Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Download
Faster access than browser!
 

Proportional representation

Index Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body. [1]

327 relations: ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, Additional Member System, Akhil Amar, Alberta, American Journal of Political Science, American Philosophical Society, American Revolution, American Statistical Association, Apportionment (politics), Approval voting, Argentine Chamber of Deputies, Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly, Australian federal election, 2016, Australian Senate, Baden-Württemberg, Barrister, Binomial voting, Biproportional apportionment, Bloc Québécois, Bolivia, Border, Boundary commissions (United Kingdom), Brazil, Broad church, Bundestag, Calgary, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canada, Canadian federal election, 1993, Canadian federal election, 2011, Canadian federal election, 2015, Cantons of Switzerland, Cardinal voting, Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ, CBC News, Chamber of Representatives (Belgium), Chile, Cincinnati, Closed list, Coalition government, Columbia University Press, Comparison of electoral systems, Considerations on Representative Government, Constitution Society, Continental Europe, Council–manager government, County, Cumulative voting, D'Hondt method, ..., Dáil Éireann, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Die Zeit, Direct representation, Droop quota, Duquesne University, Duverger's law, Edmonton, Election threshold, Elections in Algeria, Elections in Angola, Elections in Argentina, Elections in Armenia, Elections in Aruba, Elections in Australia, Elections in Austria, Elections in Benin, Elections in Bolivia, Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Elections in Brazil, Elections in Bulgaria, Elections in Burkina Faso, Elections in Burundi, Elections in Cambodia, Elections in Cape Verde, Elections in Chile, Elections in Colombia, Elections in Costa Rica, Elections in Croatia, Elections in Cyprus, Elections in Denmark, Elections in East Timor, Elections in El Salvador, Elections in Equatorial Guinea, Elections in Fiji, Elections in Finland, Elections in Germany, Elections in Greece, Elections in Greenland, Elections in Guatemala, Elections in Guinea-Bissau, Elections in Guyana, Elections in Honduras, Elections in Iceland, Elections in Indonesia, Elections in Iraq, Elections in Israel, Elections in Kazakhstan, Elections in Kosovo, Elections in Kyrgyzstan, Elections in Latvia, Elections in Lesotho, Elections in Luxembourg, Elections in Malta, Elections in Moldova, Elections in Montenegro, Elections in Mozambique, Elections in Namibia, Elections in New Zealand, Elections in Nicaragua, Elections in Northern Ireland, Elections in Norway, Elections in Paraguay, Elections in Peru, Elections in Poland, Elections in Portugal, Elections in Romania, Elections in Rwanda, Elections in San Marino, Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe, Elections in Serbia, Elections in Sint Maarten, Elections in Slovakia, Elections in Slovenia, Elections in South Africa, Elections in Spain, Elections in Sri Lanka, Elections in Suriname, Elections in Sweden, Elections in Switzerland, Elections in the Czech Republic, Elections in the Dominican Republic, Elections in the Faroe Islands, Elections in the Netherlands, Elections in the Republic of Ireland, Elections in the Republic of Macedonia, Elections in Togo, Elections in Tunisia, Elections in Turkey, Elections in Uruguay, Elections to the European Parliament, Electoral Commission (New Zealand), Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Electoral district, Electoral list, Electoral Reform Society, Electoral system, Elsevier, European Journal of Political Economy, European Parliament, FairVote, Fianna Fáil, Fidesz, Finland, First-past-the-post voting, Founding Fathers of the United States, French Constitution of 1793, Gallagher index, General ticket, Gerrymandering, Girondin constitutional project, Green politics, Group voting ticket, Hansard Society, Hare quota, Harvard University, Heriot-Watt University, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Human Development Index, Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Illinois, Illinois House of Representatives, Independent politician, Index of politics articles, Instant-runoff voting, Interactive representation, International Foundation for Electoral Systems, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Ireland, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1997, Irish general election, 2011, Israel, Israeli legislative election, 2006, Italian electoral law of 2017, Iterative proportional fitting, James Wilson, John Adams, John Stuart Mill, John Wiley & Sons, Labour Party (UK), Landtag of Liechtenstein, Latvia, Legislative elections in Albania, Lesotho, Ley de Lemas, Liberal Democrat Voice, Library and Archives Canada, Limited voting, List of electoral systems by country, Local government, London School of Economics, Loosemore–Hanby index, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Lower house, Majority, Majority bonus system, Majority rule, Malta, Manitoba, Marginal seat, Marquis de Condorcet, Mathematical Association of America, Member of parliament, Member state of the European Union, Michel Balinski, Mixed electoral system, Mixed-member proportional representation, National Assembly for Wales, National Convention, Negative vote weight, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, New York City, New Zealand, Ohio, Oireachtas, One man, one vote, Oneworld Publications, Open list, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Overhang seat, Parachute candidate, Parallel voting, Parlement, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Party-list proportional representation, Pennsylvania Constitution, Peoria, Illinois, Plurality (voting), Plurality voting, Plurality-at-large voting, Political machine, Political party, Political spectrum, Politics & Gender, Politics of the Republic of Ireland, Preselection, Prince Edward Island, Prince Edward Island electoral reform referendum, 2016, Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, Progressive Era, Proportionality for Solid Coalitions, Provinces and territories of Canada, Quebec, Range voting, Ranked voting, Representation (journal), Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland, Republican Party (United States), Reuters, Riigikogu, Rowland Hill, Royal Statistical Society, Rudolph K. Hynicka, Russia, Safe seat, San Francisco, Scotland, Scottish Assembly, Scottish local elections, 2007, Scottish National Party, Semi-proportional representation, Senate of the Republic (Italy), Significance (magazine), Single non-transferable vote, Single transferable vote, Single-member district, Sortition, South Africa, Speaker of the House of Commons, Stealth aircraft, Sweden, Switzerland, Tactical voting, Tammany Hall, Tasmanian House of Assembly, Taylor & Francis, The Journal of Politics, The Mountain, The New York Times Company, The Tyee, Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 (Ireland), Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 (Ireland), Thomas Hare (political scientist), Thomas Wright Hill, Thomson Reuters, Thoughts on Government, Tony Blair, Trinity College Dublin, Turkish general election, 2002, Two-round system, U.S. state, UK Independence Party, Ukraine, United Kingdom general election, 2005, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Nations, United States, United States House of Representatives, University constituency, University of Dublin, University of New South Wales, University of Strathclyde, Victor D'Hondt, Victor Prosper Considerant, Vote trading, Voter turnout, Ward (electoral subdivision), Wasted vote, Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, Winnipeg, Withdrawal from the European Union, Zürich. Expand index (277 more) »

