289 relations: A Secret History of the IRA, Abstentionism, Active service unit, Activism, Al-Qaeda, Alec Reid, Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, AN-94, Anti H-Block, Antwerp, Apprentice Boys of Derry, Arbitration, Ardfheis, Armalite and ballot box strategy, Arms Crisis, Assessment on Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland, Attrition warfare, Éire Nua, Óglaigh na hÉireann, Ballymurphy massacre, Bantam Books, Barrack buster, Basic Books, Battalion, Battle of the Bogside, BBC News, Belfast West (UK Parliament constituency), Billy McKee, Billy McMillen, Blanket protest, Bloody Sunday (1972), Bloomsbury Publishing, Bobby Sands, Bogside, Border Campaign (Irish Republican Army), Boyle, County Roscommon, Brendan Hughes, Brendan McFarlane, Brendan O'Brien (journalist), Brian Keenan (Irish republican), Brigade, British Army, British military intelligence systems in Northern Ireland, Cathal Goulding, Catholic Church, Ceasefire, Cenotaph, Central Intelligence Agency, Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, Chronology of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions (2000–09), ..., Clandestine cell system, Collaborationism, Colombia Three, Company (military unit), Conflict Archive on the Internet, Continuity Irish Republican Army, Counterfeit, Counties of Ireland, County Donegal, County Fermanagh, County Leitrim, County Londonderry, County Louth, CS gas, Danny Morrison (Irish republican), David McKittrick, Dáil Éireann, Dáithí Ó Conaill, Decommissioning in Northern Ireland, Defence Forces (Ireland), Democratic Unionist Party, Denis Donaldson, Derry, Detonator, Direct Action Against Drugs, Disappeared (Northern Ireland), Dissident Irish Republican campaign, Dublin, Easter Rising, Ed Moloney, Eddie Copeland, Embassy of Iran, London, Enniskillen, Estonia, Estonian Defence League, ETA (separatist group), Extrajudicial punishment, Federal Security Service, Federation, Fianna Fáil, First Dáil, Flamethrower, Force Research Unit, Frank Kitson, Freddie Scappaticci, Freedom of Information Act 2000, Fuel dyes, Garda Commissioner, Garda Síochána, Garret FitzGerald, Gerard Davison, Gerry Adams, Gerry Kelly, Glenties, Good Friday Agreement, Government of Ireland, Government of Northern Ireland, Grenade, Guerrilla warfare, Hadi Ghaffari, Handgun, Harold Wilson, Heavy machine gun, History of Northern Ireland, Holy Wars... The Punishment Due, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Ian Paisley, Illicit cigarette trade, Improvised explosive device, Independent International Commission on Decommissioning, Independent Monitoring Commission, Informant, Internal Security Unit, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, IRA Army Council, IRA Northern Command, IRA Quartermaster General, Iran, Irish Americans, Irish Civil War, Irish Examiner, Irish general election, 1987, Irish general election, 2011, Irish Independent, Irish language, Irish National Liberation Army, Irish nationalism, Irish orthography, Irish People's Liberation Organisation, Irish Republic, Irish Republican Army (1919–1922), Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish republican legitimism, Irish republicanism, Irish War of Independence, Ivor Bell, J. Bowyer Bell, James Callaghan, Jane Kennedy (politician), Jane's Information Group, Jersey, Joe Cahill, Joe Hendron, John de Chastelain, John Horgan (political psychologist), John Hume, John O'Connell (Dublin politician), Julia Pirie, Kevin Fulton, KGB, Kneecapping, Left-wing nationalism, Levant, Libya, List of chronologies of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions, List of designated terrorist groups, Longman, Low intensity conflict, Luis Carrero Blanco, M1 Garand, Man-portable air-defense system, Martin Dillon, Martin McGuinness, Megadeth, Member of parliament, Merlyn Rees, MI5, Michael McDowell (politician), Michael Oatley, Minister for Justice and Equality, Muammar Gaddafi, Murder of Jean McConville, National Review, Northern Bank robbery, Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, Northern Ireland civil rights movement, Northern Ireland local elections, 1993, Northern Ireland peace process, O'Connell Street, Official Irish Republican Army, Operation Banner, Owen Carron, Palestine Liberation Organization, Pan Books, Paramilitary, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patrick Mayhew, Penguin Books, Peter Brooke, Baron Brooke of Sutton Mandeville, Peter Mandelson, Peter Taylor (journalist), Phoenix (mythology), Police Service of Northern Ireland, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Progressive Unionist Party, Protection racket, Protestantism, Provinces of Ireland, Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade, Provisional IRA Derry Brigade, Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign, Quartermaster, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, Raymond Gilmour, Real Irish Republican Army, Remembrance Day bombing, Republic, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, Republican Action Against Drugs, Republican Defence Army, Republican