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Proto-Germanic language

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Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. [1]

189 relations: Accent (phonetics), Afrikaans, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Frisian languages, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Article (grammar), August Schleicher, Avestan, Back vowel, Bar (diacritic), Basque language, Bergakker inscription, Bilabial consonant, Bound morpheme, Brill Publishers, Causative, Celtic languages, Chain shift, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Comparative method (linguistics), Compensatory lengthening, Consonant gradation, Consonant mutation, Continental Celtic languages, Corded Ware culture, Cowgill's law, D with stroke, Danube, Deflexion (linguistics), Denominal verb, Dental consonant, Desiderative mood, Deverbal noun, Dnieper, Donald Ringe, Dorsal consonant, Druhtinaz, Dual (grammatical number), East Germanic languages, Eastern Iranian languages, Ehwaz, Eihwaz, Elder Futhark, Elfdalian, Epenthesis, ..., Ƀ, Finnic languages, Finnish language, First Grammatical Treatise, Frankish language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Funnelbeaker culture, G with stroke, Gemination, German language, Germania (book), Germanic languages, Germanic parent language, Germanic peoples, Germanic spirant law, Germanic strong verb, Germanic umlaut, Germanic verb, Germanic weak verb, Glottal consonant, Golden Horns of Gallehus, Gothic Bible, Gothic Christianity, Gothic language, Gothic persecution of Christians, Grammatischer Wechsel, Grapheme, Greek language, Grimm's law, Hallstatt culture, Hiatus (linguistics), High German languages, Historical linguistics, History of the English language, Holtzmann's law, Homorganic consonants, I-mutation, Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, Indo-European languages, Ingaevones, Ingvaeonic languages, Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Jacob Grimm, Jastorf culture, Kluge's law, La Tène culture, Labial–velar consonant, Language contact, Lateral consonant, Latin, Linguistic reconstruction, Low German, Mannus, Mediopassive voice, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Migration Period, Migration Period spear, Modern English, Moesia, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Nasal consonant, Negau helmet, Neolithic Europe, Nordic Bronze Age, North Frisian language, North Germanic languages, Northern Sami, Ogonek, Oksywie culture, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Optative mood, Ossetian language, Palatal consonant, Periphrasis, Phonological history of Old English, Phylogenetics, Pitted Ware culture, Plural, Pre-Indo-European, Pre-Roman Iron Age, Preverb, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-language, Proto-Norse language, Proto-Samic language, Przeworsk culture, Reduplication, Rhine, Roman Empire, Roman historiography, Runes, Runic inscriptions, Saka language, Salic law, Sami languages, Sanskrit, Schleicher's fable, Scythian languages, Scythians, Semitic people, Sievers' law, Sigmund Feist, Slavs, Sonorant, Stang's law, Stentoften Runestone, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Suebi, Surface filter, Tacitus, Tandy Warnow, Týr, Theo Vennemann, Thervingi, Tone (linguistics), Tree model, Trill consonant, Tune stone, Ukraine, Upper Rhine, Velar consonant, Verner's law, Vimose inscriptions, Vistula, Vulgar Latin, West Frisian language, West Germanic gemination, West Germanic languages, Wielbark culture, Winfred P. Lehmann. Expand index (139 more) »

Accent (phonetics)

Accent is the phonetic prominence given to a particular syllable in a word, or to a particular word within a phrase.

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Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anglo-Frisian languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages is the group of West Germanic languages that includes English and Frisian.

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In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Article (grammar)

An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

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August Schleicher

August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.

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Avestan, formerly also known as "Zend", is an Iranian language of the Eastern Iranian division, known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta, from which it derives its name.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bar (diacritic)

A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.

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Basque language

Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.

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Bergakker inscription

The Bergakker inscription was found in 1996 near the town of Bergakker, near Tiel.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bound morpheme

In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme that appears only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can used stand alone or can appear with other lexemes.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Chain shift

In phonology, a chain shift is a phenomenon in which several sounds move stepwise along a phonetic scale.

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In morphology and syntax, a clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Comparative method (linguistics)

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, as opposed to the method of internal reconstruction, which analyses the internal development of a single language over time.

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Compensatory lengthening

Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.

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Consonant gradation

Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation, in which consonants alternate between various "grades".

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.