ACE Electoral Knowledge Network

The ACE Electoral Knowledge Network is a web portal with information on elections designed to meet the needs of people working in the electoral field.

New!!: Proportional representation and ACE Electoral Knowledge Network · See more »

Additional Member System

The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.

New!!: Proportional representation and Additional Member System · See more »

Akhil Amar

Akhil Reed Amar (born September 6, 1958) is an American legal scholar, an expert on constitutional law and criminal procedure.

New!!: Proportional representation and Akhil Amar · See more »

Alberta

Alberta is a western province of Canada.

New!!: Proportional representation and Alberta · See more »

American Journal of Political Science

The American Journal of Political Science is a journal published by the Midwest Political Science Association.

New!!: Proportional representation and American Journal of Political Science · See more »

American Philosophical Society

The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.

New!!: Proportional representation and American Philosophical Society · See more »

American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

New!!: Proportional representation and American Revolution · See more »

American Statistical Association

The American Statistical Association (ASA) is the main professional organization for statisticians and related professionals in the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and American Statistical Association · See more »

Apportionment (politics)

Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions entitled to representation.

New!!: Proportional representation and Apportionment (politics) · See more »

Approval voting

Approval voting is a single-winner electoral system where each voter may select ("approve") any number of candidates.

New!!: Proportional representation and Approval voting · See more »

Argentine Chamber of Deputies

The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress.

New!!: Proportional representation and Argentine Chamber of Deputies · See more »

Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly

The Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (formally the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory) is the unicameral legislature of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

New!!: Proportional representation and Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly · See more »

Australian federal election, 2016

The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period.

New!!: Proportional representation and Australian federal election, 2016 · See more »

Australian Senate

The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.

New!!: Proportional representation and Australian Senate · See more »

Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.

New!!: Proportional representation and Baden-Württemberg · See more »

Barrister

A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.

New!!: Proportional representation and Barrister · See more »

Binomial voting

The binomial system (Sistema binominal) is a voting system that was used in the parliamentary elections of Chile between 1989 and 2013.

New!!: Proportional representation and Binomial voting · See more »

Biproportional apportionment

Biproportional apportionment is a method to allocate seats into a party-list proportional representation respecting two characteristics.

New!!: Proportional representation and Biproportional apportionment · See more »

Bloc Québécois

The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty.

New!!: Proportional representation and Bloc Québécois · See more »

Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

New!!: Proportional representation and Bolivia · See more »

Border

Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.

New!!: Proportional representation and Border · See more »

Boundary commissions (United Kingdom)

The boundary commissions in the United Kingdom are non-departmental public bodies responsible for determining the boundaries of constituencies for elections to the House of Commons, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales.

New!!: Proportional representation and Boundary commissions (United Kingdom) · See more »

Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

New!!: Proportional representation and Brazil · See more »

Broad church

Broad church is latitudinarian churchmanship in the Church of England in particular and Anglicanism in general.

New!!: Proportional representation and Broad church · See more »

Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Bundestag · See more »

Calgary

Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.

New!!: Proportional representation and Calgary · See more »

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cambridge University Press · See more »

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cambridge, Massachusetts · See more »

Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

New!!: Proportional representation and Canada · See more »

Canadian federal election, 1993

The Canadian federal election of 1993 (officially, the 35th general election) was held on Monday October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada.

New!!: Proportional representation and Canadian federal election, 1993 · See more »

Canadian federal election, 2011

The 2011 Canadian federal election (formally the 41st Canadian general election) was held Monday, May 2, 2011, to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 41st Canadian Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Canadian federal election, 2011 · See more »

Canadian federal election, 2015

The 2015 Canadian federal election (formally the 42nd Canadian general election) was held on October 19, 2015, to elect members to the House of Commons of the 42nd Canadian Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Canadian federal election, 2015 · See more »

Cantons of Switzerland

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cantons of Switzerland · See more »

Cardinal voting

Cardinal voting refers to any electoral system which allows the voter to give each candidate an independent rating or grade.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cardinal voting · See more »

Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ

Carl Christopher Georg Andræ (14 October 1812, Hjertebjerg – 2 February 1893) was a Danish politician and mathematician.

New!!: Proportional representation and Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ · See more »

CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

New!!: Proportional representation and CBC News · See more »

Chamber of Representatives (Belgium)

The Chamber of Representatives (Dutch:, Chambre des représentants, Abgeordnetenkammer) is one of the two chambers in the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Senate.

New!!: Proportional representation and Chamber of Representatives (Belgium) · See more »

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

New!!: Proportional representation and Chile · See more »

Cincinnati

No description.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cincinnati · See more »

Closed list

Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.

