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Provence

Index Provence

Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. [1]

568 relations: A Good Year, Abbey, Abbey of St Victor, Marseille, Abbot, Absinthe, Académie française, Adolphe Monticelli, Aegean Sea, Aioli, Aix Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence, Albert Marquet, Alcohol by volume, Alexander Patch, Almond paste, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes, Alphonse Daudet, Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, Alpilles, Alpine climate, Alps, Amphora, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, And God Created Woman (1956 film), André Derain, Anise, Anthony the Great, Antibes, Antipope, Apollo, Appellation d'origine contrôlée, Apt, Vaucluse, Arabs, Architecture of Provence, Arles, Artemis, Artemisia (genus), Artemisia absinthium, Aubagne, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Augustus, Avignon, Îles d'Hyères, İzmir, Bandol, Barcelona, Barcelonnette, ..., Baronnies, Barre des Écrins, Basil, Bastide (Provençal manor), Battle of Avignon, Battle of Tourtour, Beatrice of Provence, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Berbers, Black Death, Bordighera, Boso of Provence, Bosonids, Bouches-du-Rhône, Bouillabaisse, Boules, Bourboulenc, Bowls, Braising, Brandade, Brandy, Braquet, Briançon, Brigitte Bardot, Brignoles, Brine, Brioche, Bronze Age, Bullfighting, Burgundians, Burgundy, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calanque, Calanque de Morgiou, Calanque de Sormiou, Calanque de Sugiton, Calisson, Camargue, Camargue horse, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Cannes, Cannes Film Festival, Canton of Valais, Canyon, Cape Martin, Capetian House of Anjou, Cardinal Richelieu, Carignan, Carol Drinkwater, Carolingian dynasty, Carpentras, Case Anton, Cassis, Castel Sainte-Claire, Castellet, Catalan language, Catalans, Catharism, Cathedral, Catherine of Alexandria, Catholic League (French), Cavaillon, Cavalaire-sur-Mer, Cèze, Cévennes, Celts, Chaparral, Chardonnay, Charlemagne, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Gounod, Charles I of Anjou, Charles III of Naples, Charles IV, Duke of Anjou, Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux, Charles Martel, Charles Spurgeon, Charles the Bald, Chasséen culture, Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, Chickpea, Chili pepper, Church of St. Trophime, Arles, Cicero, Cimbri, Cimiez, Cinnamon, Cinsaut, Cistercians, Clairette blanche, Clairvoyance, Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, Claude Monet, Clove, Cluny Abbey, Cognac, Colette, Colonies in antiquity, Comtat, Comtat Venaissin, Confit, Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Constitutional monarchy, Continental climate, Cornwall, Cosquer Cave, Counoise, Count of Toulouse, County of Nice, County of Savoy, Crab, Crown of Aragon, Dante Alighieri, Darius Milhaud, Daube, Dauphiné, Deciates, Dentelles de Montmirail, Departments of France, Digne-les-Bains, Dolmen, Domaine d'Orvès, Douce I, Countess of Provence, Draguignan, Draveil, Drought, Duck, Durance, Edith Wharton, Edvard Munch, Elba, Embrun, Hautes-Alpes, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Escabeche, Etruscan civilization, European conger, Eygalières, Eyrieux (river), F. Scott Fitzgerald, Faience, Farinata, Félibrige, Fennel, Festival d'Avignon, Fief, First White Terror, Foça, Folquet de Marselha, Forcalquier, Fortified wine, Fougasse (bread), France, Franco-Prussian War, Franks, Fraxinet, Frédéric Mistral, Fréjus, Fréjus Cathedral, Free France, French colonial empire, French Consulate, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Army, French Riviera, French Wars of Religion, Fuella, Gaius Marius, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallo-Roman culture, Gap, Hautes-Alpes, Gard, Gardon, Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles, Garrigue, Georges Bizet, Georges Braque, Georges Clemenceau, Germanic peoples, Girondins, Glanum, Golfe-Juan, Gothic architecture, Grasse, Greater flamingo, Greeks, Grenache, Grenache blanc, Grotte du Vallonnet, Hachmei Provence, Hannibal, Haute-Provence Observatory, Hautes-Alpes, Henri Matisse, Henri-Edmond Cross, Herbes de Provence, Holland, Holy Roman Empire, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, House of Bourbon, House of Orange-Nassau, House of Valois-Anjou, Hugh Johnson (wine writer), Hugh of Italy, Humanism, Hundred Years' War, Hyères, Iceland, Illicium verum, Isère, Italian literature, Italian Peninsula, Ivan Bunin, Jan Van der Roost, Jean de Florette, Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, Jean François Carteaux, Jean Giono, Jean Moulin, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jean-Rémy Palanque, Joan, Countess of Toulouse, Joanna I of Naples, John Dory, John Lanchester, John the Evangelist, Joseph d'Arbaud, Juan-les-Pins, Julius Caesar, Juniper, Juniper berry, Katherine Mansfield, King cake, L'Arlésienne (short story), L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, L'Arroseur Arrosé, L'Estaque, La Cadière-d'Azur, La Ciotat, La Garde-Freinet, La Marseillaise, La Roque-d'Anthéron, La Turbie, La Valette-du-Var, Latin literature, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula, Lawrence Durrell, Léon Gambetta, Lérins Abbey, Le Cannet, Le Corbusier, Le Tholonet, Le Thoronet Abbey, Les Baux-de-Provence, Ligures, Liguria, Limestone, List of kings of Burgundy, List of rulers of Provence, Lombardy, Lophius, Louis Bellaud, Louis IX of France, Louis the Blind, Louis the Younger, Louis VIII of France, Louis XI of France, Louis XIV of France, Louvre, Luberon, Ludovico Brea, Luxe, Calme et Volupté, Manon des Sources (1986 film), Manosque, Marcel Pagnol, Margaret of Provence, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné, Marin (wind), Maritime Alps, Marquis de Sade, Marsanne, Marseille, Marsh, Martial, Martigues, Mary Magdalene, Mas (Provençal farmhouse), Massif des Écrins, Massif des Calanques, Maurice Denis, Maurontus, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Menton, Mercantour National Park, Merovingian dynasty, Middle Paleolithic, Mirèio, Mireille (opera), Mistral (wind), Mistralian norm, Monaco, Mont Bégo, Mont Puget, Mont Ventoux, Montagne Sainte-Victoire, Monte Argentera, Monte Carlo, Montmajour Abbey, Montpellier, Moors, Mosquito, Mougins, Mourvèdre, Moustiers-Sainte-Marie, Muscat (grape), Napoleon, Napoleon III, Narbonne, Nîmes, Neolithic, Niçard dialect, Nice, Nicolas de Staël, Nicolas Froment, Nobel Prize in Literature, Normans, Nostradamus, Nutmeg, Occitan language, Occitan literature, Olive, Olive oil, Operation Attila (World War II), Operation Dragoon, Operation Overlord, Operation Torch, Orange, Vaucluse, Ostrogoths, Ouvèze, Oxybii, Pablo Picasso, Palais des Papes, Paleolithic, Palette AOC, Paris Commune, Parliament of Aix-en-Provence, Partie de cartes, Pastis, Paul Arène, Paul Cézanne, Paul Ricard, Paul Signac, Pax Romana, Pétanque, Perfume, Pernod Fils, Pernod Ricard, Persian Empire, Peter Mayle, Petrarch, Phocaea, Phragmites, Phylloxera, Piedmont, Piedmontese language, Pierre Bonnard, Pierre Deval, Pierre Puget, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pimiento, Pinerolo, Pissaladière, Pistou, Platanus, Pompey, Pont Saint-Bénézet, Pope, Pope Benedict XII, Pope Clement V, Pope Clement VI, Porquerolles, Provençal dialect, Provençal quilts, Provence wine, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Province of Cuneo, Prune, Puget-Théniers, Pyrenees, Pytheas, Queen Victoria, Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, Raoul Dufy, Ratatouille, Regions of France, Renaissance, René of Anjou, Repas de bébé, Rhône, Rhône Glacier, Riez, Robèrt Lafont, Roman aqueduct, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse, Roman Catholic Diocese of Glandèves, Roman legion, Roman Senate, Romanesque architecture, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Rosé, Rosemary, Rouille, Roussanne, Rudolph II of Burgundy, Saône, Sacha Sosno, Saffron, Saint Maurice, Saint Nicholas, Saint Sarah, Saint-Blaise, Alpes-Maritimes, Saint-Chamas, Saint-Gotthard Massif, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Saint-Laurent-du-Var, Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, Saint-Raphaël, Var, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Salon-de-Provence, Salvia officinalis, Santon (figurine), Saracen, Sardines as food, Sauvignon blanc, Savoy, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Sémillon, Sénanque Abbey, Scorpaenidae, Sea spider, Sea urchin, Senez, Seventh United States Army, Sheep, Shrubland, Siege of Toulon, Silvacane Abbey, Sisteron, Smyrna, Solferino, Stew, Strasbourg, Suez Canal, Syrah, Tanneron, Tapenade, Tarascon, Tarte tropézienne, Terra Amata (archaeological site), Teutons, TGV, Théodore Aubanel, The Mountain, Thirteen desserts, Thyme, Thymus serpyllum, Tibouren, Toulon, Toulon Cathedral, Treaty of Utrecht, Trebbiano, Triglidae, Trinquetaille, Triptych, Troika (album), Troubadour, Turkey, Ubaye Valley, Umayyad invasion of Gaul, Unité d'habitation, Upper Paleolithic, Vaison-la-Romaine, Vallauris, Vallée des merveilles, Var (department), Var (river), Vaucluse, Vence, Verdon (river), Verdon Gorge, Vermentino, Vernègues, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Vincent van Gogh, Vinon-sur-Verdon, Visigoths, Vivaro-Alpine dialect, Vladimir Nabokov, W. Somerset Maugham, Waldensians, Western Schism, Willa Cather, William I of Provence, Winds of Provence, Y chromosome, Yolk, Yves Klein, 44th parallel north. Expand index (518 more) »

