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Protease

Index Protease

A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. [1]

111 relations: Alcohol, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha-1 antitrypsin, Amino acid, Aminopeptidase, Animal, Antithrombin, Antiviral drug, Apoptosis, Archaea, Asparagine, Asparagine peptide lyase, Aspartic acid, Aspartic protease, Ayurveda, Bacteria, Biochemical cascade, C1-inhibitor, Calpain, Carbon, Carboxylic acid, Carboxypeptidase A, Catabolism, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Cathepsin G, Chymotrypsin, Coagulation, Complement system, Convergent evolution, Covalent bond, Cysteine, Cysteine protease, Denaturation (biochemistry), Digestion, Duodenum, Elastase, Elimination reaction, Endopeptidase, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme promiscuity, Eukaryote, Exopeptidase, Factor XII, Fibrinolysis, Flour treatment agent, Fungus, Fusion protein, Glutamic acid, ..., Glutamic protease, Hemotoxin, Histidine, HIV/AIDS, Hydrolysis, Inflammation, Intramembrane protease, Kinin–kallikrein system, Laundry detergent, Lipocalin, Lipophilicity, Mast cell, MEROPS, Metalloproteinase, Nitrogen, Norovirus, Ontogeny, PA clan, Paneer, Papain, Pathogenesis, Pepsin, Peptide bond, PH, Photosynthesis, Pit viper, Plant, Plasmin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Poliomyelitis, Prokaryote, Protease inhibitor (biology), Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Proteases in angiogenesis, Proteasome, Protein, Protein family, Protein superfamily, Protein tag, Proteolysis, Serine, Serine protease, Serpin, SERPINI1, Snake venom, Streptogrisin A, TEV protease, The Proteolysis Map, Thiol, Threonine, Threonine protease, Thrombin, TopFIND, Trypsin, Trypsin inhibitor, Trypsinogen, Type I hypersensitivity, Virulence factor, Virus, Withania coagulans, Zinc. Expand index (61 more) »

Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin

Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (symbol α1AC, A1AC, or a1ACT) is an alpha globulin glycoprotein that is a member of the serpin superfamily.

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Alpha-1 antitrypsin

Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminopeptidase

Aminopeptidases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from the amino terminus (N-terminus) of proteins or peptides.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antithrombin

Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.

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Antiviral drug

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Asparagine

Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Asparagine peptide lyase

Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases, or proteinases, are classified according to their catalytic residue.

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Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Aspartic protease

Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates.

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Ayurveda

Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Biochemical cascade

A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.

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C1-inhibitor

C1-inhibitor (C1-inh, C1 esterase inhibitor) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin superfamily.

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Calpain

A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Carboxypeptidase A

Carboxypeptidase A usually refers to the pancreatic exopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of C-terminal residues with aromatic or aliphatic side-chains.

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Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Catalytic triad

A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.

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Cathepsin G

Cathepsin G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSG gene.

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Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.

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Coagulation

Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cysteine

Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cysteine protease

Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Elastase

In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.

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Elimination reaction

An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.

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Endopeptidase

Endopeptidase or endoproteinase are proteolytic peptidases that break peptide bonds of nonterminal amino acids (i.e. within the molecule), in contrast to exopeptidases, which break peptide bonds from end-pieces of terminal amino acids.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

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Enzyme promiscuity

Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Exopeptidase

An exopeptidase is any peptidase that catalyzes the cleavage of the terminal (or the penultimate) peptide bond; the process releases a single amino acid or dipeptide from the peptide chain.

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Factor XII

Coagulation factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a plasma protein.

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Fibrinolysis

Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.

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Flour treatment agent

Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fusion protein

Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Glutamic protease

Glutamic proteases are a group of proteolytic enzymes containing a glutamic acid residue within the active site.

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Hemotoxin

Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause haemotoxin), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage.

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Histidine

Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Intramembrane protease

Intramembrane proteases (IMPs), also known as intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs), are enzymes that have the property of cleaving transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins.

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Kinin–kallikrein system

The kinin–kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly understood hormonal system with limited available research.

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Laundry detergent

Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.

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Lipocalin

The lipocalins are a family of proteins which transport small hydrophobic molecules such as steroids, bilins, retinoids, and lipids.

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Lipophilicity

Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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MEROPS

MEROPS is an on-line database for peptidases (also known as proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and their inhibitors.

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Metalloproteinase

A metalloproteinase, or metalloprotease, is any protease enzyme whose catalytic mechanism involves a metal.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Norovirus

Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.

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Ontogeny

Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.

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PA clan

The PA clan ('''P'''roteases of mixed nucleophile, superfamily A) is the largest group of proteases with common ancestry as identified by structural homology.

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Paneer

Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in India.

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Papain

Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

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Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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Pepsin

Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Pit viper

The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plasmin

Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.

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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.

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Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protease inhibitor (biology)

In biology and biochemistry, protease inhibitors are molecules that inhibit the function of proteases (enzymes that aid the breakdown of proteins).

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Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.

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Proteases in angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels from existing blood vessels.

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Proteasome

Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein family

A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.

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Protein superfamily

A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).

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Protein tag

Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein.

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Proteolysis

Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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Serine

Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Serine protease

Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.

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Serpin

Serpins are a superfamily of proteins with similar structures that were first identified for their protease inhibition activity and are found in all kingdoms of life.

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SERPINI1

Neuroserpin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINI1 gene.

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Snake venom

Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.

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Streptogrisin A

Streptogrisin A (Streptomyces griseus protease A, protease A, proteinase A, Streptomyces griseus proteinase A, Streptomyces griseus serine proteinase 3, Streptomyces griseus serine proteinase A) is an enzyme.

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TEV protease

TEV protease (Tobacco Etch Virus nuclear-inclusion-a endopeptidase) is a highly sequence-specific cysteine protease from Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV).

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The Proteolysis Map

The Proteolysis MAP (PMAP) is an integrated web resource focused on proteases.

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Thiol

Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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Threonine

Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Threonine protease

Threonine proteases are a family of proteolytic enzymes harbouring a threonine (Thr) residue within the active site.

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Thrombin

Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.

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TopFIND

TopFIND is the Termini oriented protein Function Inferred Database (TopFIND) is an integrated knowledgebase focused on protein termini, their formation by proteases and functional implications.

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Trypsin

Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.

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Trypsin inhibitor

A trypsin inhibitor is a type of serine protease inhibitor that reduces the biological activity of trypsin.

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Trypsinogen

Trypsinogen (EC 3.4.23.18/20/21/23/24/26) is the precursor form or zymogen of trypsin, a digestive enzyme.

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Type I hypersensitivity

Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.

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Virulence factor

Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Withania coagulans

Withania coagulans (Hindi: Paneer phool पनीरफूल, Sanskrit: Rishyagandha) is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, native to Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Indian subcontinent.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Acid protease, Acid proteinase, Antiprotease, Basic protease, E1101, Neutral protease, Neutral proteases, Peptidase, Peptidases, Peptide hydrolases, Protease la, Proteases, Proteinase, Proteinases, Proteolytic Enzyme, Proteolytic cleavage, Proteolytic enzyme, Proteolytic enzymes.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protease

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