327 relations: ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, Additional Member System, Akhil Amar, Alberta, American Journal of Political Science, American Philosophical Society, American Revolution, American Statistical Association, Apportionment (politics), Approval voting, Argentine Chamber of Deputies, Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly, Australian federal election, 2016, Australian Senate, Baden-Württemberg, Barrister, Binomial voting, Biproportional apportionment, Bloc Québécois, Bolivia, Border, Boundary commissions (United Kingdom), Brazil, Broad church, Bundestag, Calgary, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canada, Canadian federal election, 1993, Canadian federal election, 2011, Canadian federal election, 2015, Cantons of Switzerland, Cardinal voting, Carl Christoffer Georg Andræ, CBC News, Chamber of Representatives (Belgium), Chile, Cincinnati, Closed list, Coalition government, Columbia University Press, Comparison of electoral systems, Considerations on Representative Government, Constitution Society, Continental Europe, Council–manager government, County, Cumulative voting, D'Hondt method, ..., Dáil Éireann, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Die Zeit, Direct representation, Droop quota, Duquesne University, Duverger's law, Edmonton, Election threshold, Elections in Algeria, Elections in Angola, Elections in Argentina, Elections in Armenia, Elections in Aruba, Elections in Australia, Elections in Austria, Elections in Benin, Elections in Bolivia, Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Elections in Brazil, Elections in Bulgaria, Elections in Burkina Faso, Elections in Burundi, Elections in Cambodia, Elections in Cape Verde, Elections in Chile, Elections in Colombia, Elections in Costa Rica, Elections in Croatia, Elections in Cyprus, Elections in Denmark, Elections in East Timor, Elections in El Salvador, Elections in Equatorial Guinea, Elections in Fiji, Elections in Finland, Elections in Germany, Elections in Greece, Elections in Greenland, Elections in Guatemala, Elections in Guinea-Bissau, Elections in Guyana, Elections in Honduras, Elections in Iceland, Elections in Indonesia, Elections in Iraq, Elections in Israel, Elections in Kazakhstan, Elections in Kosovo, Elections in Kyrgyzstan, Elections in Latvia, Elections in Lesotho, Elections in Luxembourg, Elections in Malta, Elections in Moldova, Elections in Montenegro, Elections in Mozambique, Elections in Namibia, Elections in New Zealand, Elections in Nicaragua, Elections in Northern Ireland, Elections in Norway, Elections in Paraguay, Elections in Peru, Elections in Poland, Elections in Portugal, Elections in Romania, Elections in Rwanda, Elections in San Marino, Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe, Elections in Serbia, Elections in Sint Maarten, Elections in Slovakia, Elections in Slovenia, Elections in South Africa, Elections in Spain, Elections in Sri Lanka, Elections in Suriname, Elections in Sweden, Elections in Switzerland, Elections in the Czech Republic, Elections in the Dominican Republic, Elections in the Faroe Islands, Elections in the Netherlands, Elections in the Republic of Ireland, Elections in the Republic of Macedonia, Elections in Togo, Elections in Tunisia, Elections in Turkey, Elections in Uruguay, Elections to the European Parliament, Electoral Commission (New Zealand), Electoral Commission (United Kingdom), Electoral district, Electoral list, Electoral Reform Society, Electoral system, Elsevier, European Journal of Political Economy, European Parliament, FairVote, Fianna Fáil, Fidesz, Finland, First-past-the-post voting, Founding Fathers of the United States, French Constitution of 1793, Gallagher index, General ticket, Gerrymandering, Girondin constitutional project, Green politics, Group voting ticket, Hansard Society, Hare quota, Harvard University, Heriot-Watt University, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Human Development Index, Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Illinois, Illinois House of Representatives, Independent politician, Index of politics articles, Instant-runoff voting, Interactive representation, International Foundation for Electoral Systems, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Ireland, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1997, Irish general election, 2011, Israel, Israeli legislative election, 2006, Italian electoral law of 2017, Iterative proportional fitting, James Wilson, John Adams, John Stuart Mill, John Wiley & Sons, Labour Party (UK), Landtag of Liechtenstein, Latvia, Legislative elections in Albania, Lesotho, Ley de Lemas, Liberal Democrat Voice, Library and Archives Canada, Limited voting, List of electoral systems by country, Local government, London School of Economics, Loosemore–Hanby index, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Lower house, Majority, Majority bonus system, Majority rule, Malta, Manitoba, Marginal seat, Marquis de Condorcet, Mathematical Association of America, Member of parliament, Member state of the European Union, Michel Balinski, Mixed electoral system, Mixed-member proportional representation, National Assembly for Wales, National Convention, Negative vote weight, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, New York City, New Zealand, Ohio, Oireachtas, One man, one vote, Oneworld Publications, Open list, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Overhang seat, Parachute candidate, Parallel voting, Parlement, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Party-list proportional representation, Pennsylvania Constitution, Peoria, Illinois, Plurality (voting), Plurality voting, Plurality-at-large voting, Political machine, Political party, Political spectrum, Politics & Gender, Politics of the Republic of Ireland, Preselection, Prince Edward Island, Prince Edward Island electoral reform referendum, 2016, Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, Progressive