73 relations: Andreas Karlstadt, Andreas Osiander, Arnold of Brescia, Arnoldists, Augustine of Alfeld, Balthasar Hubmaier, Calvinism, Caspar Schwenckfeld, Catholic Church, Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, Ferenc Dávid, Francis de Sales, George Spalatin, Girolamo Aleandro, Girolamo Savonarola, Hans Denck, Hans Tausen, Heinrich Bullinger, Huldrych Zwingli, Hussites, Ignatius of Loyola, Jacobus Arminius, Jan Hus, Jerome Emser, Jerome of Prague, Jiří Třanovský, Joachim Westphal (of Hamburg), Johann Cochlaeus, Johann Eck, Johann Tetzel, Johannes Brenz, Johannes Bugenhagen, Johannes Oecolampadius, John Calvin, John Knox, John of Leiden, John Wycliffe, Justus Jonas, Leo Jud, List of Protestant Reformers, Lollardy, Magisterial Reformation, Martin Bucer, Martin Chemnitz, Martin Luther, Matthew Parker, Menno Simons, Mikael Agricola, Peter Martyr Vermigli, ..., Peter Waldo, Petr Chelčický, Philip Melanchthon, Pope Leo X, Primož Trubar, Radical Reformation, Reformation, Sacralism, Sebastian Franck, Theodore Beza, Theology, Thomas Cajetan, Thomas Cranmer, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Müntzer, Thomas More, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, Waldensians, William Farel, William Tyndale, Wittenberg, Wolfgang Capito, Zwickau prophets. Expand index (23 more) » « Shrink index
Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 in Karlstadt, Bishopric of Würzburg in the Holy Roman Empire24 December 1541 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy), better known as Andreas Karlstadt or Andreas Carlstadt or Karolostadt, or simply as Andreas Bodenstein, was a German Protestant theologian, University of Wittenberg chancellor, a contemporary of Martin Luther and a reformer of the early Reformation.
Andreas Osiander (19 December 1498 – 17 October 1552) was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant reformer.
Arnold of Brescia (1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus (Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy.
Arnoldists were a pre-Protestant Christian movement in the 12th century, named after Arnold of Brescia who criticized the great wealth and possessions of the Roman Catholic Church, and preached against baptism and the Eucharist.
Augustine of Alfeld (1480 – c. 1535) was a teacher and Minister Provincial of the Franciscan Order in Saxony, who was opposed to Martin Luther on the question of papal authority.
Balthasar Hubmaier, also Hubmair, Hubmayr, Hubmeier, Huebmör, Hubmör, Friedberger, Pacimontanus (c. 1480 in Friedberg, Duchy of Bavaria in the Holy Roman Empire 10 March, 1528 in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria in the Holy Roman Empire) was an influential German Anabaptist leader.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Caspar (or Kaspar) Schwen(c)kfeld von Ossig (1489 or 1490 – 10 December 1561) was a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Conrad Grebel (c. 1498–1526), son of a prominent Swiss merchant and councilman, was a co-founder of the Swiss Brethren movement.
Felix Manz (also Felix Mantz) (c. 1498 in Zürich, Canton of Zürich, Old Swiss Confederacy – 5 January 1527 in Zürich, Canton of Zürich, Old Swiss Confederacy) was an Anabaptist, a co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren congregation in Zürich, Switzerland, and the first martyr of the Radical Reformation.
Ferenc Dávid (also rendered as Francis David or Francis Davidis) (born as Franz David Hertel, c.1520 – 15 November 1579) was a Unitarian preacher from Transylvania, the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, and the leading figure of the Nontrinitarian movements during the Protestant Reformation.
Francis de Sales (François de Sales; Francesco di Sales); 21 August 156728 December 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.
Georg(e) Spalatin was the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt (17 January 1484 – 16 January 1545), was a German humanist, theologian, reformer, secretary of the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise, as well as an important figure in the history of the Reformation.
Girolamo Aleandro (also Hieronymus or Jerome Aleander) (13 February 14801 February 1542) was an Italian cardinal, and.
Girolamo Savonarola (21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence.
Hans Denck (c. 1495 – November 27, 1527) was a German theologian and Anabaptist leader during the Reformation.
Hans Tausen (Tavsen) (1494 – 11 November 1561) was the leading Lutheran theologian of the Danish Reformation in Denmark.
Heinrich Bullinger (18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zürich church and pastor at Grossmünster.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
Jacobus Arminius, (October 10, 1560 – October 19, 1609), the Latinized name of Jakob Hermanszoon, was a Dutch theologian from the Protestant Reformation period whose views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jerome (or Hieronymus) Emser (March 20, 1477 – November 8, 1527), German theologian and antagonist of Luther, was born of a good family at Ulm.
Jerome of Prague (Jeroným Pražský in Czech, 1379 in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire – 30 May 1416 in Konstanz, Bishopric of Constance in the Holy Roman Empire) was a Czech scholastic philosopher, theologian, reformer, and professor.
Jiří Třanovský (Jerzy Trzanowski, Juraj Tranovský, Georgius Tranoscius; 9 April 1592 – 29 May 1637), was a Lutheran priest and hymnwriter from the Cieszyn Silesia.
Joachim Westphal (born at Hamburg 1510 or at the beginning of 1511; died there 16 January 1574) was a German "Gnesio-Lutheran" theologian and Protestant reformer.
Johann Cochlaeus (Cochläus) (1479 – January 10, 1552) was a German humanist, music theorist, and controversialist.
Johann Maier von Eck (13 November 1486 – 13 February 1543), often Anglicized as John Eck, was a German Scholastic theologian, Catholic prelate, and early counterreformer who was among Martin Luther's most important interlocutors and theological opponents.
Johann Tetzel (1465 – 11 August 1519) was a German Dominican friar and preacher.
Johann (Johannes) Brenz (24 June 1499 – 11 September 1570) was a German theologian and the Protestant Reformer of the Duchy of Württemberg.
Johannes Bugenhagen (24 June 1485 – 20 April 1558), also called Doctor Pomeranus by Martin Luther, introduced the Protestant Reformation in the Duchy of Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century.
Johannes Oecolampadius (also Œcolampadius, in German also Oekolampadius, Oekolampad; 1482 in Weinsberg, Electoral Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire – 24 November 1531 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition from the Electoral Palatinate.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John of Leiden (Jan van Leiden; also Jan Beukelsz, Jan Beukelszoon, John Bockold, John Bockelson; February 2, 1509January 22, 1536), was an Anabaptist leader from Leiden, in the Holy Roman Empire's County of Holland.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
Justus Jonas, the Elder (5 June 1493 – 9 October 1555), or simply Justus Jonas, was a German Lutheran theologian and reformer.
Leo Jud (also Leo Juda, Leo Judä, Leo Judas, Leonis Judae, Ionnes Iuda, Leo Keller) (1482 – 19 June 1542), known to his contemporaries as Meister Leu, was a Swiss reformer who worked with Huldrych Zwingli in Zürich.
This is an alphabetical list of Protestant Reformers.
Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in which the Lutheran and Calvinist reformers related to secular authorities, such as princes, magistrates, or city councils", i.e. "the magistracy".
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Martin Chemnitz (9 November 1522 – 8 April 1586) was an eminent second-generation German Lutheran theologian, reformer, churchman, and confessor.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575.
Menno Simons (1496 – 31 January 1561) was a former Catholic priest from the Friesland region of the Low Countries who became an influential Anabaptist religious leader.
Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time.
Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian.
Peter Waldo, Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was a leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages.
Petr Chelčický (c. 1390 – c. 1460) was a Czech Christian spiritual leader and author in the 15th century Bohemia (in what is now the Czech Republic).
Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Primož Trubar or Primus Truber (1508 – 28 June 1586) was a Slovenian Protestant Reformer of the Lutheran tradition, mostly known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Duchy of Carniola, and for consolidating the Slovene language.
The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Sacralism is the confluence of church and state wherein one is called upon to change the other.
Sebastian Franck (20 January 1499 – c. 1543) was a 16th-century German freethinker, humanist, and radical reformer.
Theodore Beza (Theodorus Beza; Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Reformed Protestant theologian, reformer and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Thomas Cajetan (20 February 1469 - 9 August 1534), also known as Gaetanus, commonly Tommaso de Vio or Thomas de Vio, was an Italian philosopher, theologian, cardinal (from 1517 until his death) and the Master of the Order of Preachers 1508-18.
Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Müntzer (December 1489 – 27 May 1525) was a German preacher and radical theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Luther and the Roman Catholic Church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného (c. 1333 – 1401/1409) was a Czech nobleman, writer, theologian, translator, and preacher.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
William Farel (1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel, was a French evangelist, Protestant reformer and a founder of the Reformed Church in the Principality of Neuchâtel, in the Republic of Geneva, and in Switzerland in the Canton of Bern and the (then occupied by Bern) Canton of Vaud.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) (– November 1541) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition.
The Zwickau prophets were three men of the Radical Reformation from Zwickau, Electorate of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire, who were possibly involved in a disturbance in nearby Wittenberg and its evolving Reformation in early 1522.