movement (Ireland), ResearchGate, Resistance movement, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Richard English, Rocket-propelled grenade, Royal Ulster Constabulary, Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, Seamus Twomey, Seán Mac Stíofáin, Second Dáil, Secret Intelligence Service, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Semtex, September 11 attacks, Sinn Féin, Smithwick Tribunal, Social Democratic and Labour Party, South Armagh Republican Action Force, South Armagh Sniper (1990–1997), Special Category Status, Special Criminal Court, Stakeknife, Stasi, Sunday Tribune, Supergrass (informant), Teachta Dála, Terrorism Act 2000, The Daily Telegraph, The Green Book (IRA), The Irish Times, The New York Times, The News Letter, The Sunday Times, The Times, The Troubles, Thompson submachine gun, Tim Pat Coogan, Toby Harnden, Tony Geraghty, Transaction Publishers, Ulster, Ulster Defence Regiment, Ulster loyalism, Ulster Unionist Party, Ulster University, Ulsterisation, Unionism in Ireland, United Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom general election, 1983, United Kingdom general election, 1992, United Kingdom general election, 1997, United States Department of State, Vasili Mitrokhin, Volunteer (Irish republican), War on Terror, Warrington, Warrington bomb attacks, William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, 1969 Northern Ireland riots, 1981 Irish hunger strike, 1989 Jonesborough ambush, 1996 Docklands bombing, 1996 Manchester bombing, 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment. 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A Secret History of the IRA (Penguin, 2002; 2007) by journalist Ed Moloney.
Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business.
An Active Service Unit (ASU) was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) cell of five to eight members, tasked with carrying out armed attacks.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Father Alec Reid, C.Ss.R. (5 August 1931 – 22 November 2013) was an Irish Catholic priest noted for his facilitator role in the Northern Ireland peace process, a role BBC journalist Peter Taylor subsequently described as "absolutely critical" to its success.
The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI) is a liberal and centrist political party in Northern Ireland.
The AN-94 (Russian: 5,45-мм автомат Никонова обр. 1994 г. / АН-94 «Абака́н», GRAU designation 6P33) is a rifle of Russian origin.
Anti H-Block was the political label used in 1981 by supporters of the Irish republican hunger strike who were standing for election in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 10,000, founded in 1814 and based in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland.
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts.
Ardfheis or Ard Fheis ("high assembly"; plural Ardfheiseanna) is the name used by many Irish political parties for their annual party conference.
The Armalite and ballot box strategy was a strategy pursued by the Irish republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s in which elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue an armed struggle against the British Army, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, and loyalist paramilitary groups.
The Arms Crisis was a political scandal in the Republic of Ireland in 1970 in which Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney were dismissed as cabinet ministers for alleged involvement in a conspiracy to smuggle arms to the Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland.
The independent Assessment on Paramilitary Organisations in Northern Ireland was announced by the United Kingdom government in September 2015 in response to the political crisis in Northern Ireland.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Éire Nua, or "New Ireland", was a proposal supported by the Provisional IRA and Sinn Féin during the 1970s and early 1980s for a federal United Ireland.
Óglaigh na hÉireann, abbreviated ÓÉ, is an Irish-language idiom that can be translated variously as soldiers of Ireland, warriors of Ireland, volunteers of IrelandO'Leary, Brendan.
The Ballymurphy Massacre was a series of incidents involving the killing of eleven civilians by the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment of the British Army in Ballymurphy, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Bantam Books is an American publishing house owned entirely by parent company Random House, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House; it is an imprint of the Random House Publishing Group.
Barrack buster is the colloquial name given to several improvised mortars, developed in the 1990s by the engineering group of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of the Bogside was a very large communal riot that took place from 12 to 14 August 1969 in Derry, Northern Ireland.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belfast West is a parliamentary constituency (seat) in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament.