Era, Proportionality for Solid Coalitions, Provinces and territories of Canada, Quebec, Range voting, Ranked voting, Representation (journal), Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland, Republican Party (United States), Reuters, Riigikogu, Rowland Hill, Royal Statistical Society, Rudolph K. Hynicka, Russia, Safe seat, San Francisco, Scotland, Scottish Assembly, Scottish local elections, 2007, Scottish National Party, Semi-proportional representation, Senate of the Republic (Italy), Significance (magazine), Single non-transferable vote, Single transferable vote, Single-member district, Sortition, South Africa, Speaker of the House of Commons, Stealth aircraft, Sweden, Switzerland, Tactical voting, Tammany Hall, Tasmanian House of Assembly, Taylor & Francis, The Journal of Politics, The Mountain, The New York Times Company, The Tyee, Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 (Ireland), Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 (Ireland), Thomas Hare (political scientist), Thomas Wright Hill, Thomson Reuters, Thoughts on Government, Tony Blair, Trinity College Dublin, Turkish general election, 2002, Two-round system, U.S. state, UK Independence Party, Ukraine, United Kingdom general election, 2005, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Nations, United States, United States House of Representatives, University constituency, University of Dublin, University of New South Wales, University of Strathclyde, Victor D'Hondt, Victor Prosper Considerant, Vote trading, Voter turnout, Ward (electoral subdivision), Wasted vote, Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, Winnipeg, Withdrawal from the European Union, Zürich. 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The ACE Electoral Knowledge Network is a web portal with information on elections designed to meet the needs of people working in the electoral field.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
Akhil Reed Amar (born September 6, 1958) is an American legal scholar, an expert on constitutional law and criminal procedure.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
The American Journal of Political Science is a journal published by the Midwest Political Science Association.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Statistical Association (ASA) is the main professional organization for statisticians and related professionals in the United States.
Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions entitled to representation.
Approval voting is a single-winner electoral system where each voter may select ("approve") any number of candidates.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress.
The Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (formally the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory) is the unicameral legislature of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).
The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
The binomial system (Sistema binominal) is a voting system that was used in the parliamentary elections of Chile between 1989 and 2013.
Biproportional apportionment is a method to allocate seats into a party-list proportional representation respecting two characteristics.
The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
The boundary commissions in the United Kingdom are non-departmental public bodies responsible for determining the boundaries of constituencies for elections to the House of Commons, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Broad church is latitudinarian churchmanship in the Church of England in particular and Anglicanism in general.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian federal election of 1993 (officially, the 35th general election) was held on Monday October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada.
The 2011 Canadian federal election (formally the 41st Canadian general election) was held Monday, May 2, 2011, to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 41st Canadian Parliament.
The 2015 Canadian federal election (formally the 42nd Canadian general election) was held on October 19, 2015, to elect members to the House of Commons of the 42nd Canadian Parliament.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Cardinal voting refers to any electoral system which allows the voter to give each candidate an independent rating or grade.
Carl Christopher Georg Andræ (14 October 1812, Hjertebjerg – 2 February 1893) was a Danish politician and mathematician.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
The Chamber of Representatives (Dutch:, Chambre des représentants, Abgeordnetenkammer) is one of the two chambers in the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Senate.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Electoral systems can be compared by different means.
Considerations on Representative Government is a book by John Stuart Mill published in 1861.
The Constitution Society is a nonprofit educational organization headquartered at San Antonio, Texas, U.S., and founded in 1994 by Jon Roland, an author and computer specialist who has run for public office as a Libertarian Party candidate on a "Constitutionalist Platform".
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
Cumulative voting (also accumulation voting, weighted voting or multi-voting) is a multiple-winner voting method intended to promote more proportional representation than winner-take-all elections.
The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.
Direct representation or proxy representation is a proposed form of representative democracy where each representative's vote is weighted in proportion to the number of citizens who have chosen that candidate to represent them.
The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the single transferable vote (STV) system.
Duquesne University of the Holy Spirit is a private Catholic university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".
Edmonton (Cree: Amiskwaciy Waskahikan; Blackfoot: Omahkoyis) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
Algeria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Elections in Angola take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.
This article is about voting, elections, and election results in Argentina.
Elections in Armenia gives information on election and election results in Armenia.
Elections in Aruba gives information on election and election results in Aruba.
Elections in Australia take place periodically to elect the legislature of the Commonwealth of Australia, as well as for each Australian state and territory.
This article provides information on elections and election results in Austria.
Elections in Benin take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.
Elections in Bolivia gives information on elections and election results in Bolivia.
At state level, Bosnia and Herzegovina votes for the rotating Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Parliamentary Assembly.
Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature.
Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Elections in Burkina Faso gives information on election and election results in Burkina Faso.
Elections in Burundi gives information on election and election results in Burundi.
Cambodia is a one party dominant state with the Cambodian People's Party in power.
Cape Verde elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Chile holds nationwide presidential, parliamentary, regional and municipal elections.
Elections in Colombia are regulated and controlled by the National Electoral Council which also gives information on elections and election results in for the politics of Colombia.
Costa Rica elects on national level a head of state, the president, and a legislature.
Regular elections in Croatia are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament.
Elections in Cyprus gives information on election and election results in Cyprus.
There are three types of elections in Denmark: elections to the national parliament (the Folketing), local elections and elections to the European Parliament.
East Timor elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic.
Elections in Equatorial Guinea gives information on election and election results in Equatorial Guinea.
Fiji has held 10 general elections for the House of Representatives since becoming independent of the United Kingdom in 1970; there had been numerous elections under colonial rule, but only one with universal suffrage (in 1966).
There are four types of elections in Finland.
Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag (Germany's federal parliament), the Landtags of the various states, and local elections.
Elections in Greece gives information on elections and election results in Greece.
Greenland elects on national level a legislature.
Elections in Guatemala include, on the national level, a head of state – the president – and a unicameral legislature.
Elections in Guinea-Bissau take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a semi-presidential system.
Elections in Guyana take place within the framework of a multi-party representative democracy and a presidential system.
Honduras National Congress has 128 members (diputados); they serve four year terms.
Elections in Iceland gives information on election and election results in Iceland.
Elections in Indonesia have taken place since 1955 to elect a legislature.
Elections in Iraq gives information on election and election results in Iraq.
Elections in Israel are based on nationwide proportional representation.
Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies, the Majilis (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House).
Parliamentary elections to the Assembly of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës, Serbian Cyrillic: Скупштина Косова, transliterated Skupstina Kosova) have been held four times since 1999 with the latest in December 2010.
Kyrgyzstan elects on the national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Latvia elects on national level a legislature.
Lesotho elects a legislature on national level.
Elections in Luxembourg are held to determine the political composition of the representative institutions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Malta elects on a national level 6 MEPs representing Malta in the European Parliament, on a district level the legislature, On a local level the Local Councils and on a community level the Administrative Committees.
Elections in Moldova gives information on elections in Moldova.
Montenegro holds national election for the Parliament and the office of President.
Elections in Mozambique gives information on election and election results in Mozambique.
Elections in Namibia gives information on election and election results in Namibia.
New Zealand is a representative democracy.
Elections in Nicaragua gives information on elections and election results in Nicaragua.
Elections in Northern Ireland are held on a regular basis to local councils, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and to the European Parliament.
Norway elects its legislature on a national level.
Elections in Paraguay gives information on election and election results in Paraguay.
In Peru, the people directly elect a head of state (the president) as well as a legislature.
Elections in Poland to the election process, as well as the election results in Poland.
Elections in Portugal gives information on election and election results in Portugal.
Romania elects on a national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature.
Elections in Rwanda take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system.
Elections in San Marino gives information on election and election results in San Marino.
Elections in São Tomé and Príncipe gives information on election and election results in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Serbia elects a legislature and a president on a national level.
Sint Maarten elects a legislature called the Estates of Sint Maarten.
Elections in Slovakia gives information on election and election results in Slovakia.
At a national level, Slovenia elects a head of state (a president) and a legislature.
Elections in South Africa are held for the National Assembly, provincial legislatures and municipal councils.
There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament.
Elections in Sri Lanka gives information on election and election results in Sri Lanka.
Elections in Suriname gives information on election and election results in Suriname.
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years.
Elections in Switzerland gives information on election and election results in Switzerland.
The Czech Republic elects a legislature at a national level.
The Dominican Republic is a unitary state with elected officials at the national and local levels.
The Faroe Islands elects on national level a legislature.
Elections in the Netherlands are held for five territorial levels of government: the European Union, the state, the twelve Provinces, the 25 water boards and the 380 municipalities (and the three public bodies in the Caribbean Netherlands).
In Ireland, direct elections by universal suffrage are used for the President, the ceremonial head of state; for Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas or parliament; for the European Parliament; and for local government.
Elections in the Republic of Macedonia gives information on election and election results in the Republic of Macedonia.
Elections in Togo take place within the framework of a presidential system.
Following the 2011 Tunisian revolution, Elections in Tunisia for the president and the unicameral Assembly of the Representatives of the People are scheduled to be held every five years.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) has 600 members, elected for a four-year term (five years before the 2007 referendum) by a system based on closed list proportional representation according to the D'Hondt method.
Uruguay elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
The Electoral Commission (Te Kaitiaki Take Kōwhiri) is an independent crown entity set up by the New Zealand Parliament.
The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
An electoral list is a grouping of candidates for election, usually in proportional election systems, but also in some plurality election systems.
The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The European Journal of Political Economy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on economic phenomena, including collective decision making, political behavior, and the role of institutions.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
FairVote (formerly the Center for Voting and Democracy) is a 501(c)(3) organization that advocates electoral reform in the United States.
Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (in full, Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Hungary.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Constitution of 1793 (Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or The Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic.
The Gallagher index "measures an electoral system’s relative disproportionality between votes received and seats allotted in a legislature." As such, it measures the difference between the percentage of votes each party gets and the percentage of seats each party gets in the resulting legislature, and it also measures this disproportionality from all parties collectively in any one given election.
General ticket representation is a particular method of electing members of a multi-member state delegation to the United States House of Representatives.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
The Girondin constitutional project, presented to the French National Convention on 15 and 16 February 1793 by Nicolas de Caritat, formerly the Marquis de Condorcet, is composed of three parts.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
Group voting tickets (GVTs) simplify preferential voting in elections using the single transferable vote or the alternative vote system.
The Hansard Society was formed in 1944 to promote parliamentary democracy.
The Hare quota (also known as the simple quota) is a formula used under some forms of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system and the largest remainder method of party-list proportional representation.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly, the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
Interactive representation is a proposed governance system in which elected officials have the same number of votes as the number of people that voted for them.
The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1987.
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization with regional offices in Latin America (Costa Rica), Asia and the Pacific (Australia) and Africa (Ethiopia).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish general election of 1997 was held on Friday 6 June 1997.
The Irish general election of 2011 took place on Friday 25 February to elect 166 Teachtaí Dála across 43 constituencies to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of Ireland's parliament, the Oireachtas.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006.
The Italian Electoral law of 2017, colloquially known by the nickname Rosatellum bis or simply Rosatellum, after Ettore Rosato, the Democratic leader in the Chamber of Deputies who first proposed the new law, is a parallel voting system, which act as a mixed system, with 37% of seats allocated using a first past the post electoral system and 61% using a proportional method, with one round of voting.
The iterative proportional fitting procedure (IPFP, also known as biproportional fitting in statistics, RAS algorithm in economics and matrix ranking or matrix scaling in computer science) is an iterative algorithm for estimating cell values of a contingency table such that the marginal totals remain fixed and the estimated table decomposes into an outer product.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Landtag of the Principality of Liechtenstein (Landtag des Fürstentums Liechtenstein), commonly referred to as the Landtag of Liechtenstein (Liechtensteinischer Landtag), is the legislative branch of the government of Liechtenstein.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Regular elections in Albania are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Ley de Lemas is the Spanish name of the double simultaneous voting (DSV) electoral system which is, or has been, used in elections in Argentina, Uruguay, and Honduras.
Liberal Democrat Voice (also known as "Lib Dem Voice") is a political blog, read by over 50,000 individual visitors per month specialising in British politics.
Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.
Limited voting (also known as the limited vote method) is a voting system in which electors have fewer votes than there are positions available.
This table deals with voting to select candidates for office, not for the passing of legislation.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Loosemore–Hanby index measures disproportionality of electoral systems.
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 176728 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
The majority bonus system (MBS) is a form of semi-proportional representation used in some European countries.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
A marginal seat or swing seat is a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election, generally one conducted under a single-winner voting system.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Michel Louis Balinski (born October 6, 1933) is an applied mathematician, economist, operations research analyst and political scientist.
A mixed electoral system is an electoral system that combines a plurality/majoritarian voting system with an element of proportional representation (PR).