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Corded Ware culture

The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; ceramique cordée; snoerbekercultuur; in Middle Europe c. 2900–2450/2350 cal. BC), alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture, is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (Stone Age), flourishes through the Copper Age and culminates in the early Bronze Age.

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Cowgill's law

Cowgill's law, named after Indo-Europeanist Warren Cowgill, refers to two unrelated sound changes, one occurring in Proto-Greek and the other in Proto-Germanic.

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D with stroke

Đ (lowercase: đ, Latin alphabet), known as crossed D or dyet, formed from base character D/d overlaid with a crossbar.

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The Danube (also known by other names) is Europe's second-longest river, located in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Deflexion (linguistics)

Deflexion is a linguistic process related to inflectional languages.

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Denominal verb

In grammar, denominal verbs are verbs derived from nouns.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Desiderative mood

In linguistics, a desiderative (abbreviated or) form is one that has the meaning of "wanting to X".

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Deverbal noun

Deverbal nouns are nouns that are derived from verbs or verb phrases, but that behave grammatically purely as nouns, not as verbs.

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The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length), rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Donald Ringe

Donald Ringe is an American linguist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Dorsal consonant

Dorsal consonants are articulated with the mid body of the tongue (the dorsum).

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*Druhtinaz (Old English: dryhten, Old Norse: dróttinn, Old Middle English: drihten, Middle English: driȝten) is a Proto-Germanic term meaning a military leader or warlord and is derived from *druhti "war band" and the "ruler suffix" -īna- (c.f. Wōd-īna-z).

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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East Germanic languages

The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.

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Eastern Iranian languages

The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).

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*Ehwaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark e rune, meaning "horse" (cognate to Latin equus, Sanskrit aśva, Avestan aspa and Old Irish ech).

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Eiwaz or Eihaz (reconstructed *īhaz / *ēhaz or *īwaz / *ēwaz) was a Proto-Germanic word for "yew", and the reconstructed name of the rune.

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Elder Futhark

The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.

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Elfdalian or Övdalian (Övdalsk or Övdalską in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or Älvdalsmål in Swedish) is a North Germanic language or dialect spoken by c. 2,000 people who live or have grown up in the parish of Älvdalen (Övdaln), which is located in the southeastern part of Älvdalen Municipality in Northern Dalarna, Sweden.

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In phonology, epenthesis (ἐπένθεσις) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word.

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B with stroke (majuscule:, minuscule) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from B with the addition of a bar, which can be through either the ascender or the bowl.

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Finnic languages

The Finnic (Fennic) or Baltic Finnic (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic) languages are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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First Grammatical Treatise

The First Grammatical Treatise (Fyrsta Málfræðiritgerðin digital reproduction at Old Norse etexts.) is a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Norse or Old Icelandic language.

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Frankish language

Frankish (also Old Franconian or Old Frankish) was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Funnelbeaker culture

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, short TRB or TBK from (German) Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur (ca 4300 BC–ca 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.

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G with stroke

The g-stroke character is a letter of the Latin Skolt Sami alphabet, denoting the partially voiced palatal spirant (i.e., a weakly voiced velar fricative).

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In phonetics, gemination or consonant elongation happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germania (book)

The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Germanic parent language

In historical linguistics, the Germanic parent language (GPL) includes the reconstructed languages in the Germanic group referred to as Pre-Germanic Indo-European (PreGmc), Early Proto-Germanic (EPGmc), and Late Proto-Germanic (LPGmc), spoken in the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germanic spirant law

In linguistics, the Germanic spirant law or Primärberührung is a specific historical instance of dissimilation that occurred as part of an exception of Grimm's law in the ancestor of the Germanic languages.

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Germanic strong verb

In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is one which marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).

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Germanic umlaut

Germanic umlaut (also i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Germanic verb

The Germanic language family is one of the language groups that resulted from the breakup of Proto-Indo-European (PIE).

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Germanic weak verb

In Germanic languages, including English, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), though historically they are not the oldest or most original group.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Golden Horns of Gallehus

The Golden Horns of Gallehus were two horns made of sheet gold, discovered in Gallehus, north of Møgeltønder in Southern Jutland, Denmark.

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Gothic Bible

The Gothic Bible or Wulfila Bible is the Christian Bible as translated by Wulfila in the fourth century into the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic (Gothic) tribes.

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Gothic Christianity

Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may have used Wulfila's translation of the Bible into Gothic and shared common doctrines and practices.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Gothic persecution of Christians

Two main outbreaks of persecution of Christians by the 4th-century Gothic authorities are recorded, in 347/8 under Aoric (according to Auxentius of Durostorum) and between 367 and 378 under Aoric's son, the iudex (kindins) Athanaric.

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Grammatischer Wechsel

In historical linguistics, the German term grammatischer Wechsel ("grammatical alternation") refers to the effects of Verner's law when viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb.

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A grapheme is the smallest unit used in describing the writing system of a language, originally coined by analogy with the phoneme of spoken languages.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Grimm's law

Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus ("gaping") or diaeresis (or, from Ancient Greek διαίρεσις diaíresis "division") refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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High German languages

The High German languages or High German dialects (Hochdeutsche Dialekte) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg as well as in neighboring portions of Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy) and the Netherlands (Southeast Limburg), France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), and Poland (Upper Silesia).

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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History of the English language

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects and was brought to Britain by Germanic invaders (or settlers) from what is now called north west Germany and the Netherlands.

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Holtzmann's law

Holtzmann's law is a Proto-Germanic sound law originally noted by Adolf Holtzmann in 1838.

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Homorganic consonants

Homorganic consonants (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a phonetics term for consonant sounds that are articulated in the same position or place of articulation in the mouth, such as (pronounced with both lips), or (pronounced by touching the tip of the tongue to the upper gums).

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I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted, or a front vowel is raised, if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes) it is a category of regressive metaphony.

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Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (commonly abbreviated IEED) is a research project of the Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University, initiated in 1991 by Peter Schrijver and others.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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The Ingaevones or, as Pliny has it, apparently more accurately, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), as described in Tacitus's Germania, written c. 98 CE, were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands, where they had by the 1st century BCE become further differentiated to a foreigner's eye into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles.

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Ingvaeonic languages

Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, comprising Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon.

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Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law

In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a phonological development that occurred in the Ingvaeonic dialects of the West Germanic languages.

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Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist.

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Jastorf culture

The Jastorf culture was an Iron Age material culture in what is now north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC, forming the southern part of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Kluge's law

Kluge's law is a controversial Proto-Germanic sound law formulated by Friedrich Kluge.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857.

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Labial–velar consonant

Labial–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips, such as.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Mannus, according to the Roman writer Tacitus, was a figure in the creation myths of the Germanic tribes.

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Mediopassive voice

The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.

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Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Middle Indo-Aryan languages (Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits) is a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.

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Migration Period spear

The spear or lance together with the sword, the seax and the shield was the main equipment of the Germanic warriors during the Migration Period and the Early Middle Ages.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 15th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Moesia (or; Latin: Moesia; Μοισία) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

In linguistics, morphological derivation is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word, e.g. happiness and unhappy from the root word happy, or determination from determine.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Negau helmet

Negau helmet refers to one of 26 bronze helmets (23 of which are preserved) dating to ca.

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Neolithic Europe

Neolithic Europe refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Europe.

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Nordic Bronze Age

The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.

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North Frisian language

North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 30,000 people in North Frisia.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Northern Sami

Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.

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The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

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Oksywie culture

The Oksywie culture (ger. Oxhöft-Kultur) was an archaeological culture that existed in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050 AD.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Optative mood

The Optative mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic (endonym: Ирон æвзаг, Iron ævzag), is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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In linguistics, periphrasis is a device by which grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more free morphemes (typically one or more function words accompanying a content word), instead of by inflectional affixes or derivation.

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Phonological history of Old English

Old English underwent many vowel shifts, and early in its history, velar consonants were palatalized.

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Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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Pitted Ware culture

The Pitted Ware culture (ca 3200 BC– ca 2300 BC) was a hunter-gatherer culture in southern Scandinavia, mainly along the coasts of Svealand, Götaland, Åland, north-eastern Denmark and southern Norway.

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The plural, in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Pre-Indo-European means "preceding an Indo-European language".

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Pre-Roman Iron Age

The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/4th–1st century BC) was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlands north of the Rhine River.

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Although not widely accepted in linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families: Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian and Kartvelian), Caddoan, Athabaskan, and Algonquian linguistics to describe certain elements prefixed to verbs.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek προσῳδία prosōidía, "song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable") is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual vowels and consonants but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.

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A proto-language in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language – usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested – from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages that form a language family.

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Proto-Norse language

Proto-Norse (also Proto-Scandinavian, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic, Old Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and North Proto-Germanic) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic over the first centuries CE.

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Proto-Samic language

The Proto-Samic language is the hypothetical, reconstructed common ancestor of the Samic languages.

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Przeworsk culture

The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD.

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Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.

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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman historiography

Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.

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Runes (Proto-Norse: (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Runic inscriptions

A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.

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Saka language

(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.

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Salic law

Salic law (or; Lex Salica), or was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code first compiled around 500 AD by the first Frankish King, Clovis.

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Sami languages

Sami is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Schleicher's fable

Schleicher's fable (avis akvāsas ka) is an artificial text composed in the reconstructed language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) published by August Schleicher in 1868.

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Scythian languages

The Scythian languages are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia.

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The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Semitic people

In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).

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Sievers' law

Sievers' law in Indo-European linguistics accounts for the pronunciation of a consonant cluster with a glide before a vowel as it was affected by the phonetics of the preceding syllable.

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Sigmund Feist

Sigmund Feist (Mainz, 12 June 1865 - Copenhagen, 23 March 1943) was a German Jewish pedagogue and historical linguist.

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The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

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In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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Stang's law

Stang's law is a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonological rule named after the Norwegian linguist Christian Stang.

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Stentoften Runestone

The Stentoften Runestone, listed in the Rundata catalog as DR 357, is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto-Norse that was discovered in Stentoften, Blekinge, Sweden.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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The Suevi, then Suebi and in the 6th century also Suavi (Jordanes, Procopius) were a large group of people who lived in Germania and were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with Ariovistus' campaign in Gaul, c. 58 BC.

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Surface filter

In linguistics, a surface filter is type of sound change that does not operate on a single set of sounds at a particular point in time, but continues to operate over a longer period.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56 – after 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Tandy Warnow

Tandy Jo Warnow is an American computer scientist, the Founder Professor of Engineering (and Professor of Bioengineering and Computer Science) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Týr (Old Norse: Týr) is a god associated with law and heroic glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as one-handed.

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Theo Vennemann

Theo Vennemann genannt Nierfeld (born 27 May 1937 in Oberhausen-Sterkrade) is a German historical linguist known for his controversial theories of a "Vasconic" and an "Atlantic" substratum in European languages, published since the 1990s.

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The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised "Tervings" or "Thervings") were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tree model

In historical linguistics, the tree model (also Stammbaum model), or more recently the genetic or cladistic model, is a model of language change described by an analogy with the concept of family tree.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Tune stone

The Tune stone is an important runestone from about 200–450 CE.

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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Upper Rhine

The Upper Rhine (Oberrhein) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basel, Switzerland and Bingen, Germany.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verner's law

Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became respectively the fricatives *b, *d, *z, *g, *gʷ.

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Vimose inscriptions

Finds from Vimose, Funen, Denmark, include some of the very oldest datable Elder Futhark runic inscriptions in early Proto-Norse from the 2nd to 3rd centuries.

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The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel, ווייסל) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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West Germanic gemination

West Germanic gemination was a sound change that took place in all West Germanic languages, around the 3rd or 4th century.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.

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Wielbark culture

The Wielbark culture (Wielbark-Willenberg-Kultur, Kultura wielbarska, Вельбарська культура/Vel’bars’ka kul’tura) or East Pomeranian-Mazovian is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 1st century AD to the 4th century AD.

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Winfred P. Lehmann

Winfred Philip Lehmann (23 June 1916, Surprise, Nebraska – 1 August 2007, Austin, Texas) was an American linguist noted for his work in historical linguistics, particularly Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic, as well as for pioneering work in machine translation.

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Common Germanic, Common Teutonic, Common Teutonic language, Early Proto-Germanic, Late Proto-Germanic, Old Germanic, Old Teutonic, P Gmc, P. Gmc., P.Gmc., PGmc, Pre-Proto-Germanic, Primitive Germanic, Proto Germanic, Proto-German, Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic culture, Proto-Germanic folk, Proto-Germanic people, Proto-Germanic phonology, Proto-Germanic pronouns, Proto-Teutonic, Proto-germanic language, Protogermanic, Theudish, Theudish language, Theudisk, Theudisk language, Þeuðisk, Þeuðisk language.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Germanic_language

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