Billy McKee (Liam Mac Aoidh; born 1921) is an Irish republican and a founding member and former leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA).
Liam "Billy" McMillen (19 May 1927 – 28 April 1975) was an Irish republican activist and an officer of the Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) from Belfast, Northern Ireland.
The blanket protest was part of a five-year protest during the Troubles by Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners held in the Maze prison (also known as "Long Kesh") in Northern Ireland.
Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 28 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
Robert Gerard Sands (Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 19545 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.
The Bogside is a neighbourhood outside the city walls of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
The Border Campaign (12 December 1956 – 26 February 1962) was a guerrilla warfare campaign (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland.
Boyle is a town in County Roscommon, Ireland.
Brendan Hughes (16 October 1948 – 16 February 2008), also known as "The Dark", and "Darkie" was a leading Irish republican and former Officer Commanding (OC) of the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).
Brendan "Bik" McFarlane (born 1951) is an Irish republican activist.
Brendan O'Brien is a senior Irish journalist on RTÉ One's Prime Time current affairs programme.
Brian Keenan (1942 – 21 May 2008) was a former member of the Army Council of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who received an 18-year prison sentence in 1980 for conspiring to cause explosions, and played a key role in the Northern Ireland peace process.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British military exploited a number of information sources during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
Cathal Goulding (Cathal Ó Goillín; 2 January 1923 – 26 December 1998) was Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army and the Official IRA.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Several people are reported to have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the organisations bearing that name.
This is a chronology of activities by the Provisional Irish Republican Army, an Irish republican paramilitary group from 2000 to 2009.
A clandestine cell system is a method for organizing a group of people such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, or terrorists so that such people can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (such as law enforcement).
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The Colombia Three are three individuals – Niall Connolly, James Monaghan and Martin McCauley – who are currently living in the Republic of Ireland, having fled from Colombia, where they were sentenced to prison terms of seventeen years for training FARC rebels.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet) is a database containing information about Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.
The Continuity Irish Republican Army, usually known as the Continuity IRA (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that claims to be the armed forces of the Irish Republic that was proclaimed in 1916.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.
County Fermanagh is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland and one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
County Leitrim (Contae Liatroma) is a county in the Republic of Ireland.
County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire; Ulster-Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie), also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
County Louth (Contae Lú) is a county in Ireland.
The compound 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; chemical formula: C10H5ClN2), a cyanocarbon, is the defining component of a tear gas commonly referred to as CS gas, which is used as a riot control agent.
Daniel Gerard Morrison (born 9 January 1953), known generally as Danny Morrison, is a former IRA volunteer, Irish author and activist who played a crucial role in public events during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
David McKittrick (born 1949) is a Belfast-born journalist who has reported on Northern Ireland since 1971.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
Dáithí Ó Conaill (David O'Connell) (May 1938 – 1 January 1991) was an Irish republican, a member of the IRA Army Council, and vice-president of Sinn Féin and Republican Sinn Féin.
Decommissioning in Northern Ireland was a process in the Belfast Agreement as part of the Northern Ireland peace process.
The Defence Forces (Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann),Óglaigh na hÉireann derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers.
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
Denis Martin Donaldson (1950 – 4 April 2006) was a volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and a member of Sinn Féin who was murdered following his exposure in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5 and the Special Branch of the Police Service of Northern Ireland (formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary).
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Direct Action Against Drugs was a vigilante group in Northern Ireland that claimed responsibility for the killing of a number of alleged drug dealers.
The Disappeared is a term which refers to people believed to have been abducted, murdered and secretly buried in Northern Ireland, the majority of which occurred during the Troubles.
Since the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or PIRA) called a ceasefire and ended its armed campaign in 1997, breakaway groups opposed to the ceasefire ("dissident Irish republicans") have continued a low-level armed campaign against the security forces in Northern Ireland.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
Edmund "Ed" Moloney (born 1948–9) is an Irish journalist and author best known for his coverage of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, and the activities of the Provisional IRA, in particular.
Eddie Copeland is a prominent Irish republican from Belfast, Northern Ireland.
The Embassy of Iran in London is the diplomatic mission of Iran in the United Kingdom.
Enniskillen is a town and civil parish in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Defence League (Eesti Kaitseliit) is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process or supervision from a court or tribunal through a legal proceeding.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.
The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.
A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.