A Good Year

A Good Year is a 2006 British-American romantic comedy directed and produced by Ridley Scott.

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Abbey

An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.

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Abbey of St Victor, Marseille

The Abbey of Saint Victor is a late Roman former monastic foundation in Marseille in the south of France, named after the local soldier saint and martyr, Victor of Marseilles.

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Abbot

Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.

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Absinthe

Absinthe is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Adolphe Monticelli

Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli (October 14, 1824 – June 29, 1886) was a French painter of the generation preceding the Impressionists.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aioli

Aioli or aïoli (or; Provençal alhòli or aiòli; allioli) is a Mediterranean sauce made of garlic and olive oil; some regions use other emulsifiers such as egg or cranberries.

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Aix Cathedral

Aix Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Sauveur d'Aix-en-Provence) in Aix-en-Provence in southern France is a Roman Catholic church and the seat of the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence and Arles.

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Aix-en-Provence

Aix-en-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,, Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about north of Marseille.

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Albert Marquet

Albert Marquet (27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement.

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Alcohol by volume

Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).

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Alexander Patch

General Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch (November 23, 1889 – November 21, 1945) was a senior United States Army officer, who fought in both World War I and World War II.

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Almond paste

Almond paste is made from ground almonds or almond meal and sugar in equal quantities, with small amounts of cooking oil, beaten eggs, heavy cream or corn syrup added as a binder.

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Alpes-de-Haute-Provence

Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (Occitan: Aups d'Auta Provença) is a French department in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence.

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Alpes-Maritimes

Alpes-Maritimes (Aups Maritims; Alpi Marittime) is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France.

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Alphonse Daudet

Alphonse Daudet (13 May 184016 December 1897) was a French novelist.

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Alphonse, Count of Poitiers

Alphonse or Alfonso (11 November 122021 August 1271) was the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse (as Alphonse II) from 1249.

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Alpilles

The Chaîne des Alpilles is a small range of low mountains in Provence, southern France, located about south of Avignon.

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Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Amphora

An amphora (Greek: ἀμφορεύς, amphoréus; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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And God Created Woman (1956 film)

And God Created Woman (Et Dieu… créa la femme) (1956) is a French drama film directed by Roger Vadim and starring Brigitte Bardot.

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André Derain

André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.

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Anise

Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.

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Anthony the Great

Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.

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Antibes

Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol) is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice.

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Antipope

An antipope (antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.

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Apollo

Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Appellation d'origine contrôlée

The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC;; "protected designation of origin") is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).

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Apt, Vaucluse

Apt (Provençal Occitan: At / Ate in both classical and Mistralian norms) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Architecture of Provence

The Architecture of Provence includes a rich collection of monuments from the Roman Empire; Cistercian monasteries from the Romanesque Period, medieval palaces and churches; fortifications from the time of Louis XIV, as well as numerous hilltop villages and fine churches.

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Arles

Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

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Artemis

Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.

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Artemisia (genus)

Artemisia is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae.

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Artemisia absinthium

Artemisia absinthium (absinthe, absinthium, absinthe wormwood, grand wormwood, wormwood) is a species of Artemisia native to temperate regions of Eurasia and Northern Africa and widely naturalized in Canada and the northern United States.

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Aubagne

Aubagne (Aubanha in Occitan according to the classic norm or Aubagno according to the Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southern France.

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Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Avignon

Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.

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Îles d'Hyères

The Îles d'Hyères (or Îles d'Or) are a group of four Mediterranean islands off Hyères in the Var département of south-east France.

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İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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Bandol

Bandol is a commune in Var department, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, southeastern France.

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Barcelona

Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Barcelonnette

Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.

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Baronnies

The Baronnies, in French Les Baronnies, is a historic name for the area East and North of Mont Ventoux in Southern France.

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Barre des Écrins

The Barre des Écrins (4,102 m) is a mountain in the French Alps with a peak at 4102m altitude.

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Basil

Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).

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Bastide (Provençal manor)

"Bastide" is a local term for a manor house in Provence, in the south of France, located in the countryside or in a village, and originally occupied by a wealthy farmer.

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Battle of Avignon

The Battle of Avignon, in which Frankish forces led by Charles Martel beat the Umayyad garrison of Avignon and destroyed the stronghold, was contested in 737.

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Battle of Tourtour

The Battle of Tourtour of 973 was a significant victory for the Christian forces of William I of Provence over the Andalusi pirates based at Fraxinetum.

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Beatrice of Provence

Beatrice of Provence (c. 122923 September 1267), was ruling Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1245 until her death, as well as Countess of Anjou and Maine, Queen of Sicily and Naples by marriage to Charles I of Naples.

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Beaulieu-sur-Mer

Beaulieu-sur-Mer, lit, Bèuluec de Mar) is a seaside village on the French Riviera between Nice and Monaco. It is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department and borders the communes of Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Èze, and Villefranche-sur-Mer.

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Berbers

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Bordighera

Bordighera (A Bordighea, locally A Burdighea) is a town and comune in the Province of Imperia, Liguria (Italy).

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Boso of Provence

Boso (c. 841 – January 11, 887) was a Frankish nobleman of the Bosonid family who was related to the Carolingian dynasty and who rose to become King of Lower Burgundy and Provence.

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Bosonids

The Bosonids were a dynasty of Carolingian era dukes, counts, bishops and knights descended from Boso the Elder.

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Bouches-du-Rhône

Bouches-du-Rhône (Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône.

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Bouillabaisse

Bouillabaisse (bolhabaissa) is a traditional Provençal fish stew originating from the port city of Marseille.

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Boules

Boules is a collective name for a wide range of games similar to bowls and bocce (In French: jeu or jeux, in Italian: gioco or giochi) in which the objective is to throw or roll heavy balls (called boules in France, and bocce in Italy) as close as possible to a small target ball.

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Bourboulenc

Bourboulenc is a white wine grape variety primarily grown in southern France.

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Bowls

Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls called woods so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".

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Braising

Braising (from the French word braiser) is a combination-cooking method that uses both lit wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).

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Brandade

Brandade is an emulsion of salt cod and olive oil eaten in winter with bread or potatoes.

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Brandy

Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.

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Braquet

Braquet is a red French wine grape variety grown predominantly in the Provence region of southeastern France, particularly in the Bellet Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) where it is as both a blending and varietal grape in still and rosé wines.

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Briançon

Briançon is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Brigitte Bardot

Brigitte Anne-Marie Bardot (born 28 September 1934) is a French actress, singer, dancer, and fashion model, who later became an animal rights activist.

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Brignoles

Brignoles (Brinhòla) is a commune in the Var département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Brioche

Brioche is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content (400 grams for each kilogram of flour) give it a rich and tender crumb.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bullfighting

Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations.

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Burgundians

The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.

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Burgundy

Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.

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Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties.

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Cagnes-sur-Mer

Cagnes-sur-Mer (Canha de Mar) is a picturesque French Riviera town known for its forests, pebble beaches, and seaside charm in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Calanque

A calanque ("inlet"; calanca, pl. calanche; calanca, pl. calancas) is a narrow, steep-walled inlet that is developed in limestone, dolomite, or other carbonate strata and found along the Mediterranean coast.

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Calanque de Morgiou

The Calanque de Morgiou is one of the biggest calanques located between Marseille and Cassis.

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Calanque de Sormiou

The Calanque de Sormiou is the biggest calanque of the Calanques National Park, France.

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Calanque de Sugiton

The Calanque de Sugiton is one of the numerous Calanques located between Marseille and Cassis, France.

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Calisson

Calissons are a traditional French candy consisting of a smooth, pale yellow, homogeneous paste of candied fruit (especially melons and oranges) and ground almonds topped with a thin layer of royal icing.

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Camargue

The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.

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Camargue horse

The Camargue horse is an ancient breed of horse indigenous to the Camargue area in southern France.

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Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

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Cannes

Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.

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Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

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Canton of Valais

The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.

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Canyon

A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.

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Cape Martin

Cape Martin (Cap Martin) is a headland situated in the commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Alpes-Maritimes département, in southern France.

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Capetian House of Anjou

The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

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Carignan

Carignan (also known as Mazuelo, Bovale Grande, Cariñena, Carinyena, Samsó, Carignane, and Carignano) is a red grape variety of Spanish origin that is more commonly found in French wine but is widely planted throughout the western Mediterranean and around the globe.

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Carol Drinkwater

Carol Drinkwater (born 22 April 1948) is an Anglo-Irish actress, author and filmmaker.

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Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

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Carpentras

Carpentras (Provençal Occitan: Carpentràs in classical norm or Carpentras in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Case Anton

Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.

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Cassis

Cassis (Occitan: Cassís) is a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.

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Castel Sainte-Claire

The Castel Sainte-Claire is a villa in the hills above Hyères, in the Var Département of France, which was the residence of Olivier Voutier, a French officer who brought the Venus de Milo to France in 1820, and later of the American novelist Edith Wharton.

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Castellet

Castellet is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalans

The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Catharism

Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

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Cathedral

A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Catherine of Alexandria, or Saint Catharine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲕⲁⲧⲧⲣⲓⲛ, ἡ Ἁγία Αἰκατερίνη ἡ Μεγαλομάρτυς – translation: Holy Catherine the Great Martyr) is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius.

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Catholic League (French)

The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.

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Cavaillon

Cavaillon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Cavalaire-sur-Mer

Cavalaire-sur-Mer is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Cèze

The Cèze is a French river, a tributary of the Rhone.

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Cévennes

The Cévennes (Cevenas) are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements of Ardèche, Gard, Hérault and Lozère.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Chaparral

Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the US state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.

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Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Gounod

Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.

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Charles I of Anjou

Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.

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Charles III of Naples

Charles the Short or Charles of Durazzo (1345 – 24 February 1386) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem from 1382 to 1386 as Charles III, and King of Hungary from 1385 to 1386 as Charles II.

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Charles IV, Duke of Anjou

Charles IV, Duke of Anjou, also Charles of Maine, Count of Le Maine and Guise (1446 – 10 December 1481) was the son of the Angevin prince Charles of Le Maine, Count of Maine, who was the youngest son of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon, Queen of Four Kingdoms.

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Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux

Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux (6 March 1767 – 25 June 1794) was a French politician of the Revolutionary period and Freemason.

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Charles Martel

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

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Charles Spurgeon

Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher.

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Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).

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Chasséen culture

Chasséen culture is the name given to the archaeological culture of prehistoric France of the late Neolithic (stone age), which dates to roughly between 4500 BC and 3500 BC.

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Châteauneuf-les-Martigues

Châteauneuf-les-Martigues is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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Chickpea

The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Chili pepper

The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

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Church of St. Trophime, Arles

The Church of St.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Cimbri

The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.

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Cimiez

Cimiez is a neighborhood in Nice, southern France.

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.

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Cinsaut

Cinsaut or Cinsault is a red wine grape, whose heat tolerance and productivity make it important in Languedoc-Roussillon and the former French colonies of Algeria and Morocco.

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Cistercians

A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Clairette blanche

Clairette blanche is a white wine grape variety most widely grown in the wine regions of Provence, Rhône and Languedoc in France.

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Clairvoyance

Clairvoyance (from French clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "vision") is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.

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Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle

Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, sometimes spelled de l'Isle or de Lile (10 May 1760 – 26 June 1836), was a French army officer of the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Claude Monet

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.

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Clove

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.

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Cluny Abbey

Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

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Cognac

Cognac is a variety of brandy named after the town of Cognac, France.

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Colette

Colette (Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, 28 January 1873 – 3 August 1954) was a French novelist nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Comtat

Comtat (Condado de Cocentaina) is a ''comarca'' in the province of Alicante, Valencian Community, Spain.

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Comtat Venaissin

The Comtat Venaissin (Provençal: lou Coumtat Venessin, Mistralian norm: la Coumtat, classical norm: lo Comtat Venaicin; "County of Venaissin"), often called the Comtat for short, was a part of the Papal States in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.

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Confit

Confit comes from the French word confire which means literally "to preserve," a confit being any type of food that is cooked slowly over a long period of time as a method of preservation.

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Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor

Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Continental climate

Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.

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Cornwall

Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Cosquer Cave

The Cosquer cave is located in the Calanque de Morgiou in Marseille, France, near Cap Morgiou.

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Counoise

Counoise is a dark-skinned wine grape grown primarily in the Rhône valley region of France.

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Count of Toulouse

The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.

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County of Nice

The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.

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County of Savoy

The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century.

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Crab

Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Darius Milhaud

Darius Milhaud (4 September 1892 – 22 June 1974) was a French composer, conductor, and teacher.

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Daube

Daube is a classic Provençal (or more broadly, French) stew made with inexpensive beef braised in wine, vegetables, garlic, and herbes de Provence, and traditionally cooked in a daubière, a braising pan.

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Dauphiné

The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.

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Deciates

The Deciates (Δεκιῆται) were a Ligurian tribe in the first few centuries BC.

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Dentelles de Montmirail

The Dentelles de Montmirail are a small chain of mountains in Provence in France, in the département of Vaucluse, located just to the south of the village of Vaison-la-Romaine.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Digne-les-Bains

Digne-les-Bains, or simply and historically Digne (Occitan: Dinha (dei Banhs) in classical norm or Digno in Mistralian norm), is a commune of France, capital of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, and situated in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.

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Dolmen

A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".

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Domaine d'Orvès

The Domaine d'Orvès is an arboretum and Provençal garden surrounding an 18th-century bastide located in the commune of La Valette du Var in the Var department of France.

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Douce I, Countess of Provence

Douce I (also Dulcia or Dolça, called "of Rouergue" or "of Gévaudan") (– 1127) was the daughter of Gilbert I of Gévaudan and Gerberga of Provence and wife of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona.

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Draguignan

Draguignan (Draguinhan) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, in southeastern France.

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Draveil

Draveil is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.

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Durance

The Durance (Durença in Occitan or Durènço in Mistralian) is a major river in south-eastern France.

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Edith Wharton

Edith Wharton (born Edith Newbold Jones; January 24, 1862 – August 11, 1937) was an American novelist, short story writer, and designer.

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Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.

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Elba

Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.

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Embrun, Hautes-Alpes

Embrun (Occitan: Ambrun, Latin: Ebrodunum, Ebrudunum, and Eburodunum) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.

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Escabeche

Escabeche is the name for a number of dishes in Mediterranean and Latin American cuisines which can refer to a dish of fish or meat (escabeche of chicken, rabbit or pork is common in Spain) marinated and cooked in an acidic mixture (vinegar) and sometimes colored with pimenton (Spanish paprika) or saffron.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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European conger

The European conger (Conger conger) is a species of conger of the family Congridae.

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Eygalières

Eygalières is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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Eyrieux (river)

The Eyrieux is a tributary of the Rhône in the Ardèche department, France.

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F. Scott Fitzgerald

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American fiction writer, whose works illustrate the Jazz Age.

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Faience

Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.

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Farinata

Farinata, socca, torta di ceci, or cecina is a type of thin, unleavened pancake or crêpe of chickpea flour originating in Genoa and later a typical food of the Ligurian Sea coast, from Nice to Elba island.

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Félibrige

The Félibrige (Lo Felibritge in classical Occitan, Lou Felibrige in Mistralian spelling) is a literary and cultural association founded by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the Provençal language (also called the Occitan language or langue d’oc) and literature.

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Fennel

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family.

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Festival d'Avignon

The Festival d'Avignon, or Avignon Festival, is an annual arts festival held in the French city of Avignon every summer in July in the courtyard of the Palais des Papes as well as in other locations of the city.

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Fief

A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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First White Terror

The White Terror was a period during the French Revolution in 1795, when a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France.

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Foça

Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean coast.

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Folquet de Marselha

Folquet de Marselha, alternatively Folquet de Marseille, Foulques de Toulouse, Fulk of Toulouse (c. 1150 – 25 December 1231) came from a Genoese merchant family who lived in Marseille.

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Forcalquier

Forcalquier (Forcauquier) is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.

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Fortified wine

Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added.

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Fougasse (bread)

In French cuisine, fougasse is a type of bread typically associated with Provence but found (with variations) in other regions.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Fraxinet

Fraxinet or Fraxinetum (translit or rtl Farakhsha, from Latin fraxinus: "ash tree", fraxinetum: "ash forest") was the site of a 10th-century fortress established by Muslims at modern La Garde-Freinet, near Saint-Tropez, in Provence.

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Frédéric Mistral

Frédéric Mistral (Frederic Mistral, 8 September 1830 – 25 March 1914) was a French writer and lexicographer of the Occitan language.

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Fréjus

Fréjus is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Fréjus Cathedral

Fréjus Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Léonce de Fréjus) is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Fréjus in the Var department of Provence, southeast France, and dedicated to Saint Leontius of Fréjus.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French Consulate

The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Revolutionary Army

The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.

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French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

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French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

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Fuella

Fuella is a red wine grape that is grown primarily in the Bellet region near Nice.

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Gaius Marius

Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

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Gap, Hautes-Alpes

Gap is a commune in southeastern France, the capital and largest town of the Hautes-Alpes department.

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Gard

Gard (Gard) is a department in southern France in the Occitanie region.

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Gardon

The Gardon or Gard (Occitan and French: Gardon, Gard) is a river in southern France.

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Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles

Marseille – Saint-Charles is the main railway station and intercity bus station of Marseille.

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Garrigue

Garigue or phrygana is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland ecoregion and plant community in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome.

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Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.

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Georges Braque

Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.

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Georges Clemenceau

Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Girondins

The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.

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Glanum

Glanum (Hellenistic Γλανόν, as well as Glano, Calum, Clano, Clanum, Glanu, Glano) was an oppidum, or fortified town in present day Provence, founded by a Celto-Ligurian people called the Salyes in the 6th century BCE.

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Golfe-Juan

Golfe-Juan (Lo Gorg Joan, Lo Golfe Joan) is a seaside resort on France's Côte d'Azur.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Grasse

Grasse (Provençal Grassa in classical norm or Grasso in Mistralian norm; traditional Grassa) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department (of which it is a sub-prefecture), on the French Riviera.

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Greater flamingo

The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread and largest species of the flamingo family.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Grenache

Grenache or Garnacha is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world.

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Grenache blanc

Grenache blanc (also known as garnatxa blanca in Catalonia) is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache.

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Grotte du Vallonnet

Grotte du Vallonnet is an archaeological site located near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton, in France, that was first discovered in 1958.

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Hachmei Provence

The term Hachmei Provence refers to the Jewish rabbis of Provence, a province in southern France, which was a great Torah center in the times of the Tosafists.

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Hannibal

Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.

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Haute-Provence Observatory

The Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP, Observatoire de Haute-Provence) is an astronomical observatory in the southeast of France, about 90 km east of Avignon and 100 km north of Marseille.

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Hautes-Alpes

Hautes-Alpes (Auts Aups) is a department in southeastern France named after the Alps mountain range.

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Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.

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Henri-Edmond Cross

Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker.

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Herbes de Provence

Herbes de Provence is a mixture of dried herbs considered typical of the Provence region of southeast France.

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Holland

Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.

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Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson

Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.

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House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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House of Orange-Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

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House of Valois-Anjou

The House of Valois-Anjou (Casa Valois-Angiò) was a noble French family, deriving from the royal family, the House of Valois.

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Hugh Johnson (wine writer)

Hugh Eric Allan Johnson OBE (born London, 10 March 1939) is a British author and expert on wine.

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Hugh of Italy

Hugh of Arles (or Hugh of Provence) was King of Italy from 924 until his death in 947.

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Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Hyères

Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera.

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Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Illicium verum

Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China.

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Isère

Isère (Arpitan: Isera, Occitan: Isèra) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère.

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Italian literature

Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.

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Italian Peninsula

The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.

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Ivan Bunin

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Jan Van der Roost

Jan Van der Roost (born Duffel, 1956) is a Belgian composer.

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Jean de Florette

Jean de Florette is a 1986 French period drama film directed by Claude Berri, based on a novel by Marcel Pagnol.

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Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War.

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Jean François Carteaux

Jean Baptiste François Carteaux (31 January 1751 – 12 April 1813) was a French painter who became a General in the French Revolutionary Army.

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Jean Giono

Jean Giono (30 March 1895 – 8 October 1970) was a French author who wrote works of fiction mostly set in the Provence region of France.

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Jean Moulin

Jean Moulin (20 June 1899 – 8 July 1943) was a high-profile member of the Resistance in France during World War II.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Jean-Rémy Palanque

Jean-Rémy Palanque (7 March 1898 in Marseille – 2 June 1988, Aix-en-Provence) was a professor of ancient history at the Faculty of Letters at Montpellier, then at the University of Aix-en-Provence.

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Joan, Countess of Toulouse

Joan (1220 – Castle of Corneto near Siena, 25 August 1271), was Countess of Toulouse from 1249 until her death.

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Joanna I of Naples

Joanna I (Italian: Giovanna I; March 1328 – 27 July 1382) was Queen of Naples and Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 until her death.

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John Dory

John Dory, St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus, especially Zeus faber, of widespread distribution.

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John Lanchester

John Henry Lanchester (born 25 February 1962) is a British journalist and novelist.

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John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist (Εὐαγγελιστής Ἰωάννης, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John.

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Joseph d'Arbaud

Joseph d'Arbaud (October 4, 1874 – March 2, 1950) was a French poet from Provence.

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Juan-les-Pins

Juan-les-Pins (Joan dei Pins) is a town and a health resort and spa in the commune of Antibes, in the Alpes-Maritimes, in southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Juniper

Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.

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Juniper berry

A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers.

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Katherine Mansfield

Kathleen Mansfield Murry (née Beauchamp; 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist short story writer who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield.

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King cake

A king cake (sometimes shown as kingcake, kings' cake, king's cake, or three kings cake) is a type of cake associated in a number of countries with the festival of Epiphany at the end of the Christmas season; in other places, it is associated with the pre-Lenten celebrations of Mardi Gras/Carnival.

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L'Arlésienne (short story)

L'Arlésienne is a short story, written by Alphonse Daudet and first published in his collection Letters From My Windmill (Lettres de mon moulin) in 1869.

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L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat

L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat (translated from French into English as The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station, Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat (US) and The Arrival of the Mail Train, and in the United Kingdom the film is known as Train Pulling into a Station) is an 1896 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière.

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L'Arroseur Arrosé

L'Arroseur arrosé (also known as The Waterer Watered and The Sprinkler Sprinkled) is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent comedy film directed and produced by Louis Lumière and starring François Clerc and Benoît Duval.

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L'Estaque

L'Estaque is a village in southern France, just west of Marseille.

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La Cadière-d'Azur

La Cadière-d'Azur (La Cadiera) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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La Ciotat

La Ciotat is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.

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La Garde-Freinet

La Garde-Freinet (Provençal: La Gàrdia Frainet) is a commune in the Var department in the Côte d'Azur area in southeastern France.

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La Marseillaise

"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.

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La Roque-d'Anthéron

La Roque-d'Anthéron (La Ròca d'Anteron in Occitan) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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La Turbie

La Turbie (in Italian "Turbia" from tropea, Latin for trophy) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.

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La Valette-du-Var

La Valette-du-Var (Provençal Occitan: La Valeta) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Latin literature

Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.

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Laurus nobilis

Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

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Lavandula

Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.

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Lawrence Durrell

Lawrence George Durrell (27 February 1912 – 7 November 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer.

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Léon Gambetta

Léon Gambetta (2 April 1838 – 31 December 1882) was a French statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.

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Lérins Abbey

Lérins Abbey is a Cistercian monastery on the island of Saint-Honorat, one of the Lérins Islands, on the French Riviera, with an active monastic community.

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Le Cannet

Le Cannet (Lo Canet) is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.

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Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

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Le Tholonet

Le Tholonet (Lou Toulounet and Lo Tolonet in Provençal) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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Le Thoronet Abbey

Le Thoronet Abbey (L'abbaye du Thoronet) is a former Cistercian abbey built in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century, now restored as a museum.

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Les Baux-de-Provence

Les Baux-de-Provence (Occitan: Lei Bauç de Provença) is a French commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department of the province of Provence in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southern France.

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Ligures

The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.

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Liguria

Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of kings of Burgundy

The following is a list of the kings of the two Kingdoms of Burgundy, and a number of related political entities devolving from Carolingian machinations over family relations.

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List of rulers of Provence

The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.

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Lombardy

Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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Lophius

Members of the genus Lophius, also sometimes called monkfish, fishing-frogs, frog-fish, and sea-devils, are various species of lophiid anglerfishes found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

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Louis Bellaud

Louis Bellaud also known as Bellaud de la Bellaudière (1543–1588) was an Occitan language writer and poet from Provence.

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Louis IX of France

Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.

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Louis the Blind

Louis the Blind (880 – 5 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905.

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Louis the Younger

Louis the Younger (830/835 – 20 January 882), sometimes Louis III, was the second eldest of the three sons of Louis II the German and Emma.

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Louis VIII of France

Louis VIII the Lion (Louis VIII le Lion; 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) was King of France from 1223 to 1226.

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Louis XI of France

Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louvre

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.

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Luberon

The Luberon (Provençal Occitan: Leberon in classical norm or Leberoun in Mistralian norm) is a massif in central Provence in the south of France.

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Ludovico Brea

Ludovico (or Louis) Brea (c. 1450 – c. 1523) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance, active mainly in and near Genoa.

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Luxe, Calme et Volupté

Luxe, Calme et Volupté is an oil painting by the French artist Henri Matisse.

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Manon des Sources (1986 film)

Manon des Sources (meaning Manon of the Spring) is a 1986 French language film.

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Manosque

Manosque (Provençal Occitan: Manòsca in classical norm or Manosco in Mistralian norm) is the largest town and commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.

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Marcel Pagnol

Marcel Pagnol (28 February 1895 – 18 April 1974) was a French novelist, playwright, and filmmaker.

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Margaret of Provence

Margaret of Provence (Marguerite; 1221 – 20 December 1295) was Queen of France by marriage to King Louis IX.

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Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné (5 February 1626 – 17 April 1696) was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing.

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Marin (wind)

The Marin is a warm, moist wind in the Gulf of Lion of France, blowing from the southeast or south-southeast onto the coast of Languedoc and Roussillon.

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Maritime Alps

The Maritime Alps (Alpes Maritimes; Alpi Marittime) are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps.

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Marquis de Sade

Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.

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Marsanne

Marsanne is a white wine grape, most commonly found in the Northern Rhône region.

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Marseille

Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Marsh

A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.

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Martial

Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania (modern Spain) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.

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Martigues

Martigues (in classical norm, Lou Martegue in Mistralian norm) is a commune northwest of Marseille.

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Mary Magdalene

Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.

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Mas (Provençal farmhouse)

A mas is a traditional farmhouse found in the Provence and Midi regions of France, as well as in Catalonia (Spain) where it is also named masia (in Catalan) or masía (in Spanish).

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Massif des Écrins

The mountains of the Massif des Écrins form the core of the Écrins National Park in France.

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Massif des Calanques

The Massif des Calanques is a wild and rugged terrain stretching from the ninth arrondissement of Marseille to the east towards Cassis, spanning 20 km in length and 4 km in width along the coast.

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Maurice Denis

Maurice Denis (25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art.

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Maurontus

Maurontus, Maurente, or Maurontius was the Duke or Patrician of Provence in the early 8th century (720s and 730s).

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Menton

Menton (written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Mentone) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Mercantour National Park

Mercantour National Park (Parc national du Mercantour) is one of the ten national parks of France.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Mirèio

Mirèio (Mirèlha in classical norm) is a poem in Occitan by French writer Frédéric Mistral.

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Mireille (opera)

Mireille is an 1864 opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Michel Carré after Frédéric Mistral's poem Mireio.

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Mistral (wind)

The mistral (Mestral, Μαΐστρος, Maestrale, Corsican: Maestral) is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean, with sustained winds often exceeding, sometimes reaching.

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Mistralian norm

The Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language.

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Monaco

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Mont Bégo

Mont Bégo (Italian: Monte Bego) is a mountain in the Mercantour massif of the Maritime Alps, in southern France, with an elevation of.

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Mont Puget

Mont Puget is a mountain, part of Marseille-Cassis calanques, located south-east of Marseille.

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Mont Ventoux

Mont Ventoux (Ventor in Provençal) is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km northeast of Carpentras, Vaucluse.

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Montagne Sainte-Victoire

Montagne Sainte-Victoire — in Provençal Venturi / Santa Venturi according to classical orthography and Ventùri / Santo Ventùri according to Mistralian orthography — is a limestone mountain ridge in the south of France which extends over between the départements of Bouches-du-Rhône and Var.

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Monte Argentera

Monte Argentera is a mountain in the Maritime Alps, in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, northern Italy.

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Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.

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Montmajour Abbey

Montmajour Abbey, formally the Abbey of St. Peter in Montmajour (Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Montmajour), was a fortified Benedictine monastery built between the 10th and 18th centuries on what was originally an island five kilometers north of Arles, in what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône Department, in the region of Provence in the south of France.

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Montpellier

Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.

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Moors

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Mosquito

Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mougins

Mougins (Mogins) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.

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Mourvèdre

Mourvèdre (also known as Mataró or Monastrell) is a red wine grape variety that is grown in many regions around the world including the Rhône and Provence regions of France, the Valencia and Jumilla denominaciones de origen of Spain, California and Washington State and the Australian regions of South Australia and New South Wales, as well as South Africa.

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Moustiers-Sainte-Marie

Moustiers-Sainte-Marie, or simply Moustiers, (Mostiers Santa Maria in Occitan) is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France, a part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region and considered one of the "most beautiful villages of France".

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Muscat (grape)

The Muscat family of grapes include over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Narbonne

Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.

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Nîmes

Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Niçard dialect

Niçard (Classical orthography), Nissart/Niçart (Mistralian orthography), Niçois (French), or Nizzardo (Italian) is a subdialect of the Occitan language (Provençal dialect) spoken in the city of Nice (Niçard: Niça/Nissa) and in the historical County of Nice (since 1860 the main part of the current French département of Alpes-Maritimes).

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Nice

Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

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Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël (January 5, 1914 – March 16, 1955) was a French painter of Russian origin known for his use of a thick impasto and his highly abstract landscape painting.

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Nicolas Froment

Nicolas Froment (c. 1435, Uzès, Gard – c. 1486 in Avignon) was a French painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Normans

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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Nostradamus

Michel de Nostredame (depending on the source, 14 or 21 December 1503 – 2 July 1566), usually Latinised as Nostradamus was a French physician and reputed seer, who is best known for his book Les Propheties, a collection of 942 poetic quatrains allegedly predicting future events. The book was first published in 1555 and has rarely been out of print since his death. Nostradamus's family was originally Jewish, but had converted to Catholicism before he was born. He studied at the University of Avignon, but was forced to leave after just over a year when the university closed due to an outbreak of the plague. He worked as an apothecary for several years before entering the University of Montpellier, hoping to earn a doctorate, but was almost immediately expelled after his work as an apothecary (a manual trade forbidden by university statutes) was discovered. He first married in 1531, but his wife and two children were killed in 1534 during another plague outbreak. He fought alongside doctors against the plague before remarrying to Anne Ponsarde, who bore him six children. He wrote an almanac for 1550 and, as a result of its success, continued writing them for future years as he began working as an astrologer for various wealthy patrons. Catherine de' Medici became one of his foremost supporters. His Les Propheties, published in 1555, relied heavily on historical and literary precedent and initially received mixed reception. He suffered from severe gout towards the end of his life, which eventually developed in edema. He died on 2 July 1566. Many popular authors have retold apocryphal legends about his life. In the years since the publication of his Les Propheties, Nostradamus has attracted a large number of supporters, who, along with much of the popular press, credit him with having accurately predicted many major world events. Most academic sources reject the notion that Nostradamus had any genuine supernatural prophetic abilities and maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate). These academics argue that Nostradamus's predictions are characteristically vague, meaning they could be applied to virtually anything, and are useless for determining whether their author had any real prophetic powers. They also point out that English translations of his quatrains are almost always of extremely poor quality, based on later manuscripts, produced by authors with little knowledge of sixteenth-century French, and often deliberately mistranslated to make the prophecies fit whatever events the translator believed they were supposed to have predicted.

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Nutmeg

Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Occitan literature

Occitan literature (referred to in older texts as Provençal literature) is a body of texts written in Occitan, mostly in the south of France.

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Olive

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Operation Attila (World War II)

During World War II, Operation Attila was a plan for the Nazi occupation of Vichy France.

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Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Torch

Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

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Orange, Vaucluse

Orange (Provençal Aurenja in classical norm or Aurenjo in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about north of Avignon.

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Ostrogoths

The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).

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Ouvèze

The Ouvèze is a river in southern France and left tributary of the Rhône.

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Oxybii

The Oxybii (Ὀξύβιοι) were a Ligurian tribe living on the Mediterranean coast of France near Massalia.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Palais des Papes

The Palais des Papes (English: Papal palace, lo Palais dei Papas in Occitan) is a historical palace located in Avignon, southern France.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Palette AOC

Palette is a small French wine AOC in the Provence region of southern France, near Aix-en-Provence.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Parliament of Aix-en-Provence

The Parliament of Aix-en-Provence was the regional parliament of Provence from 1501 to 1790.

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Partie de cartes

Partie de cartes (also known as Card Game and The Messers. Lumière at Cards (USA), or A Quiet Game of Écarté) is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent film directed and produced by Louis Lumière and starring Antoine Féraud.

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Pastis

Pastis is an anise-flavoured spirit and apéritif from France, typically containing less than 100 g/l sugar and 40–45% ABV (alcohol by volume).

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Paul Arène

Paul-Auguste Arène (26 June 1843, Sisteron, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence – 17 December 1896, Antibes) was a Provençal poet and French writer.

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Paul Cézanne

Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.

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Paul Ricard

Paul Louis Marius Ricard (July 9, 1909 – November 7, 1997) was a French industrialist and creator of an eponymous pastis brand which merged in 1975 with its competitor Pernod to create Pernod Ricard.

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Paul Signac

Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style.

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Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".

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Pétanque

Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.

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Perfume

Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.

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Pernod Fils

Pernod Fils was the most popular brand of absinthe throughout the 19th century until it was banned in 1915.

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Pernod Ricard

Pernod Ricard is a French company that produces distilled beverages.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Peter Mayle

Peter Mayle (14 June 1939 – 18 January 2018) was a British author noted for his memoirs of life in Provence, France.

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Petrarch

Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Phocaea

Phocaea, or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, Phókaia; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.

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Phragmites

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.

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Phylloxera

Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch 1855); family Phylloxeridae, within the order Hemiptera, bugs); originally described in France as Phylloxera vastatrix; equated to the previously described Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera vitifoliae; commonly just called phylloxera (from φύλλον, leaf, and ξηρός, dry) is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America.

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Piedmont

Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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Piedmontese language

Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.

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Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis.

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Pierre Deval

Pierre Deval (1897 in Lyon – 1993 in La Valette-du-Var), was a French figurative painter of the 20th century, noted as a colorist and for his subtle paintings of women and children.

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Pierre Puget

Pierre Puget (16 October 1620 – 2 December 1694) was a French painter, sculptor, architect and engineer.

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

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Pimiento

A pimiento, pimento, or cherry pepper is a variety of large, red, heart-shaped chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) that measures 3 to 4 in (7 to 10 cm) long and 2 to 3 in (5 to 7 cm) wide (medium, elongate).

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Pinerolo

Pinerolo (Pignerol; Piemontese: Pinareul) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, northwestern Italy, southwest of Turin on the river Chisone.

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Pissaladière

Pissaladière (Niçard: pissaladiera, or pissaladina; piscialandrea) is a dish which originated from Nice in Southern France.

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Pistou

Pistou (Provençal: pisto (classical) or pistou (Mistralian)), or pistou sauce, is a Provençal cold sauce made from cloves of garlic, fresh basil, and olive oil.

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Platanus

Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere.

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Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.

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Pont Saint-Bénézet

The Pont Saint-Bénézet (Provençal: Pònt de Sant Beneset), also known as the Pont d'Avignon, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France.

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Pope

The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Benedict XII

Pope Benedict XII (Benedictus XII; 1285 – 25 April 1342), born Jacques Fornier, was Pope from 30 December 1334 to his death in April 1342.

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Pope Clement V

Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.

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Pope Clement VI

Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.

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Porquerolles

Porquerolles, also known as the Île de Porquerolles, is an island in the Îles d'Hyères, Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France.

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Provençal dialect

Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.

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Provençal quilts

The term Provençal quilting, also known as boutis, refers to the wholecloth quilts done using a stuffing technique traditionally made in the South of France from the 17th century onwards.

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Provence wine

Provence (Provençal) wine comes from the French wine-producing region of Provence in southeast France.

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Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur; Provenza-Alpi-Costa Azzurra; PACA) is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.

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Province of Cuneo

Cuneo (Italian) or Coni (French and Piedmontese) is a province in the southwest of the Piedmont region of Italy.

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Prune

A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum.

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Puget-Théniers

Puget-Théniers (Italian: Poggetto Tenieri) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.

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Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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Pytheas

Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Quercus coccifera

Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak tree in the ''Quercus'' section ''Cerris''.

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Quercus ilex

Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.

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Raimbaut de Vaqueiras

Raimbaut de Vaqueiras or Vaqueyras (fl. 1180 – 1207) was a Provençal troubadour and, later in his life, knight.

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Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer III the Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086 (jointly with Berenguer Ramon II and solely from 1097), Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131.

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Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy.

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Ratatouille

Ratatouille is a French Provençal stewed vegetable dish, originating in Nice, and sometimes referred to as ratatouille niçoise.

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Regions of France

France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René of Anjou

René of Anjou (Rainièr d'Anjau; René d'Anjou; 1409–1480), also known as René I of Naples (Renato I di Napoli) and Good King René (Rai Rainièr lo Bòn; Le bon roi René), was count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–80), Duke of Lorraine (1431–53), Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–80), King of Naples (1435–42; titular 1442–80), titular King of Jerusalem (1438–80) and Aragon including Sicily, Majorca and Corsica (1466–70).

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Repas de bébé

Le Repas de Bébé (also known as Baby's Dinner and Feeding the Baby) is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Louis Lumière and starring Andrée Lumière.

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Rhône

The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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Rhône Glacier

The Rhône Glacier (Rhonegletscher, Walliser German: Rottengletscher, le glacier du Rhône, ghiacciaio del Rodano) is a glacier in the Swiss Alps and the source of the river Rhône and one of the primary contributors to Lake Geneva in the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais.

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Riez

Riez is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.

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Robèrt Lafont

Robèrt Lafont (March 16, 1923 in Nîmes – June 24, 2009 in Florence) was an Occitan intellectual from Provence.

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Roman aqueduct

The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse (–Saint Bertrand de Comminges–Rieux) (Archidioecesis Tolosana (–Convenarum–Rivensis); French: Archidiocèse de Toulouse (–Saint-Bertrand de Comminges–Rieux-Volvestre); Occitan: Archidiocèsi de Tolosa (–Sent Bertran de Comenge–Rius (Volvèstre))) is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Glandèves

Glanate was a Gallo-Roman town on the right bank of the Var, which became the episcopal see of Glandève.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.

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Roman Senate

The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Roquebrune-Cap-Martin

Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (Ròcabruna Caup Martin, Roccabruna-Capo Martino) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton.

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Rosé

A rosé (from French rosé; also known as rosado in Portuguese and Spanish-speaking countries and rosato in Italy) is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine.

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Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.

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Rouille

Rouille (French 'rust') is a sauce that consists of olive oil with breadcrumbs, garlic, saffron and cayenne pepper.

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Roussanne

Roussanne is a white wine grape grown originally in the Rhône wine region in France, where it is often blended with Marsanne.

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Rudolph II of Burgundy

Rudolph II (c. 880 – 11 July 937), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was King of Burgundy from 912 until his death.

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Saône

The Saône (La Saône; Arpitan Sona, Arar) is a river of eastern France.

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Sacha Sosno

Alexandre Joseph Sosnowsky, (1937 – 3 December 2013), better known by the name Sacha Sosno, was an internationally renowned French sculptor and painter.

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Saffron

Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice (also Moritz, Morris, or Mauritius) was the leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century, and one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that group.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Saint Sarah

Saint Sarah, also known as Sara-la-Kali ("Sara the Black", Sara e Kali), is the patron saint of the Romani people.

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Saint-Blaise, Alpes-Maritimes

Saint-Blaise is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes département in southeastern France.

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Saint-Chamas

Saint-Chamas (in Provençal Occitan: Sanch Amàs in classical orthography, Sant Chamas according to Mistralian orthography) is a commune in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.

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Saint-Gotthard Massif

The Saint-Gotthard Massif (German: Gotthardmassiv or Sankt-Gotthard-Massiv) is a mountain range in the Alps in Switzerland, located at the border of four cantons: Valais, Ticino, Uri and Graubünden.

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Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat

Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Italian: San Giovanni Capo Ferrato) is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. It is located on a peninsula next to Beaulieu-sur-Mer and Villefranche-sur-Mer and extends out to Cap Ferrat. Its tranquillity and warm climate make it a favourite holiday destination among the European aristocracy and international millionaires.

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Saint-Laurent-du-Var

Saint-Laurent-du-Var is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region on the French Riviera.

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Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume

Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume (Sant Maissemin la Santo Baumo) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux

Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux (Sant Pau Tres Castèus), sometimes known as -en-Tricastin, is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France.

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Saint-Raphaël, Var

Saint-Raphaël (Sant Rafèu) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Saint-Rémy-de-Provence

Saint-Rémy-de-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Sant Romieg de Provença in classical and Sant Roumié de Prouvènço in Mistralian norms) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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Saint-Tropez

Saint-Tropez (Sant-Troupès in Provençal dialect) is a town on the French Riviera, west of Nice in the Var department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France.

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Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer

Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (lit.: Saint Marys of the Sea, Provençal Occitan: Lei Santei Marias de la Mar) is the capital of the Camargue (Provençal Occitan Camarga) in the south of France.

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Salon-de-Provence

Salon-de-Provence (Selon) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.

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Salvia officinalis

Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.

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Santon (figurine)

Santons (Provençal: "santoun," or "little saint") are small hand-painted terracotta nativity scene figurines produced in the Provence region of southeastern France.

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Saracen

Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.

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Sardines as food

Sardines are a nutrient-rich fish widely consumed by humans and fish.

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Sauvignon blanc

Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France.

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Savoy

Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.

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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.

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Sémillon

Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, mostly in France and Australia.

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Sénanque Abbey

Sénanque Abbey (Occitan: abadiá de Senhanca, French: Abbaye Notre-Dame de Sénanque) is a Cistercian abbey near the village of Gordes in the département of the Vaucluse in Provence, France.

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Scorpaenidae

Scorpaenidae (also known as the scorpionfish) are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species.

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Sea spider

Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Senez

Senez is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.

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Seventh United States Army

The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Sheep

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Shrubland

Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.

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Siege of Toulon

The Siege of Toulon (29 August – 19 December 1793) was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon.

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Silvacane Abbey

Silvacane Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in the municipality of La Roque-d'Anthéron, Bouches-du-Rhône, in Provence, France.

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Sisteron

Sisteron (in classical norm or Sisteroun in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Smyrna

Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.

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Solferino

Solferino is a small town and comune in the province of Mantua, Lombardy, northern Italy, approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) south of Lake Garda.

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Stew

A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.

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Strasbourg

Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Syrah

Syrah, also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine.

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Tanneron

Tanneron is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Tapenade

Tapenade (tapenada) is a Provençal name for a dish consisting of puréed or finely-chopped olives, capers, and olive oil.

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Tarascon

Tarascon, sometimes referred to as Tarascon-sur-Rhône, is a commune situated at the extreme west of the Bouches-du-Rhône department of France in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.

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Tarte tropézienne

Tarte tropézienne, also known as "La Tarte de Saint-Tropez", is a dessert pastry consisting of a filled brioche.

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Terra Amata (archaeological site)

Terra Amata is an archeological site in open air located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice, at a level above the current sea level of the Mediterranean.

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Teutons

The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.

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TGV

The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.

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Théodore Aubanel

Théodore Aubanel (Occitan: Teodòr Aubanèu) (March 26, 1829 – November 2, 1886) was a Provençal poet.

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The Mountain

The Mountain (La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.

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Thirteen desserts

The thirteen desserts (Occitan: lei tretze dessèrts) are the traditional dessert foods used in celebrating Christmas in the French region of Provence.

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Thyme

Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.

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Thymus serpyllum

Thymus serpyllum, known by the common names of Breckland thyme, Breckland wild thyme, wild thyme, creeping thyme, or elfin thyme, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to most of Europe and North Africa.

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Tibouren

Tibouren or Rossese di Dolceacqua is a red French wine grape variety that is primarily grown in Provence and Liguria but originated in Greece and possibly even the Middle East.

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Toulon

Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.

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Toulon Cathedral

Toulon Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-la-Seds de Toulon; Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède de Toulon), also known as Sainte-Marie-Majeure, is a Roman Catholic church located in Toulon, in the Var department of France.

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Treaty of Utrecht

The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.

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Trebbiano

Trebbiano is an Italian wine grape, one of the most widely planted grape varieties in the world.

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Triglidae

The Triglidae, commonly known as sea robins or gurnard, are a family of bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fish.

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Trinquetaille

Trinquetaille is an area in the town of Arles, in southern France.

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Triptych

A triptych (from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον "triptukhon" ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open.

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Troika (album)

Troika: Russia’s westerly poetry in three orchestral song cycles is a 2011 album of contemporary classical songs performed by soprano Julia Kogan, who also conceived the project.

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Troubadour

A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Ubaye Valley

The Ubaye Valley is an area in the Alpes de Haute-Provence département, in the French Alps, having approximately 7,700 residents.

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Umayyad invasion of Gaul

The Umayyad invasion of Gaul followed the Umayyad conquest of Hispania spearheaded by the Muslim commander Tariq ibn Ziyad in 711.

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Unité d'habitation

The Unité d'habitation (Housing Unit) is a modernist residential housing design principle developed by Le Corbusier, with the collaboration of painter-architect Nadir Afonso.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Vaison-la-Romaine

Vaison-la-Romaine (Latin: Vasio Vocontiorum) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.The French archaeologist and hellenist Henri Metzger (1912–2007) died here.

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Vallauris

Vallauris is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Vallée des merveilles

The Vallée des Merveilles, also known in Italian as the Valle delle Meraviglie (Valley of Marvels), is a part of the Mercantour National Park in southern France.

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Var (department)

The Var is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Provence in southeastern France.

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Var (river)

The Var (Var, Varo, Varus) is a river located in the southeast of France.

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Vaucluse

The Vaucluse (Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm) is a department in the southeast of France, named after the famous spring the Fontaine de Vaucluse.

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Vence

Vence is a commune set in the hills of the Alpes Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France between Nice and Antibes.

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Verdon (river)

The Verdon is a long river in south-eastern France, left tributary of the Durance.

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Verdon Gorge

The Verdon Gorge (in French: Gorges du Verdon or Grand canyon du Verdon), in south-eastern France (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), is a river canyon that is often considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful.

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Vermentino

Vermentino is a light-skinned wine grape variety, primarily found in Italian wine.

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Vernègues

Vernègues is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in southern France.

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Villefranche-sur-Mer

Villefranche-sur-Mer (Niçard: Vilafranca de Mar, Villafranca Marittima) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region on the French Riviera.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Vinon-sur-Verdon

Vinon-sur-Verdon is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Visigoths

The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.

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Vivaro-Alpine dialect

Vivaro-Alpine (vivaroalpenc, vivaroaupenc) is a variety of Occitan spoken in southeastern France (namely, around the Dauphiné area) and northwestern Italy (the Occitan Valleys of Piedmont and Liguria).

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.

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W. Somerset Maugham

William Somerset Maugham, CH (25 January 1874 – 16 December 1965), better known as W. Somerset Maugham, was a British playwright, novelist and short story writer.

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Waldensians

The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.

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Western Schism

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.

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Willa Cather

Willa Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873 Cather's birth date is confirmed by a birth certificate and a January 22, 1874, letter of her father's referring to her. While working at McClure's Magazine, Cather claimed to be born in 1875. After 1920, she claimed 1876 as her birth year. That is the date carved into her gravestone at Jaffrey, New Hampshire. – April 24, 1947 Retrieved March 11, 2015.) was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers! (1913), The Song of the Lark (1915), and My Ántonia (1918).

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William I of Provence

William I (950 – after 29 August 993), called the Liberator, was Count of Provence from 968 to his abdication.

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Winds of Provence

The Winds of Provence, the region of southeast France along the Mediterranean from the Alps to the mouth of the Rhone River, are an important feature of Provençal life, and each one has a traditional local name, in the Provençal language.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Yolk

Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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Yves Klein

Yves Klein (28 April 1928 – 6 June 1962) was a French artist considered an important figure in post-war European art.

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44th parallel north

The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provence

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