254 relations: Abortion, Abstract and concrete, Adam Smith, Adverse possession, Age of majority, Air rights, Airspace, Ambrose, Americans for Tax Reform, Anarchism, Andrew Joseph Galambos, Antarctica, Anthropology, Aristotle, Atmosphere of Earth, Augustine of Hippo, Barter, Benjamin Tucker, Bible, Binary economics, Body politic, Bond (finance), Bourbon Restoration, Burden of proof (law), Buying agent, Call sign, Capital (economics), Capitalism, Car, Charge (youth), Charity (virtue), Charles Comte, Charles I of England, Cicero, Classical liberalism, Clothing, Collateral (finance), Common law, Common ownership, Commons, Communication channel, Communism, Computer file, Confiscation, Conservatism, Constitution, Consumables, Contract, Convention (norm), Cooperative, ..., Copyright, Corporation, David Graeber, David Hume, De Officiis, Decretum Gratiani, Design, Domain name, Drug, Durable good, Easement, Economic growth, Economics, Edward Craig (philosopher), Eminent domain, Emissions trading, Empiricism, Encumbrance, Epistemology, Essenes, Estate (law), Estate in land, Europe, Euthanasia, Exegesis, Face value, Factors of production, Family patrimony, Financial instrument, Fine of lands, First English Civil War, First possession theory of property, Fixed investment, Frédéric Bastiat, Freedom to roam, Fungibility, Gift, God, Government, Greed, Harold Demsetz, Hernando de Soto Polar, Homestead principle, House of Stuart, Husband, Idea, Identifier, Immovable property, Inclusive Democracy, Industry, Inheritance, Intangible property, Intellectual property, Interest, Interpersonal relationship, Israelites, James Harrington (author), Jizya, John Adams, John Locke, Judiciary, Juridical person, Karl Marx, Kibbutz, Labor theory of property, Lagash, Law, Law and economics, Lease, Legal guardian, Legal tender, Legislature, Libertarian socialism, Libertarianism, Liberty, License, Lien, List of national legal systems, Livery of seisin, Lockean proviso, Lost, mislaid, and abandoned property, Man-made law, Manufacturing, Means of production, Middle Ages, Mikhail Bakunin, Mineral rights, Monarchy, Monasticism, Morality, Mortal sin, Mortgage law, Nationalization, Natural and legal rights, Natural law, Network address, Network effect, No-fly zone, Nonpossessory interest in land, Off-plan property, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Opposition to copyright, Ownership, Ownership society, Paris, Parliament, Patent, Patriarch, Pauline Peters, Personal property, Pet, Philosophical skepticism, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Pope Leo XIII, Positive law, Primitive accumulation of capital, Prisoner, Private property, Proletariat, Propertarianism, Property is theft!, Property law, Property rights (economics), Public domain, Public liability, Public property, Real estate, Real property, Recorder of deeds, Regulation, Regulatory taking, Religion, Religious organization, Religious pluralism, Renaissance, Renting, Restatements of the Law, Revised statute 2477, Richard Pipes, Rights, Robert Filmer, Robinson Crusoe, Roman law, Russell Kirk, Sales, Samuel Noah Kramer, Scarcity, Schillinger v. United States, Seabed, Search and seizure, Seawater, Security interest, Seneca the Younger, Shifting cultivation, Social class, Social contract, Socialism, Society, Sociology, Sovereign immunity, Sovereignty, State (polity), State of nature, Statism, Stock, Sumer, Supreme Court of the United States, Tangible property, Tariff, Tax, Taxation as theft, Telos, Temple, Ten Commandments, The Communist Manifesto, The Law (book), The Wealth of Nations, Theft, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Tithe, Title (property), Tom Bethell, Trademark, Tragedy of the commons, Transfer payment, Trust law, Two Treatises of Government, Unanimity, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States, United States v. Willow River Power Co., Urukagina, Usufruct, Usury, Ward (law), Wealth, What Is Property?, Wife, William Blackstone, William Harold Hutt, Yale Law Journal, Zakat, 2nd millennium. Expand index (204 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Adverse possession, sometimes colloquially described as "squatter's rights", is a legal principle that applies when a person who does not have legal title to a piece of propertyusually land (real property)attempts to claim legal ownership based upon a history of possession or occupation of the land without the permission of its legal owner.
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
Air rights are the property interest in the "space" above the earth's surface.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) is a politically conservative U.S. taxpayer advocacy group whose stated goal is "a system in which taxes are simpler, flatter, more visible, and lower than they are today." According to ATR, "The government's power to control one's life derives from its power to tax.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Andrew Joseph Galambos (born Ifj. Galambos József András, June 28, 1924, in Hungary; died in Orange County, California on April 10, 1997) was an astrophysicist and philosopher who innovated a social structure that seeks to maximize human peace and freedom.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Binary economics, also known as Two-factor Economics, is a theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system.
The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Buying agents or purchasing agents are people or companies that offer to buy goods or property on behalf of another party.
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a unique designation for a transmitter station.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
During the European Middle Ages, a charge often meant an underage person placed under the supervision of a nobleman.
In Christian theology charity, Latin caritas, is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God".
Charles Comte (1782–1837) (François-Charles-Louis Comte) was a French lawyer, journalist and political writer.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
Confiscation (from the Latin confiscare "to consign to the fiscus, i.e. transfer to the treasury") is a legal form of seizure by a government or other public authority.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Consumables (also known as consumable goods, nondurable goods, or soft goods) are goods that are intended to be consumed.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
David Rolfe Graeber (born 12 February 1961) is an American anthropologist and anarchist activist, perhaps best known for his 2011 volume Debt: The First 5000 Years.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
The Decretum Gratiani, also known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or simply as the Decretum, is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edward John Craig (born 26 March 1942) is an English academic philosopher, editor of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and former Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
An encumbrance is a right to, interest in, or legal liability on real property that does not prohibit passing title to the property but that diminishes its value.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
An estate, in common law, is the net worth of a person at any point in time alive or dead.
An estate in land is an interest in real property that is or may become possessory.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The face value is the value of a coin, stamp or paper money, as printed on the coin, stamp or bill itself by the issuing authority.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
Family patrimony is a type of civil law patrimony that is created by marriage or civil union (where recognized) which creates a bundle of entitlements and obligations that must be shared by the spouses or partners upon divorce, annulment, dissolution of marriage or dissolution of civil union, when there must be a division of property.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
A fine of lands, also called a final concord, or simply a fine, was a species of property conveyance which existed in England (and later in Wales) from at least the 12th century until its abolition in 1833 by the Fines and Recoveries Act.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
The "first possession" theory of property holds that ownership of something is justified simply by someone seizing it before someone else does.
Fixed investment in economics refers to investment in fixed capital or to the replacement of depreciated fixed capital.
Claude-Frédéric Bastiat (29 June 1801 – 24 December 1850) was a French economist and writer who was a prominent member of the French Liberal School.
The freedom to roam, or "everyman's right", is the general public's right to access certain public or privately owned land for recreation and exercise.
In economics, fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable.
A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or return.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
Harold Demsetz (born May 31, 1930) is an American professor emeritus of economics at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA).
Hernando de Soto Polar (or Hernando de Soto; born 1941) is a Peruvian economist known for his work on the informal economy and on the importance of business and property rights.
The homestead principle is the principle by which one gains ownership of an unowned natural resource by performing an act of original appropriation.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
A husband is a male in a marital relationship.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof).
Immovable property is an immovable object, an item of property that cannot be moved without destroying or altering it – property that is fixed to the earth, such as land or a house.
Inclusive Democracy (ID) is a project that aims for direct democracy; economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy; self-management (democracy in the social realm); and ecological democracy.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
Intangible property, also known as incorporeal property, describes something which a person or corporation can have ownership of and can transfer ownership to another person or corporation, but has no physical substance, for example brand identity or knowledge/intellectual property.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The labor theory of property (also called the labor theory of appropriation, labor theory of ownership, labor theory of entitlement, or principle of first appropriation) is a theory of natural law that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
A lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
Livery of seisin is an archaic legal conveyancing ceremony, formerly practised in feudal England and in other countries following English common law, used to convey holdings in property.
The Lockean proviso is a feature of John Locke's labour theory of property which states that whilst individuals have a right to homestead private property from nature by working on it, they can do so only "at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.".
Lost, mislaid, and abandoned property are categories of the common law of property which deals with personal property or chattel which has left the possession of its rightful owner without having directly entered the possession of another person.
Man-made law is law that is made by humans, usually considered in opposition to concepts like natural law or divine law.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mineral rights are property rights to exploit an area for the minerals it harbors.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
A mortal sin (peccatum mortale), in Catholic theology, is a gravely sinful act, which can lead to damnation if a person does not repent of the sin before death.
A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
A network address is an identifier for a node or host on a telecommunications network.
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.
A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
A nonpossessory interest in land is a term of the law of property to describe any of a category of rights held by one person to use land that is in the possession of another.
Off-plan property is a property before a structure has been constructed upon it.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
Opposition to copyright or anti-copyright refers to a movement dissenting the nature of current copyright law, often focusing on perceived negative philosophical, economical or social effects of such laws.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by former United States president George W. Bush.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Pauline Peters (28 August 1896?) was a British actress.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
In Marxist economics and preceding theories,Perelman, p. 25 (ch. 2) the problem of primitive accumulation (also called previous accumulation, original accumulation) of capital concerns the origin of capital, and therefore of how class distinctions between possessors and non-possessors came to be.
A prisoner, (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Propertarianism (also proprietarianism) is an ethical discipline within right-libertarian philosophy that advocates contractual relationships as replacements for monopolistic bureaucracies organized as states.
Property is theft! (La propriété, c'est le vol !) is a slogan coined by French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Property rights are theoretical socially-enforced constructs in economics for determining how a resource or economic good is used and owned.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Public liability is part of the law of tort which focuses on civil wrongs.
Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.
Recorder of deeds is a government office tasked with maintaining public records and documents, especially records relating to real estate ownership that provide persons other than the owner of a property with real rights over that property.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Regulatory taking is a situation in which a government regulation limits the uses of private property to such a degree that the regulation effectively deprives the property owners of economically reasonable use or value of their property to such an extent that it deprives them of utility or value of that property, even though the regulation does not formally divest them of title to it.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.
In American jurisprudence, the Restatements of the Law are a set of treatises on legal subjects that seek to inform judges and lawyers about general principles of common law.
Revised Statute 2477 (commonly known as "RS 2477") was enacted by the United States Congress in 1866 to encourage the settlement of the Western United States by the development of a system of highways.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Russell Amos Kirk (October 19, 1918 – April 29, 1994) was an American political theorist, moralist, historian, social critic, and literary critic, known for his influence on 20th-century American conservatism.
Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period.
Samuel Noah Kramer (September 28, 1897 – November 26, 1990) was one of the world's leading Assyriologists and a world-renowned expert in Sumerian history and Sumerian language.
Scarcity refers to the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market.
Schillinger v. United States,, is a decision of the United States Supreme Court, holding (7–2, per Justice Brewer) that a suit for patent infringement cannot be entertained against the United States, because patent infringement is a tort and the United States has not waived sovereign immunity for intentional torts.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A security interest is a legal right granted by a debtor to a creditor over the debtor's property (usually referred to as the collateral) which enables the creditor to have recourse to the property if the debtor defaults in making payment or otherwise performing the secured obligations.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tangible property in law is, literally, anything which can be touched, and includes both real property and personal property (or moveable property), and stands in distinction to intangible property.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
The idea of taxation as theft is a viewpoint found in a number of political philosophies.
A telos (from the Greek τέλος for "end", "purpose", or "goal") is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Law, original French title La Loi, is an 1850 book by Frédéric Bastiat.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest.
Tom Bethell (born July 17, 1936) is a journalist who writes mainly on economic and scientific issues, and is known for his writings on the market economy, political conservatism, and fringe science.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
Unanimity is agreement by all people in a given situation.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States v. Willow River Power Co., is a 1945 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court involving the question whether the United States was liable under the Fifth Amendment for a “taking” of private property for a public purpose when it built a dam on navigable waters that raised the water level upstream to lessen the head of water at a power company’s dam, thereby decreasing the production of power by the company’s hydroelectric turbines.
Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.
Usufruct is a limited real right (or in rem right) found in civil-law and mixed jurisdictions that unites the two property interests of usus and fructus.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
What Is Property?: or, An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government (Qu'est-ce que la propriété ? ou Recherche sur le principe du Droit et du Gouvernement) is a work of nonfiction on the concept of property and its relation to anarchist philosophy by the French anarchist and mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, first published in 1840.
A wife is a female partner in a continuing marital relationship.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Harold "Bill" Hutt (3 August 1899 – 19 June 1988) was an English economist who described himself as a classical economist.
The Yale Law Journal is a student-run law review affiliated with the Yale Law School.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, of the Julian calendar and ended on December 31, 2000The year 2000 is technically the last year of the 2nd millennium, however it is generally considered the first year of the 3rd millennium.