63 relations: Adrenal cortex, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Afamelanotide, Agouti-related peptide, Amino acid, Anterior pituitary, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Beta-Endorphin, Brainstem, Carboxypeptidase E, Corticotropic cell, Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide, Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, EMBO Reports, Endorphins, Epithelium, Exocytosis, Flat-Coated Retriever, Glucocorticoid, Homeostasis, Human sexual activity, Hunger (motivational state), Hypothalamus, Insulin, Labrador Retriever, Lipotropin, Melanin, Melanocortin, Melanocortin 4 receptor, Melanocyte, Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Melanotan II, Melanotroph, Met-enkephalin, N-acetyltransferase, N-Terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin, Obesity, Opioid peptide, Pars intermedia, Peptide, Peptide hormone, Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, Pigment, Pituitary gland, Placenta, Polygene, Polymorphism (biology), PRCP, ..., Proenkephalin, Proprotein convertase, Proprotein convertase 1, Proprotein convertase 2, Protein biosynthesis, Protein–protein interaction, Red hair, Setmelanotide, Signal peptide, Steroid, Subtilisin, Translation (biology), Vesicle (biology and chemistry). Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Afamelanotide ((INN) (brand name Scenesse), also known as melanotan I (or melanotan-1), originally developed at the University of Arizona and now by Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, is a synthetic peptide and analogue of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that has been shown to induce the production of darkening dermal pigmentation through melanogenesis and thereby subsequently reduce sun (UV) damage to UV light-exposed skin in preliminary research and human clinical trials. Its amino acid sequence is Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2, and it is additionally known as -α-MSH, which is sometimes abbreviated as NDP-MSH or NDP-α-MSH (especially in the scientific literature). Afamelanotide is the International Nonproprietary Name for the molecule α-MSH initially researched and developed as melanotan-1 and later, CUV1647 (by Clinuvel). A marketing trade name for one brand of afamelanotide was approved in 2010 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Name Review Group (NRG) and the agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) as Scenesse (pronounced "sen-esse"). On May 5, 2010 the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA, or Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco) became the first governmental health organization ever (even before the drug received approval in Europe) to authorize afamelanotide as a medicine for therapeutic treatment of Italian citizens to reduce painful dermal photosensitivity stemming from the orphan disease erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). This approval allowed the drug to be immediately available for prescription in Italy and reimbursable under the country's national health system. Authorities in Switzerland have also allowed prescription of the drug for EPP with reimbursement approved by two unnamed insurers. Afamelanotide is currently being trialed in the form of a "grain of rice"-sized bioabsorbable subcutaneous implant as a potential therapeutic photoprotection-inducing agent for a series of light-related skin indications as well as a potential dermal repigmentation agent for vitiligo. Afamelanotide, as of October 24, 2014, has been approved by the EMA in Europe for the treatment of EPP. Clinuvel now intends to seek approval of afamelanotide in the United States. Unlicensed and untested powders sold as "melanotan" are found on the Internet and are reported to be used by tens of thousands of members of the general public for sunless tanning. Multiple regulatory bodies have warned consumers that the peptides may be unsafe and ineffective in usage, with one regulatory agency warning that consumers who purchase any product labeled "melanotan" risk buying a counterfeit drug. Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, the developer of afamelanotide, and medical researchers have warned consumers that counterfeit products sold using the names "melanotan I and II", could "pose a hazard to public health". on counterfeit products. February 10, 2009. Clinuvel has stated publicly that products sold online as "melanotan" are not afamelanotide.
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Carboxypeptidase E (CPE), also known as carboxypeptidase H (CPH) and enkephalin convertase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CPE gene.
Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lipotropin.
Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), is a naturally occurring, endogenous neuropeptide with a docosapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Arg-Pro-Val-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Gly-Ala-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Ala-Glu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-Glu-Phe.
The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
EMBO Reports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research related to biology at a molecular level.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
The Flat-Coated Retriever is a gundog breed originating from the United Kingdom.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Hunger and satiety are sensations.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The Labrador Retriever, or just Labrador, is a type of retriever-gun dog.
Lipotropin is a hormone produced by the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.
Melanocortin 4 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene.
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
The melanocyte-stimulating hormones, known collectively as MSH, also known as melanotropins or intermedins, are a family of peptide hormones and neuropeptides consisting of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) that are produced by cells in the pars intermedia of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Melanotan II is a synthetic analogue of the peptide hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH).
A melanotroph (or melanotrope) is a cell in the pituitary gland that generates melanocyte-stimulating hormone from its precursor pro-opiomelanocortin.
Met-enkephalin, also known as metenkefalin (INN), sometimes referred to as opioid growth factor (OGF), is a naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptide that has opioid effects of a relatively short duration.
N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines.
The N-terminal peptide/fragment of proopiomelanocortin (NPP; N-POMC), also known as pro-γ-MSH, is a naturally occurring, endogenous metabolite of the polypeptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC).
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
Pars intermedia is the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase is an enzyme that is required for the biosynthesis of many signaling peptides.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
A "polygene” or "multiple gene inheritance" is a member of a group of non-epistatic genes that interact additively to influence a phenotypic trait.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Lysosomal Pro-X carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRCP gene.
Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides Metenkephalin, and to a lesser extent, Leuenkephalin.
Proprotein convertases are a family of proteins that activate other proteins.
Proprotein convertase 1, also known as prohormone convertase, prohormone convertase 3, or neuroendocrine convertase 1 and often abbreviated as PC1/3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCSK1 gene.
Proprotein convertase 2 (PC2) also known as prohormone convertase 2 or neuroendocrine convertase 2 (NEC2) is a serine protease and proprotein convertase PC2, like proprotein convertase 1 (PC1), is an enzyme responsible for the first step in the maturation of many neuroendocrine peptides from their precursors, such as the conversion of proinsulin to insulin intermediates.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.
Setmelanotide (INN, USAN; development codes RM-493, BIM-22493, IRC-022493) is a peptide drug and investigational anti-obesity medication which acts as a selective agonist of the MC4 receptor.
A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Subtilisin is a non-specific protease (a protein-digesting enzyme) initially obtained from Bacillus subtilis.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.