New!!: Proportional representation and Closed list · See more »

Coalition government

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".

New!!: Proportional representation and Coalition government · See more »

Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

New!!: Proportional representation and Columbia University Press · See more »

Comparison of electoral systems

Electoral systems can be compared by different means.

New!!: Proportional representation and Comparison of electoral systems · See more »

Considerations on Representative Government

Considerations on Representative Government is a book by John Stuart Mill published in 1861.

New!!: Proportional representation and Considerations on Representative Government · See more »

Constitution Society

The Constitution Society is a nonprofit educational organization headquartered at San Antonio, Texas, U.S., and founded in 1994 by Jon Roland, an author and computer specialist who has run for public office as a Libertarian Party candidate on a "Constitutionalist Platform".

New!!: Proportional representation and Constitution Society · See more »

Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

New!!: Proportional representation and Continental Europe · See more »

Council–manager government

The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.

New!!: Proportional representation and Council–manager government · See more »

County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.

New!!: Proportional representation and County · See more »

Cumulative voting

Cumulative voting (also accumulation voting, weighted voting or multi-voting) is a multiple-winner voting method intended to promote more proportional representation than winner-take-all elections.

New!!: Proportional representation and Cumulative voting · See more »

D'Hondt method

The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.

New!!: Proportional representation and D'Hondt method · See more »

Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

New!!: Proportional representation and Dáil Éireann · See more »

Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

New!!: Proportional representation and Democratic Republic of the Congo · See more »

Die Zeit

Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.

New!!: Proportional representation and Die Zeit · See more »

Direct representation

Direct representation or proxy representation is a proposed form of representative democracy where each representative's vote is weighted in proportion to the number of citizens who have chosen that candidate to represent them.

New!!: Proportional representation and Direct representation · See more »

Droop quota

The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the single transferable vote (STV) system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Droop quota · See more »

Duquesne University

Duquesne University of the Holy Spirit is a private Catholic university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and Duquesne University · See more »

Duverger's law

In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".

New!!: Proportional representation and Duverger's law · See more »

Edmonton

Edmonton (Cree: Amiskwaciy Waskahikan; Blackfoot: Omahkoyis) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta.

New!!: Proportional representation and Edmonton · See more »

Election threshold

The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Election threshold · See more »

Elections in Algeria

Algeria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Algeria · See more »

Elections in Angola

Elections in Angola take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Angola · See more »

Elections in Argentina

This article is about voting, elections, and election results in Argentina.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Argentina · See more »

Elections in Armenia

Elections in Armenia gives information on election and election results in Armenia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Armenia · See more »

Elections in Aruba

Elections in Aruba gives information on election and election results in Aruba.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Aruba · See more »

Elections in Australia

Elections in Australia take place periodically to elect the legislature of the Commonwealth of Australia, as well as for each Australian state and territory.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Australia · See more »

Elections in Austria

This article provides information on elections and election results in Austria.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Austria · See more »

Elections in Benin

Elections in Benin take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Benin · See more »

Elections in Bolivia

Elections in Bolivia gives information on elections and election results in Bolivia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Bolivia · See more »

Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina

At state level, Bosnia and Herzegovina votes for the rotating Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Parliamentary Assembly.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina · See more »

Elections in Brazil

Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Brazil · See more »

Elections in Bulgaria

Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Bulgaria · See more »

Elections in Burkina Faso

Elections in Burkina Faso gives information on election and election results in Burkina Faso.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Burkina Faso · See more »

Elections in Burundi

Elections in Burundi gives information on election and election results in Burundi.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Burundi · See more »

Elections in Cambodia

Cambodia is a one party dominant state with the Cambodian People's Party in power.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Cambodia · See more »

Elections in Cape Verde

Cape Verde elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Cape Verde · See more »

Elections in Chile

Chile holds nationwide presidential, parliamentary, regional and municipal elections.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Chile · See more »

Elections in Colombia

Elections in Colombia are regulated and controlled by the National Electoral Council which also gives information on elections and election results in for the politics of Colombia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Colombia · See more »

Elections in Costa Rica

Costa Rica elects on national level a head of state, the president, and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Costa Rica · See more »

Elections in Croatia

Regular elections in Croatia are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Croatia · See more »

Elections in Cyprus

Elections in Cyprus gives information on election and election results in Cyprus.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Cyprus · See more »

Elections in Denmark

There are three types of elections in Denmark: elections to the national parliament (the Folketing), local elections and elections to the European Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Denmark · See more »

Elections in East Timor

East Timor elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in East Timor · See more »

Elections in El Salvador

The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in El Salvador · See more »

Elections in Equatorial Guinea

Elections in Equatorial Guinea gives information on election and election results in Equatorial Guinea.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Equatorial Guinea · See more »

Elections in Fiji

Fiji has held 10 general elections for the House of Representatives since becoming independent of the United Kingdom in 1970; there had been numerous elections under colonial rule, but only one with universal suffrage (in 1966).

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Fiji · See more »

Elections in Finland

There are four types of elections in Finland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Finland · See more »

Elections in Germany

Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag (Germany's federal parliament), the Landtags of the various states, and local elections.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Germany · See more »

Elections in Greece

Elections in Greece gives information on elections and election results in Greece.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Greece · See more »

Elections in Greenland

Greenland elects on national level a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Greenland · See more »

Elections in Guatemala

Elections in Guatemala include, on the national level, a head of state – the president – and a unicameral legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Guatemala · See more »

Elections in Guinea-Bissau

Elections in Guinea-Bissau take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a semi-presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Guinea-Bissau · See more »

Elections in Guyana

Elections in Guyana take place within the framework of a multi-party representative democracy and a presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Guyana · See more »

Elections in Honduras

Honduras National Congress has 128 members (diputados); they serve four year terms.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Honduras · See more »

Elections in Iceland

Elections in Iceland gives information on election and election results in Iceland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Iceland · See more »

Elections in Indonesia

Elections in Indonesia have taken place since 1955 to elect a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Indonesia · See more »

Elections in Iraq

Elections in Iraq gives information on election and election results in Iraq.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Iraq · See more »

Elections in Israel

Elections in Israel are based on nationwide proportional representation.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Israel · See more »

Elections in Kazakhstan

Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies, the Majilis (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House).

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Kazakhstan · See more »

Elections in Kosovo

Parliamentary elections to the Assembly of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës, Serbian Cyrillic: Скупштина Косова, transliterated Skupstina Kosova) have been held four times since 1999 with the latest in December 2010.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Kosovo · See more »

Elections in Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan elects on the national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Kyrgyzstan · See more »

Elections in Latvia

Latvia elects on national level a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Latvia · See more »

Elections in Lesotho

Lesotho elects a legislature on national level.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Lesotho · See more »

Elections in Luxembourg

Elections in Luxembourg are held to determine the political composition of the representative institutions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Luxembourg · See more »

Elections in Malta

Malta elects on a national level 6 MEPs representing Malta in the European Parliament, on a district level the legislature, On a local level the Local Councils and on a community level the Administrative Committees.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Malta · See more »

Elections in Moldova

Elections in Moldova gives information on elections in Moldova.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Moldova · See more »

Elections in Montenegro

Montenegro holds national election for the Parliament and the office of President.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Montenegro · See more »

Elections in Mozambique

Elections in Mozambique gives information on election and election results in Mozambique.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Mozambique · See more »

Elections in Namibia

Elections in Namibia gives information on election and election results in Namibia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Namibia · See more »

Elections in New Zealand

New Zealand is a representative democracy.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in New Zealand · See more »

Elections in Nicaragua

Elections in Nicaragua gives information on elections and election results in Nicaragua.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Nicaragua · See more »

Elections in Northern Ireland

Elections in Northern Ireland are held on a regular basis to local councils, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and to the European Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Northern Ireland · See more »

Elections in Norway

Norway elects its legislature on a national level.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Norway · See more »

Elections in Paraguay

Elections in Paraguay gives information on election and election results in Paraguay.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Paraguay · See more »

Elections in Peru

In Peru, the people directly elect a head of state (the president) as well as a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Peru · See more »

Elections in Poland

Elections in Poland to the election process, as well as the election results in Poland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Poland · See more »

Elections in Portugal

Elections in Portugal gives information on election and election results in Portugal.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Portugal · See more »

Elections in Romania

Romania elects on a national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Romania · See more »

Elections in Rwanda

Elections in Rwanda take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Rwanda · See more »

Elections in San Marino

Elections in San Marino gives information on election and election results in San Marino.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in San Marino · See more »

Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe

Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe gives information on election and election results in São Tomé and Príncipe.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe · See more »

Elections in Serbia

Serbia elects a legislature and a president on a national level.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Serbia · See more »

Elections in Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten elects a legislature called the Estates of Sint Maarten.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Sint Maarten · See more »

Elections in Slovakia

Elections in Slovakia gives information on election and election results in Slovakia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Slovakia · See more »

Elections in Slovenia

At a national level, Slovenia elects a head of state (a president) and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Slovenia · See more »

Elections in South Africa

Elections in South Africa are held for the National Assembly, provincial legislatures and municipal councils.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in South Africa · See more »

Elections in Spain

There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Spain · See more »

Elections in Sri Lanka

Elections in Sri Lanka gives information on election and election results in Sri Lanka.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Sri Lanka · See more »

Elections in Suriname

Elections in Suriname gives information on election and election results in Suriname.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Suriname · See more »

Elections in Sweden

Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Sweden · See more »

Elections in Switzerland

Elections in Switzerland gives information on election and election results in Switzerland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Switzerland · See more »

Elections in the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic elects a legislature at a national level.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Czech Republic · See more »

Elections in the Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic is a unitary state with elected officials at the national and local levels.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Dominican Republic · See more »

Elections in the Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands elects on national level a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Faroe Islands · See more »

Elections in the Netherlands

Elections in the Netherlands are held for five territorial levels of government: the European Union, the state, the twelve Provinces, the 25 water boards and the 380 municipalities (and the three public bodies in the Caribbean Netherlands).

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Netherlands · See more »

Elections in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, direct elections by universal suffrage are used for the President, the ceremonial head of state; for Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas or parliament; for the European Parliament; and for local government.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Republic of Ireland · See more »

Elections in the Republic of Macedonia

Elections in the Republic of Macedonia gives information on election and election results in the Republic of Macedonia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in the Republic of Macedonia · See more »

Elections in Togo

Elections in Togo take place within the framework of a presidential system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Togo · See more »

Elections in Tunisia

Following the 2011 Tunisian revolution, Elections in Tunisia for the president and the unicameral Assembly of the Representatives of the People are scheduled to be held every five years.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Tunisia · See more »

Elections in Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) has 600 members, elected for a four-year term (five years before the 2007 referendum) by a system based on closed list proportional representation according to the D'Hondt method.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Turkey · See more »

Elections in Uruguay

Uruguay elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections in Uruguay · See more »

Elections to the European Parliament

Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elections to the European Parliament · See more »

Electoral Commission (New Zealand)

The Electoral Commission (Te Kaitiaki Take Kōwhiri) is an independent crown entity set up by the New Zealand Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral Commission (New Zealand) · See more »

Electoral Commission (United Kingdom)

The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral Commission (United Kingdom) · See more »

Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral district · See more »

Electoral list

An electoral list is a grouping of candidates for election, usually in proportional election systems, but also in some plurality election systems.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral list · See more »

Electoral Reform Society

The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral Reform Society · See more »

Electoral system

An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.

