesterone and Partial agonist · See more »


Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.

New!!: Progesterone and Pathophysiology · See more »

Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899 – April 19, 1975) was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

New!!: Progesterone and Percy Lavon Julian · See more »


Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (abbreviated PGRMC1) is a protein which co-purifies with progesterone binding proteins in the liver and ovary.

New!!: Progesterone and PGRMC1 · See more »


The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.

New!!: Progesterone and Phosphonium · See more »


The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

New!!: Progesterone and Placenta · See more »

Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.

New!!: Progesterone and Postmenopausal hormone therapy · See more »


Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnancy · See more »


Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnane · See more »

Pregnane X receptor

In the field of molecular biology, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), also known as the steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor (SXR) or nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I2 (nuclear Receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2) gene.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnane X receptor · See more »


Pregnanediol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, is an inactive metabolic product of progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnanediol · See more »


Pregnanetriol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol is a steroid and inactive metabolite of progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnanetriol · See more »


Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnanolone · See more »


Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.

New!!: Progesterone and Pregnenolone · See more »

Progesterone (medication)

Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

New!!: Progesterone and Progesterone (medication) · See more »

Progesterone receptor

The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.

New!!: Progesterone and Progesterone receptor · See more »

Progesterone receptor A

The progesterone receptor A (PR-A) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target of the endogenous progestogen sex hormone progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and Progesterone receptor A · See more »


Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).

New!!: Progesterone and Progestogen · See more »


Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

New!!: Progesterone and Prolactin · See more »

Protecting group

A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.

New!!: Progesterone and Protecting group · See more »


Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.

New!!: Progesterone and Puberty · See more »

Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

New!!: Progesterone and Reactive oxygen species · See more »

Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

New!!: Progesterone and Receptor (biochemistry) · See more »


Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

New!!: Progesterone and Redox · See more »


A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.

New!!: Progesterone and Reductase · See more »

Reference ranges for blood tests

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

New!!: Progesterone and Reference ranges for blood tests · See more »

Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

New!!: Progesterone and Respiration (physiology) · See more »

Russell Earl Marker

Russell Earl Marker (March 12, 1902 – March 3, 1995) was an American chemist who invented the octane rating system when he was working at the Ethyl Corporation.

New!!: Progesterone and Russell Earl Marker · See more »


Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.

New!!: Progesterone and Saponin · See more »

Sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

New!!: Progesterone and Sebaceous gland · See more »


Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.

New!!: Progesterone and Semisynthesis · See more »


Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

New!!: Progesterone and Serotonin · See more »

Sex hormone-binding globulin

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.

New!!: Progesterone and Sex hormone-binding globulin · See more »

Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

New!!: Progesterone and Sex steroid · See more »

Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

New!!: Progesterone and Sexual dimorphism · See more »

Sigma receptor

Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.

New!!: Progesterone and Sigma receptor · See more »

Sigma-1 receptor

The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.

New!!: Progesterone and Sigma-1 receptor · See more »


Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

New!!: Progesterone and Skin · See more »

Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

New!!: Progesterone and Smooth muscle tissue · See more »

Soybean oil

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).

New!!: Progesterone and Soybean oil · See more »


A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.

New!!: Progesterone and Spasm · See more »


Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

New!!: Progesterone and Sperm · See more »

Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

New!!: Progesterone and Stem cell · See more »


A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

New!!: Progesterone and Steroid · See more »


Stigmasterol (also known as Wulzen anti-stiffness factor) is a plant sterol, or phytosterol.

New!!: Progesterone and Stigmasterol · See more »

Subcutaneous injection

A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.

New!!: Progesterone and Subcutaneous injection · See more »


Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.

New!!: Progesterone and Sulfation · See more »


Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

New!!: Progesterone and Taiwan · See more »


Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.

New!!: Progesterone and Tautomer · See more »


Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

New!!: Progesterone and Testosterone · See more »

Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

New!!: Progesterone and Tissue (biology) · See more »

Tissue hydration

Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.

New!!: Progesterone and Tissue hydration · See more »

Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.

New!!: Progesterone and Topical medication · See more »

Total synthesis

Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.

New!!: Progesterone and Total synthesis · See more »


Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.

New!!: Progesterone and Transcortin · See more »

Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

New!!: Progesterone and Transcription factor · See more »


Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.

New!!: Progesterone and Transdermal · See more »

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

New!!: Progesterone and Traumatic brain injury · See more »

University of Portsmouth

The University of Portsmouth is a public university in the city of Portsmouth, Hampshire, England.

New!!: Progesterone and University of Portsmouth · See more »


Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

New!!: Progesterone and Urine · See more »

Vaginal epithelium

The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.

New!!: Progesterone and Vaginal epithelium · See more »

Voltage-gated calcium channel

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.

New!!: Progesterone and Voltage-gated calcium channel · See more »

Voltage-gated ion channel

Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.

New!!: Progesterone and Voltage-gated ion channel · See more »

William Summer Johnson

William Summer Johnson (February 24, 1913 – August 19, 1995) was an American chemist and teacher.

New!!: Progesterone and William Summer Johnson · See more »

Wittig reaction

The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.

New!!: Progesterone and Wittig reaction · See more »


A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric.

New!!: Progesterone and Wrinkle · See more »


Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.

New!!: Progesterone and Xeroderma · See more »

Yam (vegetable)

Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.

New!!: Progesterone and Yam (vegetable) · See more »


Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

New!!: Progesterone and Yeast · See more »


Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

New!!: Progesterone and Zinc · See more »


11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or simply deoxycorticosterone, also known as 21-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as desoxycortone (INN), deoxycortone, and cortexone, is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that possesses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone.

New!!: Progesterone and 11-Deoxycorticosterone · See more »


17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone · See more »

20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, NADH, NADPH, and H+.

New!!: Progesterone and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase · See more »


20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,20,22-triol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.

New!!: Progesterone and 20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol · See more »


20α-Dihydroprogesterone (20α-DHP), also known as 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20α-OHP), is a naturally occurring, endogenous progestogen.

New!!: Progesterone and 20α-Dihydroprogesterone · See more »


Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.

New!!: Progesterone and 21-Hydroxylase · See more »


22R-Hydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,22-diol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.

New!!: Progesterone and 22R-Hydroxycholesterol · See more »

3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

In enzymology, a 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 17beta-hydroxyandrostan-3-one, NADH, and H+.

New!!: Progesterone and 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase · See more »


3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP), also known as 3α-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid.

New!!: Progesterone and 3α-Dihydroprogesterone · See more »

3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.

New!!: Progesterone and 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase · See more »


3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP), also known as 3β-hydroxyprogesterone, or pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one (4-pregnenolone, δ4-pregnenolone), is an endogenous steroid.

New!!: Progesterone and 3β-Dihydroprogesterone · See more »

3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.

New!!: Progesterone and 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase · See more »

5-HT receptor

5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

New!!: Progesterone and 5-HT receptor · See more »


5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione, as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and 5α-Dihydroprogesterone · See more »


5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.

New!!: Progesterone and 5α-Reductase · See more »


5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), also known as pregnanedione, as well as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous neurosteroid and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of pregnanolone and epipregnanolone from progesterone.

New!!: Progesterone and 5β-Dihydroprogesterone · See more »


5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.

New!!: Progesterone and 5β-Reductase · See more »

Redirects here:

Endometrin, Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, Pregnene-3,20-dione, Progesterones.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progesterone

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »