269 relations: Ablative case, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Accusative case, Active voice, Adverb, Affirmation and negation, Affix, Afrikaans, Agent (grammar), Albanian language, Allative case, Altaic languages, Anatolian hypothesis, Anatolian languages, Ancient Greek, Armenian hypothesis, Aromanian language, August Schleicher, Avestan, Balkans, Balochi language, Baltic languages, Belarusian language, Bengal, Bengali language, Berthold Delbrück, Breton language, Bulgarian language, Catalan language, Celtic languages, Chinese language, Classification of Thracian, Clitic, Comparative method, Conjunction (grammar), Content word, Cornish language, Czech language, Danish language, Dardic languages, Dative case, Demonstrative, Dialect, Dog, Domestication of the horse, Dual (grammatical number), Dutch language, East Germanic languages, Eastern Armenian, Egyptian language, ..., Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, English language, Eurasian nomads, Eurasiatic languages, Faroese language, Franz Bopp, French language, Fricative consonant, Frisian languages, Fusional language, Galician language, Gallo-Italic languages, Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Gilaki language, Glottochronology, Graeco-Armenian, Graeco-Aryan, Graeco-Phrygian, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Greek language, Grimm's law, Hellenic languages, Herding, Hermann Hirt, Hindi, Hindustani language, Hittite language, Hortative, Hypothesis, Icelandic language, IGN, Imperative mood, Imperfective aspect, Indigenous Aryans, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European ablaut, Indo-European copula, Indo-European languages, Indo-European migrations, Indo-European sound laws, Indo-European studies, Indo-Iranian languages, Indo-Uralic languages, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Inflection, Instrumental case, Insular Celtic languages, Interjection, Iranian languages, Irish language, Italian language, Italo-Celtic, Jacob Grimm, Jacob Wackernagel, Japanese language, Julius Pokorny, Kʷetwóres rule, Kurdish languages, Kurgan, Kurgan hypothesis, Language, Language contact, Laryngeal theory, Latin, Latvian language, Linguistic reconstruction, List of Indo-European languages, Lithuanian language, Locative case, Luri language, Lusitanian language, Macedonian language, Manx language, Marathi language, Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, Marija Gimbutas, Markedness, Mazanderani language, Mediopassive voice, Michael Fassbender, Modern Greek, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Murmured voice, Neogrammarian, Neolithic, Nepali language, New Zealand, Nominative case, North Germanic languages, Northwest Caucasian languages, Norwegian language, Noun, Nuristani languages, Object (grammar), Old Azeri language, Old Latin, Optative mood, Ossetian language, Oxford University Press, Paleo-Balkan languages, Paleolithic Continuity Theory, Participle, Pashto, Passive voice, Perfective aspect, Persian language, Philology, Phonology, Pitch-accent language, Plural, Polish language, Pontic Greek, Pontic languages, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Portugal, Portuguese language, Preposition and postposition, Prometheus (2012 film), Pronoun, Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Anatolian language, Proto-Armenian language, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Human language, Proto-Indo-European accent, Proto-Indo-European homeland, Proto-Indo-European nominals, Proto-Indo-European numerals, Proto-Indo-European particles, Proto-Indo-European phonology, Proto-Indo-European pronouns, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Indo-European root, Proto-Indo-European society, Proto-Indo-European verbs, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Italic language, Proto-Kartvelian language, Proto-language, Puisne judge, Punjabi language, Rasmus Rask, Realis mood, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Ridley Scott, Roger Blench, Romance languages, Romanian language, Russian language, Sanskrit, Schleicher's fable, Scottish Gaelic, Semnani language, Sentence (linguistics), Serbo-Croatian, Sinhalese language, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Slovene language, Sonorant, Spanish language, Stative verb, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Suppletion, Swedish language, Syllabic consonant, Syntax, Talysh language, Tati language (Iran), The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, Thematic vowel, Thraco-Illyrian, Tocharian languages, Tone (linguistics), Townsquare Media, Transitive verb, Tsakonian language, Ukrainian language, Uralic languages, Urdu, Vedic Sanskrit, Vedic Sanskrit grammar, Verbal noun, Verb–subject–object, Verner's law, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Water, Welsh language, Welsh literature in English, West Germanic languages, Western Armenian, William Jones (philologist), Word order, Word stem, Yamna culture, Yiddish, Zaza language. 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The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres is a French learned society devoted to the humanities, founded in February 1663 as one of the five academies of the Institut de France.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.
The Anatolian hypothesis, also known as the Anatolian theory or the sedentary farmer theory, first developed by British archaeologist Colin Renfrew in 1987, proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European homeland, proposed by Georgian Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Russian linguist Vyacheslav Ivanov in 1985, suggests that Proto-Indo-European was spoken during the 4th millennium BC in the Armenian Highlands.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Berthold Gustav Gottlieb Delbrück (26 July 1842 – 3 January 1922) was a German linguist who devoted himself to the study of the comparative syntax of the Indo-European languages.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In linguistics content words are words that name objects of reality and their qualities.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca) are a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern India's Jammu and Kashmir, and eastern Afghanistan.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (abbreviation: EIEC) is an encyclopedia of Indo-European studies and the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux or more accurately spelled Cœurdoux (18 December 1691, Bourges, France – 15 June 1779, Pondicherry, French India) was a French Jesuit missionary in South India and a noteworthy Indologist.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Gilaki language (گیلکی Giləki) is a Caspian language, and a member of the northwestern Iranian language branch, spoken in Iran's Gīlān Province.
Glottochronology (from Attic Greek γλῶττα "tongue, language" and χρóνος "time") is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.
Graeco-Armenian (or Helleno-Armenian) is the hypothetical common ancestor of Greek and Armenian that postdates Proto-Indo-European.
Graeco-Aryan, or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family.
Graeco-Phrygian is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.
Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those.
Hermann Hirt (19 December 1865 in Magdeburg – 12 September 1936 in Gießen) was German philologist and Indo-Europeanist.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
IGN (formerly Imagine Games Network) is an American video game and entertainment media company operated by IGN Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Ziff Davis wholly owned by j2 Global.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
The Indigenous Aryans theory, also known as the Out of India Theory, proposes that the Indo-European languages, or at least the Indo-Aryan languages, originated within the Indian subcontinent, as an alternative to the established migration model which proposes the Pontic steppe as the area of origin of the Indo-European languages.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language.
A feature common to all Indo-European languages is the presence of a verb corresponding to the English verb to be.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
As the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, as evidenced in various sound laws associated with the daughter Indo-European languages.
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indo-Uralic is a proposed language family consisting of Indo-European and Uralic.
The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Jacob Wackernagel (also Jakob;His ex libris in 1897 and owner's name in his own hand has "Jakob" (cf. illustrations). 11 December 1853 – 22 May 1938) was a Swiss linguist, Indo-Europeanist and scholar of Sanskrit.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
The so-called rule of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) has been observed by earlier scholars, but has only since the 1980s attracted enough attention to be named, probably first by Helmut Rix in 1985.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
In English, the archaeological term kurgan is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly, from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term barrow, also known by the Latin loanword tumulus and terms such as burial mound.
The Kurgan hypothesis (also known as the Kurgan theory or Kurgan model) or steppe theory is the most widely accepted proposal to identify the Proto-Indo-European homeland from which the Indo-European languages spread out throughout Europe and parts of Asia.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
The Indo-European languages include some 439 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn (August 28, 1612 – October 3, 1653) was a Dutch scholar (his Latinized name was Marcus Zuerius Boxhornius).
Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
Mazanderani (مازندرانی), also Tabari (تبری), is an Iranian language of the Northwestern branch, spoken mainly in Iran's Mazandaran, Tehran, Alborz, Semnan and Golestan provinces.
The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.
Michael Fassbender (born 2 April 1977) is a German-born Irish actor.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
The Neogrammarians (also Young Grammarians; German: Junggrammatiker) were a German school of linguists, originally at the University of Leipzig, in the late 19th century who proposed the Neogrammarian hypothesis of the regularity of sound change.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
The Nuristani languages (نورستاني) are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paleo-Balkan languages are the various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times.
The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (or PCT, Italian La teoria della continuità), since 2010 relabelled as a "paradigm", as in Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm or PCP), is a hypothesis suggesting that the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) can be traced back to the Upper Paleolithic, several millennia earlier than the Chalcolithic or at the most Neolithic estimates in other scenarios of Proto-Indo-European origins. As advanced by Mario Alinei in his Origini delle Lingue d’Europa (Origins of the Languages of Europe), published in two volumes in 1996 and 2000, the PCT posits that the advent of Indo-European languages should be linked to the arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe and Asia from Africa in the Upper Paleolithic. Employing "lexical periodisation", Alinei arrives at a timeline deeper than even that of Colin Renfrew's Anatolian hypothesis, previously the mainstream linguistic theory proposing the earliest origin for Indo-European. Since 2004, an informal workgroup of scholars who support the Paleolithic Continuity Theory has been held online. Members of the group (referred to as "Scientific Committee" in the website) include linguists Xaverio Ballester (University of Valencia) and Francesco Benozzo (University of Bologna), prehistorian Marcel Otte (Université de Liège) and anthropologist Henry Harpending (University of Utah). The Paleolithic Continuity Theory is distinctly a minority view as it enjoys very little academic support, serious discussion being limited to a small circle of scholars. It is not listed by Mallory among the proposals for the origins of the Indo-European languages that are widely discussed and considered credible within academia.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
Pontic is a proposed language family or macrofamily, comprising the Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian language families, with Proto-Pontic being its reconstructed proto-language.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Prometheus is a 2012 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Jon Spaihts and Damon Lindelof and starring Noomi Rapace, Michael Fassbender, Guy Pearce, Idris Elba, Logan Marshall-Green, and Charlize Theron.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
The Proto-Albanian language is the unattested language from which Albanian later developed.
Proto-Anatolian is the proto-language from which Anatolian languages emerged.
Proto-Armenian is the earlier, unattested stage of the Armenian that has been reconstructed by linguists.
Proto-Balto-Slavic is a reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
The Proto-Human language (also Proto-Sapiens, Proto-World) is the hypothetical direct genetic predecessor of the world's languages.
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.
The Proto-Indo-European homeland (or Indo-European homeland) was the prehistoric urheimat of the Indo-European languages – the region where their reconstructed common ancestor, the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), was originally spoken.
Proto-Indo-European nominals include nouns, adjectives and pronouns.
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.
The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European pronouns have been reconstructed by modern linguists, based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Proto-Indo-European society is the hypothesized culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European, ancestors of all modern Indo–European ethnic groups who are speakers of Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European verbs had a complex system, with verbs categorized according to their aspect: stative, imperfective, or perfective.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.
The Proto-Kartvelian language, or Common Kartvelian (წინარექართველური ენა, ts'inarekartveluri ena), is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Kartvelian languages, which was spoken by the ancestors of the modern Kartvelian peoples.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
A puisne judge or puisne justice (French: puisné or puîné, "since-born" i.e. "junior") is a dated term for an ordinary judge of a particular court.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rasmus Kristian Rask (born Rasmus Christian Nielsen Rasch; 22 November 1787 – 14 November 1832) was a Danish linguist and philologist.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Schleicher's fable is a text composed in a reconstructed version of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, published by August Schleicher in 1868.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Semnani (Semnani: Pe) is one of the local languages of the Semnan Province of Iran.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Tati language (Tati: تاتی زبون, Tâti Zobun) is a Northwestern Iranian language which is closely related to the Talysh language, Mazandarani and Gilaki languages spoken by the Tat people of Iran.
The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World is a 2007 book by David W. Anthony, in which the author describes his "Revised Steppe Theory." He explores the origins and spread of the Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian steppes throughout Western Europe, and Central and South Asia.
In Indo-European studies, a thematic vowel or theme vowel is the vowel or from ablaut placed before the ending of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word.
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European.
Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Townsquare Media, Inc. (formerly Regent Communications until 2010) is an American radio network and media company based in Greenwich, Connecticut.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: τσακώνικα, α τσακώνικα γρούσσα; Greek: τσακώνικα) is a modern Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek and, from a philological standpoint, is also linguistically classified separately from them.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Vedic Sanskrit is the Indo-Aryan language used in the religious hymns known as the Vedas, composed from the early-to-mid 2nd millennium through to the mid 1st millennium, BCE.
A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Anglo-Welsh literature and Welsh writing in English are terms used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Western Armenian (Classical spelling:, arevmdahayerên) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Eastern Armenian.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
The Yamna people or Yamnaya culture (traditionally known as the Pit Grave culture or Ochre Grave culture) was a late Copper Age to early Bronze Age culture of the region between the Southern Bug, Dniester and Ural rivers (the Pontic steppe), dating to 3300–2600 BC.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.
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