133 relations: Acetylcholine, Actinic keratosis, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Adrenergic agonist, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Angiotensin, Angiotensin II receptor type 1, Arrector pili muscle, Autonomic ganglion, Base (chemistry), BIM-1, Bronchoconstriction, Bronchus, Bryostatin, Calcitriol receptor, Calcium, Calpain, Cardiac muscle, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chelerythrine, Choroid plexus, Ciliary muscle, Circulatory system, Consensus sequence, Diabetic nephropathy, Diglyceride, Ejaculation, Endocrine system, Enzyme, Ependyma, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Euphorbia peplus, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastric acid, Gastrointestinal tract, Gluconeogenesis, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamic acid, Glycogenolysis, Gossypol, Gq alpha subunit, Hepatocyte, Human digestive system, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Ingenol mebutate, ..., Integumentary system, Intrinsically disordered proteins, Ionotropic effect, Iris dilator muscle, Iris sphincter muscle, Isozyme, Kidney, Lacrimal gland, Ligand, MARCKS, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Miyabenol C, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, Myricitrin, Na+/K+-ATPase, Nervous system, Neuron, NMDA receptor, Parietal cell, Phorbol esters, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipase, Phospholipase C, Phospholipid, Phosphorylation, PKC alpha, PKN2, PKN3 (gene), Platelet, Potassium, PRKCB1, PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCG, PRKCH, PRKCI, PRKCQ, PRKD2, PRKD3, Prostaglandin F2alpha, Protein, Protein isoform, Protein kinase, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase B, Protein kinase C zeta type, Protein kinase D1, Protein kinase N1, Proximal tubule, Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1, RAF kinase, Receptor for activated C kinase 1, Reproductive system, Respiratory system, Ruboxistaurin, Salivary gland, Seminal tract, Sensory nervous system, Serine, Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, Serotonin, Signal transduction, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium–hydrogen antiporter 3, Sphincter, Sweat gland, Threonine, Thromboxane, Turn (biochemistry), Ureter, Urethral sphincters, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Uterus, Vasoconstriction, Ventricular system, Verbascoside, Vitamin D, Yasutomi Nishizuka, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor.
The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals.
An autonomic ganglion is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in the autonomic nervous system.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
BIM-1 and the related compounds BIM-2, BIM-3, and BIM-8 are bisindolylmaleimide-based protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors.
Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Bryostatins are a group of macrolide lactones from the marine organism Bugula neritina that were first collected and provided to JL Hartwell’s anticancer drug discovery group at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) by Jack Rudloe.
The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chelerythrine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid present in the plant Chelidonium majus (greater celandine).
The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscleSchachar, Ronald A. (2012). "Anatomy and Physiology." (Chapter 4). in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
In molecular biology and bioinformatics, the consensus sequence (or canonical sequence) is the calculated order of most frequent residues, either nucleotide or amino acid, found at each position in a sequence alignment.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Euphorbia peplus (petty spurge, radium weed, cancer weed, or milkweed) is a species of Euphorbia, native to most of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, where it typically grows in cultivated arable land, gardens, and other disturbed land.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium).
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Ingenol mebutate (ingenol-3-angelate, PEP005, LEO Pharma trade name Picato) is a substance found in the sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus and an inducer of cell death.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is a protein that lacks a fixed or ordered three-dimensional structure.
An ionotropic effect can be applied to the effect of a transmitter substance or hormone on its target.
The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator.
The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MARCKS gene.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Miyabenol C is a stilbenoid.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3.
Myricitrin is a plant compound, the 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside of myricetin.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Phorbol esters are a class of chemical compounds found in a variety of plants, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaceae families.
Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCA gene.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase N2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PKN2 gene.
PKN3 is a protein kinase C-related molecule and thought to be an effector mediating malignant cell growth downstream of activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K).
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Protein kinase C beta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCB gene.
Protein kinase C delta type (or PKC-δ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCD gene.
Protein kinase C epsilon type (PKCε) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCE gene.
Protein kinase C gamma type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCG gene.
Protein kinase C eta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCH gene.
Protein kinase C iota type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCI gene.
Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase D2 or PKD2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD2 gene.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3 (PKD3) or PKC-nu is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD3 gene.
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed dinoprost (INN), is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Protein kinase C, zeta (PKCζ), also known as PRKCZ, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKCZ gene.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD1 gene.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase N1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PKN1 gene.
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDK1 gene.
RAF kinases are a family of three serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that are related to retroviral oncogenes.
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), also known as guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 (GNB2L1), is a 35 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the RACK1 gene.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Ruboxistaurin (proposed brand name Arxxant) is an investigational drug for diabetic retinopathy being investigated by Eli Lilly and Company.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
The seminal tract is a part of the male reproductive system and consists of Seminiferous tubules (Tubuli seminiferi recti, Rete testis, Efferent ducts), Epididymis (Appendix), Vas deferens (Ampulla) and Ejaculatory duct.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A serine/threonine protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains).
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium–hydrogen antiporter 3 also known as sodium–hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) or solute carrier family 9 member 3 (SLC9A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3 gene.
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.
A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Verbascoside is a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside in which the phenylpropanoid caffeic acid and the phenylethanoid hydroxytyrosol form an ester and an ether bond respectively, to the rhamnose part of a disaccharide, namely β-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
was a prominent Japanese biochemist and made important contribution to the understanding of molecular mechanism of signal transduction across the cell membrane.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
ATP:protein phosphotransferase (diacylglycerol-dependent), C-kinase, EC 18.104.22.168, Function of PKC, Function of protein kinase C, Inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC inhibitor, Protein Kinase C, Protein kc, Protein kinase C inhibitor, Protein kinase c.