New!!: Proportional representation and Electoral system · See more »

Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

New!!: Proportional representation and Elsevier · See more »

European Journal of Political Economy

The European Journal of Political Economy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on economic phenomena, including collective decision making, political behavior, and the role of institutions.

New!!: Proportional representation and European Journal of Political Economy · See more »

European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

New!!: Proportional representation and European Parliament · See more »

FairVote

FairVote (formerly the Center for Voting and Democracy) is a 501(c)(3) organization that advocates electoral reform in the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and FairVote · See more »

Fianna Fáil

Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Fianna Fáil · See more »

Fidesz

Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (in full, Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Hungary.

New!!: Proportional representation and Fidesz · See more »

Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

New!!: Proportional representation and Finland · See more »

First-past-the-post voting

A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

New!!: Proportional representation and First-past-the-post voting · See more »

Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

New!!: Proportional representation and Founding Fathers of the United States · See more »

French Constitution of 1793

The Constitution of 1793 (Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or The Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic.

New!!: Proportional representation and French Constitution of 1793 · See more »

Gallagher index

The Gallagher index "measures an electoral system’s relative disproportionality between votes received and seats allotted in a legislature." As such, it measures the difference between the percentage of votes each party gets and the percentage of seats each party gets in the resulting legislature, and it also measures this disproportionality from all parties collectively in any one given election.

New!!: Proportional representation and Gallagher index · See more »

General ticket

General ticket representation is a particular method of electing members of a multi-member state delegation to the United States House of Representatives.

New!!: Proportional representation and General ticket · See more »

Gerrymandering

Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.

New!!: Proportional representation and Gerrymandering · See more »

Girondin constitutional project

The Girondin constitutional project, presented to the French National Convention on 15 and 16 February 1793 by Nicolas de Caritat, formerly the Marquis de Condorcet, is composed of three parts.

New!!: Proportional representation and Girondin constitutional project · See more »

Green politics

Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.

New!!: Proportional representation and Green politics · See more »

Group voting ticket

Group voting tickets (GVTs) simplify preferential voting in elections using the single transferable vote or the alternative vote system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Group voting ticket · See more »

Hansard Society

The Hansard Society was formed in 1944 to promote parliamentary democracy.

New!!: Proportional representation and Hansard Society · See more »

Hare quota

The Hare quota (also known as the simple quota) is a formula used under some forms of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system and the largest remainder method of party-list proportional representation.

New!!: Proportional representation and Hare quota · See more »

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

New!!: Proportional representation and Harvard University · See more »

Heriot-Watt University

Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Heriot-Watt University · See more »

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.

New!!: Proportional representation and Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau · See more »

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

New!!: Proportional representation and Human Development Index · See more »

Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014

The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014.

New!!: Proportional representation and Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014 · See more »

Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and Illinois · See more »

Illinois House of Representatives

The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly, the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois.

New!!: Proportional representation and Illinois House of Representatives · See more »

Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

New!!: Proportional representation and Independent politician · See more »

Index of politics articles

This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc.

New!!: Proportional representation and Index of politics articles · See more »

Instant-runoff voting

Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.

New!!: Proportional representation and Instant-runoff voting · See more »

Interactive representation

Interactive representation is a proposed governance system in which elected officials have the same number of votes as the number of people that voted for them.

New!!: Proportional representation and Interactive representation · See more »

International Foundation for Electoral Systems

The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1987.

New!!: Proportional representation and International Foundation for Electoral Systems · See more »

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization with regional offices in Latin America (Costa Rica), Asia and the Pacific (Australia) and Africa (Ethiopia).

New!!: Proportional representation and International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance · See more »

Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

New!!: Proportional representation and Ireland · See more »

Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

New!!: Proportional representation and Irish Free State · See more »

Irish general election, 1997

The Irish general election of 1997 was held on Friday 6 June 1997.

New!!: Proportional representation and Irish general election, 1997 · See more »

Irish general election, 2011

The Irish general election of 2011 took place on Friday 25 February to elect 166 Teachtaí Dála across 43 constituencies to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of Ireland's parliament, the Oireachtas.

New!!: Proportional representation and Irish general election, 2011 · See more »

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

New!!: Proportional representation and Israel · See more »

Israeli legislative election, 2006

Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006.

New!!: Proportional representation and Israeli legislative election, 2006 · See more »

Italian electoral law of 2017

The Italian Electoral law of 2017, colloquially known by the nickname Rosatellum bis or simply Rosatellum, after Ettore Rosato, the Democratic leader in the Chamber of Deputies who first proposed the new law, is a parallel voting system, which act as a mixed system, with 37% of seats allocated using a first past the post electoral system and 61% using a proportional method, with one round of voting.

New!!: Proportional representation and Italian electoral law of 2017 · See more »

Iterative proportional fitting

The iterative proportional fitting procedure (IPFP, also known as biproportional fitting in statistics, RAS algorithm in economics and matrix ranking or matrix scaling in computer science) is an iterative algorithm for estimating cell values of a contingency table such that the marginal totals remain fixed and the estimated table decomposes into an outer product.

New!!: Proportional representation and Iterative proportional fitting · See more »

James Wilson

James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.

