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Protein biosynthesis

Index Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. [1]

57 relations: Amino acid, Anisomycin, Antibiotic, Biomolecular structure, Biosynthesis, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Central dogma of molecular biology, Chloramphenicol, Cistron, Coactivator (genetics), Cycloheximide, Cytoplasm, DNA, Elongation factor, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme inhibitor, Erythromycin, Eukaryote, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic code, Genome, Guanosine triphosphate, Helicase, Initiation factor, Intron, Messenger RNA, Nuclear pore, Operon, Peptide, Peptide synthesis, Phosphodiester bond, Post-translational modification, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein folding, Protein precursor, Protein production, Protein targeting, Proteolysis, Puromycin, Release factor, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, Signal peptide, Spliceosome, Streptomycin, ..., Tetracycline, Thymine, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Uracil. Expand index (7 more) »

Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Anisomycin

Anisomycin, also known as flagecidin, is an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseolus which inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis.

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Antibiotic

An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Central dogma of molecular biology

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.

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Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Cistron

A cistron is an alternative term to a gene.

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Coactivator (genetics)

A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.

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Cycloheximide

Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Elongation factor

Elongation factors are a set of proteins that are used in protein synthesis in the process of cell cycle and elongation in some cells.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Erythromycin

Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Guanosine triphosphate

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Helicase

Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.

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Initiation factor

Initiation factors are proteins that bind to the small subunit of the ribosome during the initiation of translation, a part of protein biosynthesis.

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Intron

An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Nuclear pore

Nuclear pore complexes are large protein complexes that span the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus.

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Operon

In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.

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Peptide

Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Peptide synthesis

In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.

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Phosphodiester bond

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Protein precursor

A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule.

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Protein production

Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.

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Protein targeting

Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.

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Proteolysis

Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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Puromycin

Puromycin is an antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor which causes premature chain termination during translation.

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Release factor

A release factor is a protein that allows for the termination of translation by recognizing the termination codon or stop codon in an mRNA sequence.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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Signal peptide

A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.

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Spliceosome

A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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Streptomycin

Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Tetracycline

Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Uracil

Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Biosynthesis of proteins, Peptide biosynthesis, Polypeptide synthesis, Protein Synthesis, Protein biosynthesis (bacteria), Protein biosynthesis (eukaryotes), Proteinsynthesis, Proteosynthesis.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_biosynthesis

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