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
Negative vote weight (also known as inverse success value) refers to an effect that occurs in certain elections where votes can have the opposite effect of what the voter intended.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
One man, one vote (or one person, one vote) is a slogan used by advocates of political equality through various electoral reforms such as universal suffrage, proportional representation, or the elimination of plurality voting, malapportionment, or gerrymandering.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Overhang seats can arise in elections under the traditional (i.e. as it originated in Germany) mixed member proportional (MMP) system, when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies.
A parachute candidate, also known as a “carpetbagger” in the United States, is a pejorative term for an election candidate who does not live in and has little connection to the area he or she is running to represent.
Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
The current Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, most recently revised in 1968, forms the law for the United States Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Plurality-at-large voting, also known as block vote or multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.
A political machine is a political group in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
Politics & Gender is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal which focuses on gender and politics as well as women and politics.
Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union.
Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
The 2016 Plebiscite on Democratic Renewal was a non-binding referendum held in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island between 27 October – 7 November 2016.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Proportionality for Solid Coalitions (PSC) is a voting system criterion relating to ranked voting systems.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Range voting or score voting is an electoral system for single-seat elections, in which voters give each candidate a score, the scores are added (or, equivalently, averaged), and the candidate with the highest total is elected.
Ranked voting describes certain voting systems in which voters rank outcomes in a hierarchy on the ordinal scale (ordinal voting systems).
Representation is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering representative democracy.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
Sir Rowland Hill, KCB, FRS (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer.
The Royal Statistical Society (RSS) is one of the world's most distinguished and renowned statistical societies.
Rudolph Kelker Hynicka (or Rud Hynicka; 6 July 1859 – 21 February 1927) was an American politician who led the Republican party in Cincinnati, Ohio, for many years during a period when politics in Cincinnati was scandal-ridden.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A safe seat is an electoral district (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scottish Assembly was a proposed legislature for Scotland that would have devolved a set list of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Scottish local elections, 2007 were held on 3 May 2007, the same day as Scottish Parliament elections and local elections in parts of England.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
Semi-proportional representation characterizes multi-winner electoral systems which allow representation of minorities, but are not intended to reflect the strength of the competing political forces in close proportion to the votes they receive.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
Significance, established in 2004, is a bimonthly magazine published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA).
Single non-transferable vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Speaker of the House of Commons is a political leadership position found in countries that have a House of Commons, where the membership of the body elects a Speaker to lead its proceedings.
Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates, when a voter supports another candidate more strongly than their sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome.
Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St.
The House of Assembly, or Lower House, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Tasmania in Australia.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The Journal of Politics is a peer-reviewed academic journal of political science established in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.
The Mountain (La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
The Tyee is an independent online Canadian news magazine that primarily covers British Columbia.
The Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1958 was a proposal to amend the Constitution of Ireland to alter the electoral system from proportional representation under the single transferable vote (PR-STV) to first-past-the-post (FPTP).
The Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1968 was a bill (no. 5 of 1968) to amend the Constitution of Ireland to change the criteria for redistribution of constituencies for elections to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas.
Sir Thomas Hare (28 March 1806 in England – 6 May 1891) was a British proponent of electoral reform.
Thomas Wright Hill (24 April 1763 in Kidderminster – 13 June 1851 in Tottenham) was a mathematician and schoolmaster.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
Thoughts on Government, or in full Thoughts on Government, Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies, was written by John Adams during the spring of 1776 in response to a resolution of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which requested Adams' suggestions on the establishment of a new government and the drafting of a constitution.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
The 15th Turkish general election was held on 3 November 2002 following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005 to elect 646 members to the House of Commons.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area.
The University of Dublin (Ollscoil Átha Cliath), corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland.
The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.
The University of Strathclyde is a public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Victor D'Hondt (20 November 1841 – 30 May 1901) was a Belgian lawyer, salesman, jurist of civil law at Ghent University, and mathematician.
Victor Prosper Considerant (12 October 1808 – 27 December 1893) was a French utopian Socialist and disciple of Fourier.
Vote trading is the practice of voting for or against another person's bill, position on a more general issue, or favored candidate in exchange for the other person's vote for or against a position, proposal, or candidate that one supports.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
In electoral systems, a wasted vote is any vote which is not for an elected candidate or, more broadly, a vote that does not help to elect a candidate.
The Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, often simply Webster method or Sainte-Laguë method, is a highest quotient method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation used in many voting systems.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
Withdrawal from the European Union is the legal and political process whereby a member state of the European Union ceases to be a member of the union.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Deviation from proportionality, Disproportionality, Full Representation, Full representation, Proportional Representation, Proportional Representation (PR), Proportional Respresentation, Proportional democracy, Proportional electoral system, Proportional representation system, Proportional representation systems, Proportional representatoin, Proportional rule, Proportional voting, Proportional voting system, Proportionate representation.