The Force Research Unit (FRU) is a covert military intelligence unit of the British Army part of the Intelligence Corps.
General Sir Frank Edward Kitson, & Bar, DL (born 15 December 1926) is a retired British Army officer and writer on military subjects, notably low intensity operations.
Freddie Scappaticci (born c. 1946) was a purported former high-level double agent in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), known by the codename Stakeknife.
The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c.36) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities.
Fuel dyes are dyes added to fuels, as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones.
The Garda Commissioner (Coimisinéir an Gharda Síochána) – officially known as the Commissioner of An Garda Síochána – is the head of the Garda Síochána, the national police force of the Republic of Ireland.
An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.
Garret Desmond FitzGerald (9 February 192619 May 2011) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fine Gael from 1977 to 1987, Leader of the Opposition from 1977 to 1981 and March 1982 to December 1982 and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1973 to 1977.
Gerard Davison (c. 1967 – 5 May 2015) was a commander of the Provisional IRA.
Gerard Adams (Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish republican politician who was the Leader of the Sinn Féin political party between 13 November 1983 and 10 February 2018, and has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for Louth since the 2011 general election.
Gerard "Gerry" Kelly (born 5 April 1953) is an Irish republican politician and former Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) volunteer who played a leading role in the negotiations that led to the Good Friday Agreement on 10 April 1998.
Glenties is a village in County Donegal, Ireland.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The government of Northern Ireland is, generally speaking, whatever political body exercises political authority over Northern Ireland.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Hojatoleslam Hadi Ghaffari (حجت الاسلام هادی غفاری) (born June 25, 1950 in Azarshahr) is a member of the central council of Imam assembly forces and the president of the Al-Hadi Institute in Iran.
A handgun is a short-barreled firearm designed to be fired with only one hand.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom (although it is also described by official sources as a province or a region), situated in the northeast of the island of Ireland.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, Baron Bannside, (6 April 1926 – 12 September 2014), was a loyalist politician and Protestant religious leader from Northern Ireland.
The illicit cigarette trade is defined as “the production, import, export, purchase, sale, or possession of tobacco goods which fail to comply with legislation” (FATF 2012).
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Northern Ireland, as part of the peace process.
The Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC) was an organisation founded on 7 January 2004, by an agreement between the British and Irish governments, signed in Dublin on 25 November 2003.
An informant (also called an informer) is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.
The Internal Security Unit (ISU) was the counter-intelligence and interrogation unit of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).
The International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal about intelligence and responses to intelligence activities.
The IRA Army Council was the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and Great Britain.
Northern Command was a command division in the Irish Republican Army (1922–1969) and Provisional IRA, responsible for directing IRA operations in the northern part of Ireland.
The IRA Quartermaster General (QMG) runs a department which is responsible for obtaining, concealing and maintaining the store of weaponry of the Irish Republican Army.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
The Irish Examiner, formerly The Cork Examiner and then The Examiner, is an Irish national daily newspaper which primarily circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country.
The Irish general election of 1987 was held on 17 February 1987, four weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 20 January.
The Irish general election of 2011 took place on Friday 25 February to elect 166 Teachtaí Dála across 43 constituencies to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of Ireland's parliament, the Oireachtas.
The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed on 10 December 1974, during "the Troubles".
Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The Irish People's Liberation Organisation was a small Irish republican paramilitary organisation which was formed in 1986 by disaffected and expelled members of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) whose factions coalesced in the aftermath of the supergrass trials.
The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.
The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.
A concept within Irish Republicanism, Irish republican legitimatism denies the legitimacy of the political entities of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and posits that the pre-partition Irish Republic continues to exist.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
Ivor Malachy Bell is an Irish republican, and a former volunteer in the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who later became Chief of Staff on the Army Council.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
Jane Elizabeth Kennedy (née Hodgson; born 4 May 1958) is a British Labour Party politician and the inaugural Merseyside Police and Crime Commissioner.
Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Joe Cahill (Seosamh Ó Cathail; 19 May 1920 – 23 July 2004) was a prominent figure in the Irish Republican movement in Northern Ireland and former chief of staff of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).
Joseph Gerard Hendron (born 12 November 1932) is a Northern Ireland politician, a member of the moderate Irish nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP).
Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain (born July 30, 1937) is a retired Romanian-born British-Canadian soldier and diplomat.
