111 relations: Alcohol, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha-1 antitrypsin, Amino acid, Aminopeptidase, Animal, Antithrombin, Antiviral drug, Apoptosis, Archaea, Asparagine, Asparagine peptide lyase, Aspartic acid, Aspartic protease, Ayurveda, Bacteria, Biochemical cascade, C1-inhibitor, Calpain, Carbon, Carboxylic acid, Carboxypeptidase A, Catabolism, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Cathepsin G, Chymotrypsin, Coagulation, Complement system, Convergent evolution, Covalent bond, Cysteine, Cysteine protease, Denaturation (biochemistry), Digestion, Duodenum, Elastase, Elimination reaction, Endopeptidase, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme promiscuity, Eukaryote, Exopeptidase, Factor XII, Fibrinolysis, Flour treatment agent, Fungus, Fusion protein, Glutamic acid, ..., Glutamic protease, Hemotoxin, Histidine, HIV/AIDS, Hydrolysis, Inflammation, Intramembrane protease, Kinin–kallikrein system, Laundry detergent, Lipocalin, Lipophilicity, Mast cell, MEROPS, Metalloproteinase, Nitrogen, Norovirus, Ontogeny, PA clan, Paneer, Papain, Pathogenesis, Pepsin, Peptide bond, PH, Photosynthesis, Pit viper, Plant, Plasmin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Poliomyelitis, Prokaryote, Protease inhibitor (biology), Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Proteases in angiogenesis, Proteasome, Protein, Protein family, Protein superfamily, Protein tag, Proteolysis, Serine, Serine protease, Serpin, SERPINI1, Snake venom, Streptogrisin A, TEV protease, The Proteolysis Map, Thiol, Threonine, Threonine protease, Thrombin, TopFIND, Trypsin, Trypsin inhibitor, Trypsinogen, Type I hypersensitivity, Virulence factor, Virus, Withania coagulans, Zinc. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (symbol α1AC, A1AC, or a1ACT) is an alpha globulin glycoprotein that is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aminopeptidases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from the amino terminus (N-terminus) of proteins or peptides.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases, or proteinases, are classified according to their catalytic residue.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
C1-inhibitor (C1-inh, C1 esterase inhibitor) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin superfamily.
A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carboxypeptidase A usually refers to the pancreatic exopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of C-terminal residues with aromatic or aliphatic side-chains.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.
Cathepsin G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSG gene.
Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Endopeptidase or endoproteinase are proteolytic peptidases that break peptide bonds of nonterminal amino acids (i.e. within the molecule), in contrast to exopeptidases, which break peptide bonds from end-pieces of terminal amino acids.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An exopeptidase is any peptidase that catalyzes the cleavage of the terminal (or the penultimate) peptide bond; the process releases a single amino acid or dipeptide from the peptide chain.
Coagulation factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a plasma protein.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamic proteases are a group of proteolytic enzymes containing a glutamic acid residue within the active site.
Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause haemotoxin), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Intramembrane proteases (IMPs), also known as intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs), are enzymes that have the property of cleaving transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins.
The kinin–kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly understood hormonal system with limited available research.
Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.
The lipocalins are a family of proteins which transport small hydrophobic molecules such as steroids, bilins, retinoids, and lipids.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
MEROPS is an on-line database for peptidases (also known as proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and their inhibitors.
A metalloproteinase, or metalloprotease, is any protease enzyme whose catalytic mechanism involves a metal.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
The PA clan ('''P'''roteases of mixed nucleophile, superfamily A) is the largest group of proteases with common ancestry as identified by structural homology.
Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in India.
Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
In biology and biochemistry, protease inhibitors are molecules that inhibit the function of proteases (enzymes that aid the breakdown of proteins).
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels from existing blood vessels.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins with similar structures that were first identified for their protease inhibition activity and are found in all kingdoms of life.
Neuroserpin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINI1 gene.
Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.
Streptogrisin A (Streptomyces griseus protease A, protease A, proteinase A, Streptomyces griseus proteinase A, Streptomyces griseus serine proteinase 3, Streptomyces griseus serine proteinase A) is an enzyme.
TEV protease (Tobacco Etch Virus nuclear-inclusion-a endopeptidase) is a highly sequence-specific cysteine protease from Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV).
The Proteolysis MAP (PMAP) is an integrated web resource focused on proteases.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Threonine proteases are a family of proteolytic enzymes harbouring a threonine (Thr) residue within the active site.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
TopFIND is the Termini oriented protein Function Inferred Database (TopFIND) is an integrated knowledgebase focused on protein termini, their formation by proteases and functional implications.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
A trypsin inhibitor is a type of serine protease inhibitor that reduces the biological activity of trypsin.
Trypsinogen (EC 22.214.171.124/20/21/23/24/26) is the precursor form or zymogen of trypsin, a digestive enzyme.
Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Withania coagulans (Hindi: Paneer phool पनीरफूल, Sanskrit: Rishyagandha) is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, native to Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Indian subcontinent.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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