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Prostate cancer

Index Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. [1]

274 relations: Abiraterone, Active surveillance of prostate cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Adrenal gland, Adverse effect, African Americans, Agent Orange, American Cancer Society, American College of Physicians, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Urological Association, Analgesic, Andreas Vesalius, Andrew Schally, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Anemia, Antibiotic, Anxiety, Apoptosis, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, Bcl-2, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bevacizumab, Biopsy, Bisphosphonate, Bone, Bone metastasis, Bone pain, Bone scintigraphy, Brachytherapy, BRCA mutation, BRCA1, BRCA2, Breast cancer, CA (journal), Cabazitaxel, Calcitriol receptor, Cancer, Cancer Research UK, Cancer staging, Cancer vaccine, Carbohydrate, Carboxypeptidase, Carcinoma in situ, Castration, CD44, CD82 (gene), CDH1 (gene), ..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles Brenton Huggins, Checkpoint inhibitor, Chemotherapy, Chlamydia infection, Citric acid, Consanguinity, Cruciferous vegetables, Cryosurgery, Cryotherapy, CT scan, Cyclophosphamide, CYP17A1, Cystoscopy, Dairy product, Defecation, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Delirium, Developed country, Developing country, Diet (nutrition), Dietary supplement, Differentiation therapy, Dihydrotestosterone, Docetaxel, DU145, Dutasteride, Dysuria, Ejaculation, Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging, Enzalutamide, Erectile dysfunction, Erection, ERG (gene), Estrogen, ETS transcription factor family, ETV1, External beam radiotherapy, Fecal incontinence, Femur, Fever, Finasteride, Five-year survival rate, Flanders, Fluorouracil, Folate, Fusion gene, Galeterone, GDF15, Gene, Genome-wide association study, Gland, Gleason grading system, Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonorrhea, Goserelin, Grading (tumors), Green tea, Hematuria, Heritability, High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Hormonal therapy (oncology), Hormone, Hugh H. Young, Hydrolase, Immortalised cell line, Immunotherapy, Incubation period, India, Infection, Inflammation, Ipilimumab, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Legume, Leuprorelin, Life expectancy, Lipid-lowering agent, LNCaP, Lycopene, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymphedema, Male reproductive system, Malignancy, Medical imaging, Meta-analysis, Metastasis, Mineral (nutrient), MSMB, Mutation, Neoplasm, NF-κB, Niccolò Massa, Nigeria, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nocturia, Nomogram, Nuclear receptor, Obesity, Olaparib, Omega-3 fatty acid, Oncogene, Oncology, Opioid, Orchiectomy, Osteoblast, Ovarian cancer, Overdiagnosis, P53, Palliative care, Papillomaviridae, PARP inhibitor, Pathology, PC3, PCA3, Pelvic pain, Pelvis, Phenolic content in tea, PI-RADS, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Positron emission tomography, Prednisone, Processed meat, Professional association, Prognosis, Prospective cohort study, Prostate, Prostate brachytherapy, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Prostate cancer screening, Prostate cancer staging, Prostate-specific antigen, Prostatectomy, Prostatic urethra, Prostatic venous plexus, Prostatitis, Prostvac, Protein, PTEN (gene), PTK2, Race (human categorization), Radiation therapy, Radiology, Radium, Radium-223, Randomized controlled trial, Rectal examination, Rectum, Red meat, Reference ranges for blood tests, Reproductive system, Rib, Ribonuclease L, Risk factor, Roger Guillemin, RUNX2, Saturated fat, Scandinavia, Science (journal), Screening (medicine), Secondary sex characteristic, Selenium, Semen, Seminal vesicle, Sepsis, Sexually transmitted infection, Shared decision-making in medicine, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sipuleucel-T, SLC39A1, SMAD (protein), Small-cell carcinoma, Specialty (medicine), Spinal cord, Statin, Steroid, Stratum basale, Stroma (tissue), Surgery, Syphilis, Testicle, Testosterone, Thalidomide, The Guardian, The Times, TheGuardian.com, Tissue (biology), TMPRSS2, TNM staging system, Trans fat, Transcription factor, Transforming growth factor beta, Transmembrane protein, Transrectal ultrasonography, Transurethral resection of the prostate, Tumor marker, Twin study, United Kingdom, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Unnecessary health care, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urinary incontinence, Urinary tract infection, Urination, Urine, Urology, Vas deferens, Vasectomy, Vegetarianism, Venice, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vitamin, Vitamin D, Warren Farrell, Watchful waiting, White Americans, Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, XIAP, ZERO—The End of Prostate Cancer, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. Expand index (224 more) »


