66 relations: Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 200, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81, Blok D, Briz (rocket stage), Circumlunar trajectory, Comparison of orbital launch systems, Corrosive substance, Cryogenic fuel, Dinitrogen tetroxide, DOS-2, Ekspress, European Space Agency, Eutelsat, Eutelsat 16C, Geostationary orbit, Geostationary transfer orbit, Gimbal, GLONASS, GRAU, Heavy-lift launch vehicle, Heliocentric orbit, Highly elliptical orbit, Hypergolic propellant, International Space Station, Iridium 33, Iridium satellite constellation, Kazakhstan, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Kosmos 419, Launch vehicle, List of Kosmos satellites (1751–2000), List of Proton launches, Low Earth orbit, Luna programme, Mars 96, Medium Earth orbit, Mir, Mir Docking Module, PAS-22, Phobos program, Proton (rocket family), Proton-M, RD-0210, RD-253, Salyut programme, SES Americom, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), ..., Soyuz 7K-L1, Space Shuttle, Space station, Spaceplane, Staged combustion cycle, TKS (spacecraft), Toxicity, Ullage motor, Universal Rocket, Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, Valentin Glushko, Venus, Vernier thruster, Zarya, Zond program, Zvezda (ISS module). Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used by Proton rockets.
Site 81 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used, along with Site 200, by Proton rockets.
Blok D (Блок Д meaning Block D) is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.
The Briz-K, Briz-KM and Briz-M (Бриз-К, КM and M meaning Breeze-K, KM and M) are Russian liquid-propellant rocket orbit insertion upper stages manufactured by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and used on the Proton-M, Angara A5 or Rokot, one of Russia's smaller launchers.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
DOS-2 designation given to a space station, launched as part of the Salyut programme, which was lost in a launch failure on 29 July 1972, when the failure of the second stage of its Proton-K launch vehicle prevented the station from achieving orbit.
Ekspress (Экспресс meaning Express), is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Eutelsat S.A. is a European satellite operator.
Eutelsat 16C (formerly SESAT 1) is a satellite operated by Eutelsat, originally the first of a series of SESAT ('''S'''iberia - '''E'''urope SATellite) satellites.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GRAU) (translit) is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense.
A heavy-lift launch vehicle, HLV or HLLV, is an orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20,000 to 50,000 kg to low Earth orbit (LEO).
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
A highly elliptical orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit with high eccentricity, usually referring to one around Earth.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Iridium 33 was a communications satellite launched by the United States for Iridium Communications.
The Iridium satellite constellation provides L-band voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over the entire Earth surface.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
Kosmos 419 (Космос 419 meaning Cosmos 419), also known as 3MS No.170 was a failed Soviet spacecraft intended to visit Mars.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The designation Kosmos (Космос meaning Cosmos) is a generic name given to a large number of Soviet, and subsequently Russian, satellites, the first of which was launched in 1962.
, rockets of the UR-500 / Proton family have accumulated 416 launches since 1965, 369 of which were successful, yielding a success rate.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
Mars 96 (sometimes called Mars 8) was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The Stykovochnyy Otsek (стыковочный отсек, Docking compartment), GRAU index 316GK, otherwise known as the Mir docking module or SO, was the sixth module of the Russian space station Mir, launched in November 1995 aboard the.
PAS-22, previously known as AsiaSat 3 and then HGS-1, was a geosynchronous communications satellite, which was salvaged from an unusable geosynchronous transfer orbit by means of the Moon's gravity.
The Phobos (Фобос, Fobos, Φόβος) program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index 8K82M or, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton.
The RD-0210 (GRAU Index: 8D411K) is also known as the RD-465.
The RD-253 (Раке́тный дви́гатель 253, Rocket Engine 253) and its later variants, the RD-275 and RD-275M, are liquid-propellant rocket engines developed in the Soviet Union by Energomash.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
SES Americom was a major commercial satellite operator of North American geosynchronous satellites based in the United States.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
The staged combustion cycle (sometimes known as topping cycle or preburner cycle) is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Ullage motors (also known as ullage engines or ullage rockets) are relatively small, independently fueled rocket engines that may be fired to accelerate the rocket prior to main engine ignition, when the vehicle is in a zero-g situation.
The Universal Rocket or UR family of missiles and carrier rockets is a Russian, previously Soviet rocket family.
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) is a chemical compound with the formula H2NN(CH3)2.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
A vernier thruster is a rocket engine used on a spacecraft for fine adjustments to the attitude or velocity of a spacecraft.
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
Zvezda (Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).