Abandonware is a product, typically software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, and for which no support is available.
Adobe Flash Player (labeled Shockwave Flash in Internet Explorer and Firefox) is freeware for using content created on the Adobe Flash platform, including viewing multimedia contents, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming audio and video.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
Altair BASIC is a discontinued interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 bus computers.
Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Arx Fatalis is a role-playing video game for the Xbox and Microsoft Windows, released on 12 November 2002 by Arkane Studios, a video game developer based in Lyon, France.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.
BIND, or named, is the most widely used Domain Name System (DNS) software on the Internet.
Brewster Kahle (born October 22, 1960), via juggle.com.
Open-source software is widely used both as independent applications and as components in non-open-source applications.
Business software or a business application is any software or set of computer programs used by business users to perform various business functions.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Cheating in online games is defined as the action of pretending to comply with the rules of the game, while secretly subverting them to gain an unfair advantage over an opponent.
A clickwrap or clickthrough agreement or license is a common type of agreement for software licenses where the user electronically indicates their acceptance in order to use the software.
Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.
Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Free/open-source software – the source availability model used by free and open-source software (FOSS) – and closed source are two approaches to the distribution of software.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Copy protection, also known as content protection, copy prevention and copy restriction, is any effort designed to prevent the reproduction of software, films, music, and other media, usually for copyright reasons.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
In computing, a crash (or system crash) occurs when a computer program, such as a software application or an operating system, stops functioning properly and exits.
Crippleware has been defined in realms of both software and hardware.
A decompiler is a computer program that takes an executable file as input, and attempts to create a high level source file which can be recompiled successfully.
A dongle is a small piece of hardware that connects to another device to provide it with additional functionality.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
"End-of-life" (EOL) is a term used with respect to a product supplied to customers, indicating that the product is in the end of its useful life (from the vendor's point of view), and a vendor stops marketing, selling, or rework sustaining it.
In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit.
The first-sale doctrine is a legal concept playing an important role in U.S. copyright and trademark law by limiting certain rights of a copyright or trademark owner.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.
Freeware is software that is available for use at no monetary cost.
Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery.
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
id Software LLC (see Company name) is an American video game developer headquartered in Dallas, Texas.
The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the IEEE Computer Society.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
The iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) (formerly iPhone SDK) is a software development kit developed by Apple Inc. The kit allows for the development of mobile apps on Apple's iOS operating system.
iTunes is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001.
iWork is an office suite of applications created by Apple Inc. for its macOS and iOS operating systems, and also available cross-platform through the iCloud website.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java bytecode is the instruction set of the Java virtual machine (JVM).
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
This is a list of notable software which were originally developed as commercial (and/or proprietary) software product with the source now available (in contrast to software which is developed from the beginning as free and open source software).
The source code of these commercially developed and distributed video games is available to the public or the games' communities.
This article is a list of unofficial source ports of the Doom engine, which was originally used in the video game Doom.
Linux is an open-source kernel and usually comes bundled with free and open source software; however, proprietary software for Linux does exist and is available to end-users.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
macOS Sierra (version 10.12) is the thirteenth major release of macOS (previously), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Office 2007 (codenamed Office 12) is a version of Microsoft Office, a family of office suites and productivity software for Windows, developed and published by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Mulayam Singh Yadav (born 21 November 1939) is an Indian politician from Uttar Pradesh and the founder of the Samajwadi Party.
Multi-licensing is the practice of distributing software under two or more different sets of terms and conditions.
MySQL ("My S-Q-L") is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.
In software development, obfuscation is the deliberate act of creating source or machine code that is difficult for humans to understand.
In computing, object code or object module is the product of a compiler.
The Open Letter to Hobbyists was a 1976 open letter written by Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, to early personal computer hobbyists, in which Gates expresses dismay at the rampant copyright infringement of software taking place in the hobbyist community, particularly with regard to his company's software.
An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
An orphan work is a copyright protected work for which rightsholders are positively indeterminate or uncontactable.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Patentable, statutory or patent-eligible subject matter is subject matter which is susceptible of patent protection.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Pine is a freeware, text-based email client which was developed at the University of Washington.
Planned obsolescence, or built-in obsolescence, in industrial design and economics is a policy of planning or designing a product with an artificially limited useful life, so it will become obsolete (that is, unfashionable or no longer functional) after a certain period of time.
The PlayStation 3 system software is the updatable firmware and operating system of the PlayStation 3.
Product activation is a license validation procedure required by some proprietary computer software programs.
A product key, also known as a software key, is a specific software-based key for a computer program.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Proprietary hardware is computer hardware whose interface is controlled by the proprietor, often under patent or trade-secret protection.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Retail software is computer software typically installed on PC type computers or more recently (past 2005) delivered via the Internet (also known as cloud-based).
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
In computer science, run time, runtime or execution time is the time during which a program is running (executing), in contrast to other program lifecycle phases such as compile time, link time and load time.
Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period.
A screensaver (or screen saver) is a computer program that blanks the screen or fills it with moving images or patterns when the computer is not in use.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
In security engineering, security through obscurity (or security by obscurity) is the reliance on the secrecy of the design or implementation as the main method of providing security for a system or component of a system.
Sendmail is a general purpose internetwork email routing facility that supports many kinds of mail-transfer and delivery methods, including the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for email transport over the Internet.
A shared source or source available software source code distribution model includes arrangements where the source can be viewed, and in some cases modified, but without necessarily meeting the criteria to be called open source.
Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.
Shrink wrap contracts are boilerplate contracts packaged with products; usage of the product is deemed acceptance of the contract.
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
Software copyright is the extension of copyright law to machine-readable software.
A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
A standard form contract (sometimes referred to as a contract of adhesion, a leonine contract, a take-it-or-leave-it contract, or a boilerplate contract) is a contract between two parties, where the terms and conditions of the contract are set by one of the parties, and the other party has little or no ability to negotiate more favorable terms and is thus placed in a "take it or leave it" position.
The Inquirer is a British technology tabloid website founded by Mike Magee after his departure from The Register (of which he was one of the founding members) in 2001.
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The T. C. Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond (Richmond Law) is a school of the University of Richmond, located in Richmond, Virginia.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
An unofficial patch is a non-commercial patch for a piece of software, created by a user community instead of the original developer.
vBulletin (vB) is a proprietary Internet forum software package developed by vBulletin Solutions, Inc., a division of Internet Brands.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.
Windows Vista—a major release of the Microsoft Windows operating system—was available in six different product editions: Starter; Home Basic; Home Premium; Business; Enterprise; and Ultimate.
Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001.
WinRAR is a trialware file archiver utility for Windows, developed by Eugene Roshal of win.rar GmbH.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
Apogee Software, Ltd., since 1996 doing business as 3D Realms, is an American video game developer and publisher based in Garland, Texas.
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