Abiraterone, developmental code name CB-7598, also known as 17-(3-pyridyl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol, is a synthetic, steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor.

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Active surveillance of prostate cancer

Active surveillance (AS) or watchful waiting is a management option for localized prostate cancer that can be offered to appropriate patients who would also be candidates for aggressive local therapies (surgery and radiotherapy), with the intent to intervene if the disease progresses.

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Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Agent Orange

Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.

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American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.

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American College of Physicians

The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.

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American Society of Clinical Oncology

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.

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American Urological Association

The American Urological Association (AUA) is a professional association in the United States for urology professionals.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Andrew Schally

Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologistAndrew V. Schally,, Encyclopædia Britannica.

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An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.

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Androgen receptor

The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.

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Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors are compounds that slow or stop the action of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-lipoxygenase or 5-LOX) enzyme, which is responsible for the production of inflammatory leukotrienes.

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Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.

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Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Bone metastasis

Bone metastases, or osseous metastatic disease, is a category of cancer metastases that results from primary tumor invasion to bone.

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Bone pain

Bone pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone.

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Bone scintigraphy

A bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique of the bone.

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Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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BRCA mutation

A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.

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BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.

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BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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CA (journal)

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published for the American Cancer Society by Wiley-Blackwell.

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Cabazitaxel (previously XRP-6258, trade name Jevtana) is a semi-synthetic derivative of a natural taxoid. It was developed by Sanofi-Aventis and was approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer on June 17, 2010. It is a microtubule inhibitor, and the fourth taxane to be approved as a cancer therapy. Cabazitaxel in combination with prednisone is a treatment option for hormone-refractory prostate cancer following docetaxel-based treatment.

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Calcitriol receptor

The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund.

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Cancer staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

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Cancer vaccine

A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide.

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Carcinoma in situ

Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.

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CD82 (gene)

CD82 (Cluster of Differentiation 82) is a human protein encoded by the gene.

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CDH1 (gene)

Cadherin-1 also known as CAM 120/80 or epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) or uvomorulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH1 gene.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Charles Brenton Huggins

Charles Brenton Huggins (September 22, 1901 – January 12, 1997) was a Canadian-American physician, physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specializing in prostate cancer.

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Checkpoint inhibitor

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a form of cancer treatment immunotherapy currently under research.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chlamydia infection

Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.

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Cruciferous vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables.

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Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue; thus, it is the surgical application of cryoablation.

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Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.

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Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.

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Cystoscopy (si-ˈstäs-kə-pē) is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra.

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Dairy product

Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.

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Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.

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Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Differentiation therapy

Differentiation therapy is an approach to treating advanced cancers in which malignant cells are encouraged to differentiate into more mature forms using pharmacological agents.

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Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.

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Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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DU145 (DU-145) is a human prostate cancer cell line.

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Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.

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In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.

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Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.

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Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging

Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging or endorectal coil MRI is a type of medical imaging in which MRI is used in conjunction with a coil placed into the rectum in order to obtain high quality images of the area surrounding the rectum.

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Enzalutamide, sold under the brand name Xtandi, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.

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ERG (gene)

ERG (ETS-related gene) is an oncogene.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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ETS transcription factor family

In the field of molecular biology, the ETS (E26 transformation-specific or E-twenty-six) family is one of the largest families of transcription factors and is unique to animals.