New!!: Proportional representation and James Wilson · See more »

John Adams

John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).

New!!: Proportional representation and John Adams · See more »

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

New!!: Proportional representation and John Stuart Mill · See more »

John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

New!!: Proportional representation and John Wiley & Sons · See more »

Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

New!!: Proportional representation and Labour Party (UK) · See more »

Landtag of Liechtenstein

The Landtag of the Principality of Liechtenstein (Landtag des Fürstentums Liechtenstein), commonly referred to as the Landtag of Liechtenstein (Liechtensteinischer Landtag), is the legislative branch of the government of Liechtenstein.

New!!: Proportional representation and Landtag of Liechtenstein · See more »

Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

New!!: Proportional representation and Latvia · See more »

Legislative elections in Albania

Regular elections in Albania are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Legislative elections in Albania · See more »

Lesotho

Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

New!!: Proportional representation and Lesotho · See more »

Ley de Lemas

Ley de Lemas is the Spanish name of the double simultaneous voting (DSV) electoral system which is, or has been, used in elections in Argentina, Uruguay, and Honduras.

New!!: Proportional representation and Ley de Lemas · See more »

Liberal Democrat Voice

Liberal Democrat Voice (also known as "Lib Dem Voice") is a political blog, read by over 50,000 individual visitors per month specialising in British politics.

New!!: Proportional representation and Liberal Democrat Voice · See more »

Library and Archives Canada

Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.

New!!: Proportional representation and Library and Archives Canada · See more »

Limited voting

Limited voting (also known as the limited vote method) is a voting system in which electors have fewer votes than there are positions available.

New!!: Proportional representation and Limited voting · See more »

List of electoral systems by country

This table deals with voting to select candidates for office, not for the passing of legislation.

New!!: Proportional representation and List of electoral systems by country · See more »

Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.

New!!: Proportional representation and Local government · See more »

London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

New!!: Proportional representation and London School of Economics · See more »

Loosemore–Hanby index

The Loosemore–Hanby index measures disproportionality of electoral systems.

New!!: Proportional representation and Loosemore–Hanby index · See more »

Louis Antoine de Saint-Just

Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 176728 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution.

New!!: Proportional representation and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just · See more »

Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

New!!: Proportional representation and Lower house · See more »

Majority

A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.

New!!: Proportional representation and Majority · See more »

Majority bonus system

The majority bonus system (MBS) is a form of semi-proportional representation used in some European countries.

New!!: Proportional representation and Majority bonus system · See more »

Majority rule

Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.

New!!: Proportional representation and Majority rule · See more »

Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

New!!: Proportional representation and Malta · See more »

Manitoba

Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.

New!!: Proportional representation and Manitoba · See more »

Marginal seat

A marginal seat or swing seat is a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election, generally one conducted under a single-winner voting system.

New!!: Proportional representation and Marginal seat · See more »

Marquis de Condorcet

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.

New!!: Proportional representation and Marquis de Condorcet · See more »

Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

New!!: Proportional representation and Mathematical Association of America · See more »

Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

New!!: Proportional representation and Member of parliament · See more »

Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

New!!: Proportional representation and Member state of the European Union · See more »

Michel Balinski

Michel Louis Balinski (born October 6, 1933) is an applied mathematician, economist, operations research analyst and political scientist.

New!!: Proportional representation and Michel Balinski · See more »

Mixed electoral system

A mixed electoral system is an electoral system that combines a plurality/majoritarian voting system with an element of proportional representation (PR).

New!!: Proportional representation and Mixed electoral system · See more »

Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.

New!!: Proportional representation and Mixed-member proportional representation · See more »

National Assembly for Wales

The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.

New!!: Proportional representation and National Assembly for Wales · See more »

National Convention

The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.

New!!: Proportional representation and National Convention · See more »

Negative vote weight

Negative vote weight (also known as inverse success value) refers to an effect that occurs in certain elections where votes can have the opposite effect of what the voter intended.

New!!: Proportional representation and Negative vote weight · See more »

Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

New!!: Proportional representation and Nepal · See more »

Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

New!!: Proportional representation and Netherlands · See more »

New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

New!!: Proportional representation and New South Wales · See more »

New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and New York City · See more »

New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

New!!: Proportional representation and New Zealand · See more »

Ohio

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and Ohio · See more »

Oireachtas

The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Oireachtas · See more »

One man, one vote

One man, one vote (or one person, one vote) is a slogan used by advocates of political equality through various electoral reforms such as universal suffrage, proportional representation, or the elimination of plurality voting, malapportionment, or gerrymandering.

New!!: Proportional representation and One man, one vote · See more »

Oneworld Publications

Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.

New!!: Proportional representation and Oneworld Publications · See more »

Open list

Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected.

New!!: Proportional representation and Open list · See more »

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

New!!: Proportional representation and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe · See more »

Overhang seat

Overhang seats can arise in elections under the traditional (i.e. as it originated in Germany) mixed member proportional (MMP) system, when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies.

New!!: Proportional representation and Overhang seat · See more »

Parachute candidate

A parachute candidate, also known as a “carpetbagger” in the United States, is a pejorative term for an election candidate who does not live in and has little connection to the area he or she is running to represent.

New!!: Proportional representation and Parachute candidate · See more »

Parallel voting

Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.

New!!: Proportional representation and Parallel voting · See more »

Parlement

A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.

New!!: Proportional representation and Parlement · See more »

Parliament of Canada

The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.

New!!: Proportional representation and Parliament of Canada · See more »

Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

New!!: Proportional representation and Parliament of the United Kingdom · See more »

Party-list proportional representation

Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.

