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Protestant Ascendancy

Index Protestant Ascendancy

The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England. [1]

106 relations: Absentee landlord, Acts of Union 1800, American Revolution, Anglo-Irish people, Aristocracy (class), Augusta, Lady Gregory, Austria, Boyle Roche, British Army, British Empire, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Ireland, Catholic emancipation, Celtic Revival, Charles Edward Stuart, Charles Stewart Parnell, Chris de Burgh, Christian state, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Cork Free Press, County Mayo, Destruction of Irish country houses (1919–1923), Dissenter, Dominion, Dublin Corporation, Earl of Granard, Edmund Burke, Elizabeth Bowen, Elizabeth I of England, Fee tail, France, Freehold (law), George III of the United Kingdom, Grand jury, Great Famine (Ireland), Guild, Henry Grattan, Henry Mountcharles, History of the Jews in Ireland, Holy See, Hubert Butler, Ireland, Irish Catholics, Irish Church Act 1869, Irish Civil War, Irish Free State, Irish House of Commons, Irish House of Lords, Irish Land Acts, ..., Irish Land Commission, Irish nationalism, Irish Patriot Party, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish Volunteers (18th century), Irish War of Independence, Irony, Jacobitism, James Francis Edward Stuart, James II of England, John Gray (Irish politician), John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn, Judiciary, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Landed gentry, Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Marquess of Headfort, Mary I of England, Mary II of England, Ninette de Valois, Northern Ireland, Official Ireland, Orange Order, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Patrick Augustine Sheehan, Penal Laws (Ireland), Plantations of Ireland, Presbyterianism, Protestant Irish nationalists, Rates (tax), Reform Act, Republic of Ireland, Robert Emmet, Ruling class, Samuel Beckett, Seanad Éireann (Irish Free State), Society of United Irishmen, Somerville and Ross, Sovereignty, Spain, State religion, The Crown, Treaty of Limerick, Unionism in Ireland, W. B. Yeats, William Conolly, William Drennan, William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam, William III of England, William Orpen, Williamite, Williamite War in Ireland, Wolfe Tone. Expand index (56 more) »

Absentee landlord

In economics, an absentee landlord is a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the property's local economic region.

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Acts of Union 1800

The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Anglo-Irish people

Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy.

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Aristocracy (class)

The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.

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Augusta, Lady Gregory

Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (née Persse; 15 March 1852 – 22 May 1932) was an Irish dramatist, folklorist and theatre manager.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Boyle Roche

Sir Boyle Roche, 1st Baronet (October 1736, as cited in Some sources, including earlier versions of the Dictionary of National Biography, give the date as 1743. However, since the later date would make Roche rather young to have served with such distinction — he would have been 15 at the Battle on Snowshoes (and already a lieutenant!), 16 at the Siege of Quebec and 19 at the capture of El Morro — the earlier date seems more reasonable. – 5 June 1807) was an Irish politician.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Ireland

The Catholic Church in Ireland (Eaglais Chaitliceach na hÉireann) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See.

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Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

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Celtic Revival

The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.

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Charles Edward Stuart

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain.

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Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.

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Chris de Burgh

Christopher John Davison (born 15 October 1948), known professionally as Chris de Burgh, is a British-Irish singer-songwriter and instrumentalist.

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Christian state

A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Cork Free Press

The Cork Free Press (11 June 1910 – 9 December 1916) was a nationalist newspaper in Ireland, which circulated primarily in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, and was the newspaper of the dissident All-for-Ireland League party (1909–1918).

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County Mayo

County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.

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Destruction of Irish country houses (1919–1923)

The destruction of country houses in Ireland was a phenomenon of the Irish revolutionary period (1919–1923), which saw at least 275 country houses deliberately burned down, blown up, or otherwise destroyed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

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Dissenter

A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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Dublin Corporation

Dublin Corporation, known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between 1661 and 1 January 2002.

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Earl of Granard

Earl of Granard is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Elizabeth Bowen

Elizabeth Bowen, CBE (7 June 1899 – 22 February 1973) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer, notable for some of the best fiction about life in wartime London.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Fee tail

In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Freehold (law)

In common law jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland), a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land, as opposed to a leasehold, in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Guild

A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Henry Grattan

Henry Grattan (3 July 1746 – 6 June 1820) was an Irish politician and member of the Irish House of Commons, who campaigned for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century.