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ETS translocation variant 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ETV1 gene.

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External beam radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).

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Fecal incontinence

Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.

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The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.

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Five-year survival rate

The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Fusion gene

A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes.

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Galeterone (developmental code names TOK-001, VN/124-1) is a steroidal antiandrogen which was under development by Tokai Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was first identified as Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 or MIC-1.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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Gleason grading system

The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy.

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Glutamate carboxypeptidase II

Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate peptidase I (NAALADase I), NAAG peptidase, or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FOLH1 (folate hydrolase 1) gene.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.

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Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Goserelin, or goserelin acetate, sold under the brand name Zoladex (by AstraZeneca) among others, is a medication which is used to suppress production of the sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen), particularly in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

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Grading (tumors)

In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.

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Green tea

Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.

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Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

In urologic pathology, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, abbreviated HGPIN, is an abnormality of prostatic glands and believed to precede the development of prostate adenocarcinoma (the most common form of prostate cancer).

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High-intensity focused ultrasound

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.

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Hormonal therapy (oncology)

Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hugh H. Young

Hugh Hampton Young, M.D. (September 18, 1870 – August 23, 1945) was an American surgeon, urologist, and medical researcher.

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Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.

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Immortalised cell line

An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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Incubation period

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.

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Johns Hopkins Hospital

The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lipid-lowering agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).

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LNCaP cells are a cell line of human cells commonly used in the field of oncology.

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Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

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Lymphedema, also known as lymphoedema and lymphatic edema, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the bloodstream.

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Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.

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Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Beta-microseminoprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSMB gene.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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Niccolò Massa

Niccolò Massa (1485–1569) was an Italian anatomist who wrote an early anatomy text Anatomiae Libri Introductorius in 1536.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for voiding (i.e. to urinate).” Its causes are varied and, in many patients, difficult to discern.

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A nomogram (from Greek νόμος nomos, "law" and γραμμή grammē, "line"), also called a nomograph, alignment chart or abaque, is a graphical calculating device, a two-dimensional diagram designed to allow the approximate graphical computation of a mathematical function.

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Nuclear receptor

In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Olaparib (AZD-2281, trade name Lynparza) is an FDA-approved targeted therapy for cancer, developed by scientists at the University of Cambridge, including Steve Jackson, KuDOS Pharmaceuticals, and later by AstraZeneca.

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Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

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An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed.

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Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, osteo- and βλαστάνω, blastanō "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.

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Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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Papillomaviridae is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses.

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PARP inhibitor

PARP inhibitors are a group of pharmacological inhibitors of the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP).

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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PC3 (PC-3) is a human prostate cancer cell line used in prostate cancer research and drug development.

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Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3, also referred to as DD3) is a gene that expresses a non-coding RNA.

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Pelvic pain

Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis.

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The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Phenolic content in tea

The phenolic content in tea refers to the phenols and polyphenols, natural plant compounds which are found in tea.

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PI-RADS is an acronym for Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System, defining standards of high quality clinical service for multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI), including image creation and reporting.

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PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.

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Processed meat

Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life.

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Professional association

A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Prospective cohort study

A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.

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The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Prostate brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy, or radiation treatment, offered to certain cancer patients.

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Prostate Cancer Foundation

The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF), headquartered in Santa Monica, CA, funds research into the prevention and cure of prostate cancer.

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Prostate cancer screening

Prostate cancer screening is the screening process used to detect undiagnosed prostate cancer in those without signs or symptoms.

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Prostate cancer staging

Prostate cancer staging is the process by which physicians categorize the risk of cancer having spread beyond the prostate, or equivalently, the probability of being cured with local therapies such as surgery or radiation.

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Prostate-specific antigen

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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Prostatectomy (from the Greek prostates, "prostate", combined with the suffix -ektomē, "excision") as a medical term refers to the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.