New!!: Proportional representation and Party-list proportional representation · See more »

Pennsylvania Constitution

The current Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, most recently revised in 1968, forms the law for the United States Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

New!!: Proportional representation and Pennsylvania Constitution · See more »

Peoria, Illinois

Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River.

New!!: Proportional representation and Peoria, Illinois · See more »

Plurality (voting)

A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.

New!!: Proportional representation and Plurality (voting) · See more »

Plurality voting

Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.

New!!: Proportional representation and Plurality voting · See more »

Plurality-at-large voting

Plurality-at-large voting, also known as block vote or multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.

New!!: Proportional representation and Plurality-at-large voting · See more »

Political machine

A political machine is a political group in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.

New!!: Proportional representation and Political machine · See more »

Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

New!!: Proportional representation and Political party · See more »

Political spectrum

A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.

New!!: Proportional representation and Political spectrum · See more »

Politics & Gender

Politics & Gender is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal which focuses on gender and politics as well as women and politics.

New!!: Proportional representation and Politics & Gender · See more »

Politics of the Republic of Ireland

Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union.

New!!: Proportional representation and Politics of the Republic of Ireland · See more »

Preselection

Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.

New!!: Proportional representation and Preselection · See more »

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.

New!!: Proportional representation and Prince Edward Island · See more »

Prince Edward Island electoral reform referendum, 2016

The 2016 Plebiscite on Democratic Renewal was a non-binding referendum held in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island between 27 October – 7 November 2016.

New!!: Proportional representation and Prince Edward Island electoral reform referendum, 2016 · See more »

Progressive Conservative Party of Canada

No description.

New!!: Proportional representation and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada · See more »

Progressive Era

The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.

New!!: Proportional representation and Progressive Era · See more »

Proportionality for Solid Coalitions

Proportionality for Solid Coalitions (PSC) is a voting system criterion relating to ranked voting systems.

New!!: Proportional representation and Proportionality for Solid Coalitions · See more »

Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

New!!: Proportional representation and Provinces and territories of Canada · See more »

Quebec

Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

New!!: Proportional representation and Quebec · See more »

Range voting

Range voting or score voting is an electoral system for single-seat elections, in which voters give each candidate a score, the scores are added (or, equivalently, averaged), and the candidate with the highest total is elected.

New!!: Proportional representation and Range voting · See more »

Ranked voting

Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).

New!!: Proportional representation and Ranked voting · See more »

Representation (journal)

Representation is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering representative democracy.

New!!: Proportional representation and Representation (journal) · See more »

Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

New!!: Proportional representation and Representative democracy · See more »

Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Republic of Ireland · See more »

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

New!!: Proportional representation and Republican Party (United States) · See more »

Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

New!!: Proportional representation and Reuters · See more »

Riigikogu

The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Riigikogu · See more »

Rowland Hill

Sir Rowland Hill, KCB, FRS (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer.

New!!: Proportional representation and Rowland Hill · See more »

Royal Statistical Society

The Royal Statistical Society (RSS) is one of the world's most distinguished and renowned statistical societies.

New!!: Proportional representation and Royal Statistical Society · See more »

Rudolph K. Hynicka

Rudolph Kelker Hynicka (or Rud Hynicka; 6 July 1859 – 21 February 1927) was an American politician who led the Republican party in Cincinnati, Ohio, for many years during a period when politics in Cincinnati was scandal-ridden.

New!!: Proportional representation and Rudolph K. Hynicka · See more »

Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

New!!: Proportional representation and Russia · See more »

Safe seat

A safe seat is an electoral district (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.

New!!: Proportional representation and Safe seat · See more »

San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

New!!: Proportional representation and San Francisco · See more »

Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

New!!: Proportional representation and Scotland · See more »

Scottish Assembly

The Scottish Assembly was a proposed legislature for Scotland that would have devolved a set list of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Proportional representation and Scottish Assembly · See more »

Scottish local elections, 2007

The Scottish local elections, 2007 were held on 3 May 2007, the same day as Scottish Parliament elections and local elections in parts of England.

New!!: Proportional representation and Scottish local elections, 2007 · See more »

Scottish National Party

The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Scottish National Party · See more »

Semi-proportional representation

Semi-proportional representation characterizes multi-winner electoral systems which allow representation of minorities, but are not intended to reflect the strength of the competing political forces in close proportion to the votes they receive.

New!!: Proportional representation and Semi-proportional representation · See more »

Senate of the Republic (Italy)

The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).

New!!: Proportional representation and Senate of the Republic (Italy) · See more »

Significance (magazine)

Significance, established in 2004, is a bimonthly magazine published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA).

New!!: Proportional representation and Significance (magazine) · See more »

Single non-transferable vote

Single non-transferable vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections.

New!!: Proportional representation and Single non-transferable vote · See more »

Single transferable vote

The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).

New!!: Proportional representation and Single transferable vote · See more »

Single-member district

A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.

New!!: Proportional representation and Single-member district · See more »

Sortition

In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.

New!!: Proportional representation and Sortition · See more »

South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

New!!: Proportional representation and South Africa · See more »

Speaker of the House of Commons

Speaker of the House of Commons is a political leadership position found in countries that have a House of Commons, where the membership of the body elects a Speaker to lead its proceedings.

New!!: Proportional representation and Speaker of the House of Commons · See more »

Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

New!!: Proportional representation and Stealth aircraft · See more »

Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

New!!: Proportional representation and Sweden · See more »

Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

New!!: Proportional representation and Switzerland · See more »

Tactical voting

In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates, when a voter supports another candidate more strongly than their sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome.

New!!: Proportional representation and Tactical voting · See more »

Tammany Hall

Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St.

