112 relations: A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, African-American Vernacular English, Allophone, Alternation (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Alveolar fricative, American English, Apartheid, Aspirated consonant, Assibilation, Assimilation (phonology), Bess, Beth, Boston accent, British English, Caribbean English, Central Belt, Cockney, Consonant cluster, Consonant mutation, Daniel Jones (phonetician), Dental consonant, Dental fricative, Digraph (orthography), English compound, English language, English orthography, English phonology, English Pronouncing Dictionary, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Erse, Estuary English, Eth, Final-obstruent devoicing, Fortis and lenis, Free variation, Fricative consonant, Gemination, German orthography, Glasgow, Goidelic languages, Grammatischer Wechsel, Great Britain, Greek language, Grimm's law, Hiberno-English, High German consonant shift, Homer, Indian English, Inland Northern American English, ..., International Phonetic Alphabet, Joe Brown (singer), Koine Greek, Lenition, Liberian English, Lisp, London, Louth, Manner of articulation, Markedness, Minimal pair, Modern Greek, Neandertal (valley), Neanderthal, New York City English, New Zealanders, Newfoundland English, Nigerian English, Non-native pronunciations of English, Norman conquest of England, Old High German, Old Norse, Perth, Philadelphia English, Philippine English, Phoneme, Place of articulation, Plato, Pronunciation, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, R-colored vowel, Received Pronunciation, Rhoticity in English, Rolls of Parliament, Ross, Roth, Rothschild, Sandhi, Science, Scots language, Scottish English, Sheffield, Sibilant, Singular they, Spelling pronunciation, Stop consonant, Swedish language, Th (digraph), Th-fronting, Th-stopping, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Thor, Thorn (letter), Trap-bath split, Verner's law, Voiced dental fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, Wales, Webster's New World Dictionary, West Germanic languages. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, also referred to as Kenyon and Knott, was first published by the G. & C. Merriam Company in 1944, and written by John Samuel Kenyon and Thomas A. Knott.
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The alveolar fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Bess or BESS may refer to.
Beth may refer to.
The Boston accent is the local accent of Eastern New England English spoken specifically in the city of Boston, its suburbs, and much of eastern Massachusetts.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean and Liberia, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana and Suriname on the coast of South America.
The Central Belt of Scotland is the area of highest population density within Scotland.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The dental fricative or interdental fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
The English Pronouncing Dictionary (EPD) was created by the British phonetician Daniel Jones and was first published in 1917.
In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.
Erse or Earse may be.
Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.
Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
In historical linguistics, the German term grammatischer Wechsel ("grammatical alternation") refers to the effects of Verner's law when they are viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Joseph Roger Brown, MBE (born 13 May 1941) is an English entertainer.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Liberian English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Liberia.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louth is the name of several locations around the world:;Australia.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The Neandertal (sometimes called "the Neander Valley" in English) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about east of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.
New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).
Newfoundland English is a name for several accents and dialects of Atlantic Canadian English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Nigerian English, also known as Nigerian Standard English, is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria.
Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their first language or first languages into their English speech.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Philadelphia English is a variety or dialect of American English native to Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphia's metropolitan area throughout the Delaware Valley and South Jersey, including Atlantic City and Wilmington, Delaware.
Philippine English is any variety of English (similar and related to English) native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
The Rolls of Parliament were the official records of the English Parliament and the subsequent Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Ross may refer to.
Roth may refer to.
Rothschild The name is derived from the German zum rothen Schild (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "with the red sign", in reference to the houses where these family lived or had lived.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Singular they is the use in English of the pronoun they or its inflected or derivative forms, them, their, theirs, and themselves (or themself), as an epicene (gender-neutral) singular pronoun.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
Th-fronting refers to the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v".
Th-stopping is the realization of the dental fricatives as stops—either dental or alveolar—which occurs in several dialects of English.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
The split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in mainstream and southeastern accents of English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English and South African English, and also to a lesser extent in Australian English as well as older Northeastern New England English (notably, older Boston accents), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged with the long of father.
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and since 2012 published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Alterations in the pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Elimination of dental fricatives in English dialects, Phonological history of English dental fricatives, Pronunciation of English th, Pronunciation of English ‹th›, Th alveolarization, Th debuccalization, Th glottalisation, Th glottalization, Th-alveolarisation, Th-alveolarization, Th-debuccalization, Th-glottalisation, Th-glottalization, Then-thyn split, Then–thyn split, Thonne-thynne split, Voiced-voiceless th split.