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Prostatic urethra

The prostatic urethra, the widest and most dilatable part of the urethra canal, is about 3 cm long.

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Prostatic venous plexus

The prostatic veins form a well-marked prostatic plexus which lies partly in the fascial sheath of the prostate and partly between the sheath and the prostatic capsule.

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Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.

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PROSTVAC (rilimogene galvacirepvec/rilimogene glafolivec) is a cancer immunotherapy candidate in clinical development by Bavarian Nordic for the treatment of all prostate cancer although clinical trials are focusing on more advanced cases of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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PTEN (gene)

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene.

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PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTK2 gene.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Radium-223 (Ra-223, 223Ra) is an isotope of radium with an 11.4-day half-life, in contrast to the more common isotope radium-226, discovered by the Curies, which has a 1601-year half-life.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Rectal examination

A rectal examination, commonly called a prostate exam, is an internal examination of the rectum, performed by a healthcare provider.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Red meat

In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.

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Reference ranges for blood tests

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

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Reproductive system

The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

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In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.

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Ribonuclease L

Ribonuclease L or RNase L (for latent), known sometimes as ribonuclease 4 or 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-dependent ribonuclease — is an interferon (IFN)-induced ribonuclease which, upon activation, destroys all RNA within the cell (both cellular and viral).

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Roger Guillemin

Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (born January 11, 1924 in Dijon, Bourgogne, France) received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and the Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for his work on neurohormones, sharing the prize that year with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.

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Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX2 gene.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Secondary sex characteristic

Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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Shared decision-making in medicine

Shared decision-making in medicine (SDM) is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Sipuleucel-T (APC8015, trade name Provenge), developed by Dendreon Corporation, is a cell-based cancer immunotherapy for prostate cancer (CaP).

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Zinc transporter ZIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A1 gene.

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SMAD (protein)

Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth.

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Small-cell carcinoma

Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.

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Specialty (medicine)

A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Stratum basale

The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals.

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Stroma (tissue)

Stroma is the part of a tissue or organ with a structural or connective role.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transmembrane protease, serine 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TMPRSS2 gene.

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TNM staging system

The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.

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Trans fat

Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Transrectal ultrasonography

Transrectal ultrasound create an image of organs in the pelvis.

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Transurethral resection of the prostate

Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP, plural TURPs, and rarely as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation.

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Tumor marker

A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated by the presence of one or more types of cancer.

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Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Unnecessary health care

Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.

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In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.

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Vas deferens

The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.

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Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception.

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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Warren Farrell

Warren Thomas Farrell (born June 26, 1943) is an American educator, activist and author of seven books on men's and women's issues.

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Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.

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White Americans

White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.

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Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is "a laboratory-derived mouse virus that was generated through recombination between two endogenous murine retroviruses during propagation of a prostate cancer xenograft in the mid-1990's".

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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), also known as inhibitor of apoptosis protein 3 (IAP3) and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 4 (BIRC4), is a protein that stops apoptotic cell death.

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ZERO—The End of Prostate Cancer

ZERO - The End of Prostate Cancer is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to prostate cancer education, testing, patient support, research and advocacy.

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5α-Reductase inhibitor

5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.

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Advanced prostate cancer, Androgen Independent, Cancer of the prostate, Cancer prostatae, Castrate-Resistant, Castration-resistant prostate cancer, Hormone-refractory prostate cancer, Localised prostate cancer, Localized prostate cancer, Locally advanced prostate cancer, Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, Metastatic prostate cancer, Neoplasma malignum prostatae, Prostate (cancer), Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer in Australia, Prostate adenocarcinoma, Prostate cancer folate supplementation, Prostate cancer, familial, Prostate carcinoma, Prostatic adenocarcinoma, Prostatic cancer, Prostatic cancers, Prostatic carcinoma, Prostatic neoplasms, Prostrate cancer, Recurrent prostate cancer, Symptoms of Prostate cancer.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostate_cancer

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