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Henry Mountcharles

The Most Hon. Henry Vivien Pierpont Conyngham, 8th Marquess Conyngham (born 25 May 1951), styled as Earl of Mount Charles from 1974–2009 and predominantly known as Henry Mountcharles, is an Anglo-Irish nobleman who holds titles in the Peerages of Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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History of the Jews in Ireland

The history of the Jews in Ireland extends back nearly a thousand years.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Hubert Butler

Hubert Marshal Butler (23 October 1900 – 5 January 1991) was an Irish essayist who wrote on a wide range of topics, from local history and archaeology to the political and religious affairs of eastern Europe before and during World War II.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish Catholics

Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.

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Irish Church Act 1869

The Irish Church Act 1869 (32 & 33 Vict. c. 42) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed during William Ewart Gladstone's administration and which came into force on 1 January 1871.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish House of Commons

The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800.

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Irish House of Lords

The Irish House of Lords was the upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from medieval times until 1800.

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Irish Land Acts

The Land Acts were a series of measures to deal with the question of peasant proprietorship of land in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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Irish Land Commission

The Irish Land Commission (or simply Land Commission) was created in 1881 as a rent fixing commission by the Land Law (Ireland) Act 1881, also known as the second Irish Land Act.

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Irish nationalism

Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.

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Irish Patriot Party

The Irish Patriot Party was the name of a number of different political groupings in Ireland throughout the 18th century.

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Irish Rebellion of 1798

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.

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Irish Republican Army (1922–1969)

The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.

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Irish Volunteers (18th century)

The Volunteers (also known as the Irish Volunteers) were local militias raised by local initiative in Ireland in 1778.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Irony

Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.

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Jacobitism

Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.

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James Francis Edward Stuart

James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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John Gray (Irish politician)

Sir John Gray Knt MD JP, sometimes spelled John Grey (13 July 1815 – 9 April 1875) was an Irish physician, surgeon, newspaper proprietor, journalist and politician.

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John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn

John James Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn KG, PC (Ire) (July 1756 – 27 January 1818) was an Irish peer and politician.

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Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Landed gentry

Landed gentry or gentry is a largely historical British social class consisting in theory of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate.

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Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898

The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 (61 & 62 Vict. c. 37) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that established a system of local government in Ireland similar to that already created for England, Wales and Scotland by legislation in 1888 and 1889.

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Marquess of Headfort

Marquess of Headfort is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.

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Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.

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Ninette de Valois

Dame Ninette de Valois (6 June 18988 March 2001) was an Anglo-Irish dancer, teacher, choreographer, and director of classical ballet.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Official Ireland

"Official Ireland" is a term widely used in the Republic of Ireland to denote The Establishment.

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Orange Order

The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.

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Parliament of Northern Ireland

The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.

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Patrick Augustine Sheehan

Patrick Augustine Sheehan (17 March 1852 – 5 October 1913) was an Irish Catholic priest, author and political activist.

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Penal Laws (Ireland)

In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.

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Plantations of Ireland

Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Protestant Irish nationalists

Protestant Irish nationalists are adherents of Protestantism in Ireland who also support Irish nationalism.

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Rates (tax)

Rates are a type of property tax system in the United Kingdom, and in places with systems deriving from the British one, the proceeds of which are used to fund local government.

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Reform Act

In the United Kingdom, Reform Act is a generic term used for legislation concerning electoral matters.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Robert Emmet

Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader.

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Ruling class

The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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Seanad Éireann (Irish Free State)

Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) was the upper house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.

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Society of United Irishmen

The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.

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Somerville and Ross

Somerville and Ross (Edith Somerville and Violet Florence Martin, writing under the name Martin Ross) were an Anglo-Irish writing team, perhaps most famous for their series of books that were made into the TV series The Irish R.M..

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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Treaty of Limerick

The Treaty of Limerick (Conradh Luimnigh) ended the Williamite War in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange and concluded the Siege of Limerick.

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Unionism in Ireland

Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.

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William Conolly

William Conolly (9 April 1662 – 30 October 1729), also known as Speaker Conolly, was an Irish politician, Commissioner of Revenue, lawyer and landowner.

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William Drennan

William Drennan (23 May 1754 – 5 February 1820) was an Irish physician, poet and political radical, who was one of the chief architects of the Society of United Irishmen.

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William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam

William Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam PC (30 May 1748 – 8 February 1833), styled Viscount Milton until 1756, was a British Whig statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William Orpen

Major Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen, (27 November 1878 – 29 September 1931), was an Irish artist who worked mainly in London.

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Williamite

A Williamite is a follower of King William III of England who deposed King James II in the Glorious Revolution.

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Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.

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Wolfe Tone

Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone (20 June 1763 – 19 November 1798), was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen, and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism and leader of the 1798 Irish Rebellion.

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The Ascendancy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant_Ascendancy

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