New!!: Proportional representation and Tammany Hall · See more »

Tasmanian House of Assembly

The House of Assembly, or Lower House, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Tasmania in Australia.

New!!: Proportional representation and Tasmanian House of Assembly · See more »

Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

New!!: Proportional representation and Taylor & Francis · See more »

The Journal of Politics

The Journal of Politics is a peer-reviewed academic journal of political science established in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.

New!!: Proportional representation and The Journal of Politics · See more »

The Mountain

The Mountain (La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.

New!!: Proportional representation and The Mountain · See more »

The New York Times Company

The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.

New!!: Proportional representation and The New York Times Company · See more »

The Tyee

The Tyee is an independent online Canadian news magazine that primarily covers British Columbia.

New!!: Proportional representation and The Tyee · See more »

Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 (Ireland)

The Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 was a proposal to amend the Constitution of Ireland to alter the electoral system from proportional representation under the single transferable vote (PR-STV) to first-past-the-post (FPTP).

New!!: Proportional representation and Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 (Ireland) · See more »

Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 (Ireland)

The Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 was a bill (no. 5 of 1968) to amend the Constitution of Ireland to change the criteria for redistribution of constituencies for elections to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas.

New!!: Proportional representation and Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 (Ireland) · See more »

Thomas Hare (political scientist)

Sir Thomas Hare (28 March 1806 in England – 6 May 1891) was a British proponent of electoral reform.

New!!: Proportional representation and Thomas Hare (political scientist) · See more »

Thomas Wright Hill

Thomas Wright Hill (24 April 1763 in Kidderminster – 13 June 1851 in Tottenham) was a mathematician and schoolmaster.

New!!: Proportional representation and Thomas Wright Hill · See more »

Thomson Reuters

Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.

New!!: Proportional representation and Thomson Reuters · See more »

Thoughts on Government

Thoughts on Government, or in full Thoughts on Government, Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies, was written by John Adams during the spring of 1776 in response to a resolution of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which requested Adams' suggestions on the establishment of a new government and the drafting of a constitution.

New!!: Proportional representation and Thoughts on Government · See more »

Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

New!!: Proportional representation and Tony Blair · See more »

Trinity College Dublin

Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.

New!!: Proportional representation and Trinity College Dublin · See more »

Turkish general election, 2002

The 15th Turkish general election was held on 3 November 2002 following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit.

New!!: Proportional representation and Turkish general election, 2002 · See more »

Two-round system

The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.

New!!: Proportional representation and Two-round system · See more »

U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

New!!: Proportional representation and U.S. state · See more »

UK Independence Party

The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.

New!!: Proportional representation and UK Independence Party · See more »

Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

New!!: Proportional representation and Ukraine · See more »

United Kingdom general election, 2005

The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005 to elect 646 members to the House of Commons.

New!!: Proportional representation and United Kingdom general election, 2005 · See more »

United Kingdom general election, 2015

The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.

New!!: Proportional representation and United Kingdom general election, 2015 · See more »

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

New!!: Proportional representation and United Nations · See more »

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

New!!: Proportional representation and United States · See more »

United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.

New!!: Proportional representation and United States House of Representatives · See more »

University constituency

A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area.

New!!: Proportional representation and University constituency · See more »

University of Dublin

The University of Dublin (Ollscoil Átha Cliath), corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland.

New!!: Proportional representation and University of Dublin · See more »

University of New South Wales

The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.

New!!: Proportional representation and University of New South Wales · See more »

University of Strathclyde

The University of Strathclyde is a public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

New!!: Proportional representation and University of Strathclyde · See more »

Victor D'Hondt

Victor D'Hondt (20 November 1841 – 30 May 1901) was a Belgian lawyer, salesman, jurist of civil law at Ghent University, and mathematician.

New!!: Proportional representation and Victor D'Hondt · See more »

Victor Prosper Considerant

Victor Prosper Considerant (12 October 1808 – 27 December 1893) was a French utopian Socialist and disciple of Fourier.

New!!: Proportional representation and Victor Prosper Considerant · See more »

Vote trading

Vote trading is the practice of voting for or against another person's bill, position on a more general issue, or favored candidate in exchange for the other person's vote for or against a position, proposal, or candidate that one supports.

New!!: Proportional representation and Vote trading · See more »

Voter turnout

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.

New!!: Proportional representation and Voter turnout · See more »

Ward (electoral subdivision)

A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.

New!!: Proportional representation and Ward (electoral subdivision) · See more »

Wasted vote

In electoral systems, a wasted vote is any vote which is not for an elected candidate or, more broadly, a vote that does not help to elect a candidate.

New!!: Proportional representation and Wasted vote · See more »

Webster/Sainte-Laguë method

The Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, often simply Webster method or Sainte-Laguë method, is a highest quotient method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation used in many voting systems.

New!!: Proportional representation and Webster/Sainte-Laguë method · See more »

Winnipeg

Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.

New!!: Proportional representation and Winnipeg · See more »

Withdrawal from the European Union

Withdrawal from the European Union is the legal and political process whereby a member state of the European Union ceases to be a member of the union.

New!!: Proportional representation and Withdrawal from the European Union · See more »

Zürich

Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

New!!: Proportional representation and Zürich · See more »

Redirects here:

Deviation from proportionality, Disproportionality, Full Representation, Full representation, Proportional Representation, Proportional Representation (PR), Proportional Respresentation, Proportional democracy, Proportional electoral system, Proportional representation system, Proportional representation systems, Proportional representatoin, Proportional rule, Proportional voting, Proportional voting system, Proportionate representation.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_representation

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »