80 relations: Angara (rocket family), Apollo 8, Ariane 4, Ariane 5, Astra (satellite), Atlas V, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 200, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81, Blok D, Briz (rocket stage), Circumlunar trajectory, Communications satellite, Comparison of orbital launch systems, Comparison of orbital launchers families, Cryogenic fuel, Delta IV, Delta-v, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Expendable launch system, Falcon 9, Geostationary orbit, Geostationary transfer orbit, GLONASS, GRAU, H-IIB, Heavy ICBM, Hypergolic propellant, International Launch Services, International Space Station, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Kosmos-3, Kosmos-3M, KVTK (rocket stage), Launch vehicle, Liquid oxygen, Long March (rocket family), Long March 2, Long March 5, Low Earth orbit, Mexican Satellite System, Mir, Mir Docking Module, N1 (rocket), Newton (unit), Private spaceflight, Proton satellite, Proton-K, Proton-M, RD-0210, ..., RD-253, RD-58, Rocket, Roscosmos, RP-1, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Salyut programme, Satellite, Sergei Korolev, SES S.A., Soviet Union, Soyuz (rocket family), Space Shuttle, Space station, State-owned enterprise, Thermonuclear weapon, Titan (rocket family), Titan IV, TKS (spacecraft), TNT equivalent, Tsyklon, Universal Rocket, Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, ViaSat-1, Vladimir Chelomey, Voronezh Mechanical Plant, Zarya, Zond program, Zvezda (ISS module). Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles being developed by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
The Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the Centre national d'études spatiales while being manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
Astra is the brand name for a number of geostationary communication satellites, both individually and as a group, which are owned and operated by SES S.A., a global satellite operator based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used by Proton rockets.
Site 81 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used, along with Site 200, by Proton rockets.
Blok D (Блок Д meaning Block D) is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.
The Briz-K, Briz-KM and Briz-M (Бриз-К, КM and M meaning Breeze-K, KM and M) are Russian liquid-propellant rocket orbit insertion upper stages manufactured by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and used on the Proton-M, Angara A5 or Rokot, one of Russia's smaller launchers.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
This page contains a list of orbital launchers' families.
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state.
Delta IV is an expendable launch system in the Delta rocket family.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GRAU) (translit) is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense.
H-IIB (H2B) is an expendable launch system used to launch H-II Transfer Vehicles (HTV, or Kounotori) towards the International Space Station.
Heavy ICBM is a term that was created in the 1970s to describe a class of Soviet and Russian ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles).
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
The Kosmos-3 (GRAU Index: 11K65, also known as Cosmos-3) was a Soviet carrier rocket (Kosmos (rocket family)), derived from the R-14 missile, which was used to orbit satellites between 1966 and 1968.
The Kosmos-3M (Космос-3М meaning "Cosmos", GRAU index 11K65M) is a Russian space launch vehicle, member of the Kosmos (rocket family).
The KVTK (Кислородно-водородный тяжёлого класса, Oxygen/Hydrogen Heavy Class) is a liquid oxygen/hydrogen upper stage for high energy orbits.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A Long March rocket or Changzheng rocket in Chinese pinyin is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the People's Republic of China.
Long March 2 rocket family or Chang Zheng 2 rocket family as in Chinese pinyin is an expendable launch system operated by the People's Republic of China.
Long March 5 (LM-5, CZ-5, or Changzheng 5) is a Chinese heavy lift launch system developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT).
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Mexican Satellite System, also known as MEXSAT, is a network of three satellites bought by the Mexican government's Ministry of Communications and Transportation.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The Stykovochnyy Otsek (стыковочный отсек, Docking compartment), GRAU index 316GK, otherwise known as the Mir docking module or SO, was the sixth module of the Russian space station Mir, launched in November 1995 aboard the.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.
The Proton was a model of Soviet scientific artificial satellites.
The Proton-K, also designated Proton 8K82K after its GRAU index, 8K82K, was a Russian, previously Soviet, carrier rocket derived from the earlier Proton.
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index 8K82M or, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton.
The RD-0210 (GRAU Index: 8D411K) is also known as the RD-465.
The RD-253 (Раке́тный дви́гатель 253, Rocket Engine 253) and its later variants, the RD-275 and RD-275M, are liquid-propellant rocket engines developed in the Soviet Union by Energomash.
The RD-58 (manufacturer designation 11D58) was a rocket engine, developed in the 1960s by OKB-1, now RKK Energia.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
SES S.A. is a communications satellite owner and operator providing video and data connectivity worldwide to broadcasters, content and internet service providers, mobile and fixed network operators, governments and institutions, with a mission to “connect, enable, and enrich”.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Titan is a family of United States expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005.
The Titan IV family (including the IVA and IVB) of rockets were used by the U.S. Air Force.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
The Tsyklon (Циклон, "Cyclone", also known as Tsiklon), GRAU index 11K67, was a Soviet-designed expendable launch system, primarily used to put Cosmos satellites into low Earth orbit.
The Universal Rocket or UR family of missiles and carrier rockets is a Russian, previously Soviet rocket family.
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) is a chemical compound with the formula H2NN(CH3)2.
ViaSat-1 is a high throughput communications satellite owned by ViaSat Inc. and Telesat Canada.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
Voronezh Mechanical Plant (Russian: Воронежский механический завод) is a Russian engine and heavy machinery manufacturing plant.
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
Zvezda (Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).