103 relations: Acetic acid, Acetone, Acidosis, Aerosolization, Allergic rhinitis, Anemia, Antifreeze, Artificial tears, Asthma, Atomizer nozzle, Biochemical oxygen demand, Biodiesel, Bottom feeder, Bradycardia, Carbon, Chemical formula, Chicago, Chloroform, Conjunctivitis, Copolymer, Cross-link, Deicing, Depressant, Dermatitis, Diazepam, Diol, Dipropylene glycol, E number, Electronic cigarette, Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid, Enantiomer, Ethylene glycol, Eutectic system, Excipient, Eyewash, Food additive, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Food and Drug Administration, Food web, Freezing-point depression, Frozen dessert, Generally recognized as safe, Genotoxicity, Gluconeogenesis, Glucuronide, Glycerol, Glycol ethers, Heart arrhythmia, Heinz body, Hemolysis, ..., Humectant, Hygroscopy, Ice cream, Injection (medicine), Intravenous therapy, Isophthalic acid, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Karlstad University, Ketosis, Lactic acid, Lactic acidosis, Lorazepam, Maleic anhydride, Mannitol, Medication, Melting point, Metabolism, Miscibility, Nitroglycerin (drug), Oral administration, Organic compound, Oxygen saturation, Pharmacology, Polyester resin, Polymer, Polypropylene glycol, Polyurethane, Propionaldehyde, Propionate, Propylene oxide, Pyruvic acid, QRS complex, Racemic mixture, Raw material, Recreational vehicle, Renal physiology, Respiratory tract, Rumen, Ruminant, Sensitization, Solubility, Solvent, Sugar substitute, T wave, Theatrical smoke and fog, Thermosetting polymer, Topical medication, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Vitamin D, Water, 1,3-Propanediol. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e. into an aerosol.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
Artificial tears are lubricant eye drops used to treat the dryness and irritation associated with deficient tear production in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes).
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An atomizer nozzle can take many forms.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
A bottom feeder is an aquatic animal that feeds on or near the bottom of a body of water.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dipropylene glycol is a mixture of three isomeric chemical compounds, 4-oxa-2,6-heptandiol, 2-(2-hydroxy-propoxy)-propan-1-ol, and 2-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethoxy)-propan-1-ol.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking.
Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid (sometimes referred to as E-liquid) is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
Eyewash is a fluid, commonly salineus used to physically wash the eyes in the case that they may be contaminated by foreign materials or substances.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Freezing-point depression is the decrease of the freezing point of a solvent on addition of a non-volatile solute.
Frozen dessert is the generic name for desserts made by freezing liquids, semi-solids, and sometimes even solids.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol commonly used in paints and cleaners.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heinz bodies (also referred to as "Heinz-Ehrlich bodies") are inclusions within red blood cells composed of denatured hemoglobin.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Isophthalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (a.k.a. JPET) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pharmacology.
Karlstad University (Swedish Karlstads universitet) is a state university in Karlstad, Sweden.
Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer of propylene glycol.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
Propylene oxide is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3CHCH2O.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
The QRS complex is a name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
The term recreational vehicle (RV) is often used as a broad category of motor vehicles and trailers which include living quarters designed for temporary accommodation.
Renal physiology (Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization, or recovery, of the ventricles.
Theatrical smoke and fog, also known as special effect smoke, fog or haze, is a category of atmospheric effects used in the entertainment industry.
A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
1,3-Propanediol is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2OH)2.
(R)-propane-1,2-diol, (S)-propane-1,2-diol, 1,2-Propanediol, 1,2-dihydroxypropane, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-propylene glycol, ATCvet code QA16QA01, Dowfrost, E1520, E490, Locobase, Methyl ethyl glycol, Methylethylene glycol, Monopropylene glycol, Propane-1,2-diol, Propane-1,2-diol,, Propolene glycol, Propylene Glycol, Propylene glycols, Propylenglycol, Propyless, Sirlene.