John Hume, KCSG (born 18 January 1937) is an Irish former politician from Derry, Northern Ireland.
John Francis O'Connell (20 January 1927 – 8 March 2013) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Minister for Health from 1992 to 1993 and Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann from 1981 to 1982.
Julia Pirie (8 July 1918, Harbury, Warwickshire, England – 2 September 2008) was a British spy working for MI5 from the 1950s through her retirement in the 1990s.
Kevin Fulton is a British agent from Newry, Northern Ireland, who allegedly spied on the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) for MI5.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kneecapping is a form of malicious wounding, often as criminal punishment or torture, in which the victim is injured in the knee.
Left-wing nationalism, leftist nationalism or socialist nationalism describes a form of nationalism based upon social equality (not necessary political equality), popular sovereignty and national self-determination.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The chronology of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions is divided into five parts.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.
Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, 1st Duke of Carrero Blanco, GE, OCIII, OIC (4 March 1904 – 20 December 1973) was a Spanish Navy officer and politician, who was Prime Minister of Spain from June to December 1973.
The M1 GarandOfficially designated as U.S. rifle, caliber.30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber.30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Martin Dillon (born 2 June 1949) is a Northern Irish author, journalist, and radio/television producer/broadcaster.
James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; 23 May 1950 – 21 March 2017) was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician who was the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from May 2007 to January 2017.
Megadeth is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Merlyn Merlyn-Rees, Baron Merlyn-Rees, PC (18 December 1920 – 5 January 2006), born Merlyn Rees, was a Welsh-born Labour party Member of Parliament from 1963 until 1992, who served as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1974–76) and Home Secretary (1976–79).
The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).
Michael Eoin McDowell SC (born 29 May 1951) is an Irish Independent politician and barrister who served as Tánaiste from 2006 to 2007, Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform from 2002 to 2007, Leader of the Progressive Democrats from 2006 to 2007 and Attorney General of Ireland from 1999 to 2002.
Michael Oatley (born 1935) is a former Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) officer, involved in the resolution of "The Troubles" in Northern Ireland.
The Minister for Justice and Equality (An tAire Dlí agus Cirt agus Comhionannais) is the senior minister at the Department of Justice and Equality in the Government of Ireland.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Jean McConville (née Murray; 7 May 1934 – December 1972) was a woman from Belfast, Northern Ireland, who was kidnapped and murdered by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and illicitly buried in County Louth in the Republic of Ireland in 1972 after being accused by the IRA of passing information to British forces.
National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly conservative editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs.
The Northern Bank robbery was a large robbery of cash from the Donegall Square West headquarters of Northern Bank in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organisation that campaigned for civil rights in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s.
The Northern Ireland civil rights movement dates to the early 1960s, when a number of initiatives emerged which challenged inequality and discrimination in Northern Ireland.
Elections for local government were held in Northern Ireland on 19 May 1993.
The Northern Ireland peace process is often considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday (or Belfast) Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developments.
O'Connell Street is Dublin's main thoroughfare.
The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a "workers' republic" encompassing all of Ireland.
Operation Banner was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007, as part of the Troubles.
Owen Gerard Carron (born 9 February 1953) is an Irish republican activist, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Fermanagh and South Tyrone from 1981 to 1983.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Pan Books is a publishing imprint that first became active in the 1940s and is now part of the British-based Macmillan Publishers, owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group of Germany.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Patrick Barnabas Burke Mayhew, Baron Mayhew of Twysden, (11 September 1929 – 25 June 2016) was a British barrister and politician.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Peter Leonard Brooke, Baron Brooke of Sutton Mandeville, (born 3 March 1934) is a British politician.
Peter Benjamin Mandelson, Baron Mandelson, (born 21 October 1953) is a British Labour politician, president of international think tank Policy Network and Chairman of strategic advisory firm He served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Hartlepool from 1992 to 2004, and held a number of Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
Peter Taylor, is a British journalist and documentary-maker.
In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.
The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) is a small unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
A protection racket is a scheme whereby a group provides protection to businesses or other groups through violence outside the sanction of the law—in other words, a racket that sells security, traditionally physical security but now also computer security.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Since the early 17th-century there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster.
The Belfast Brigade of the Provisional IRA was the largest of the organisation's command areas, based in the city of Belfast.
The Derry Brigade also known as the South Derry Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) operated in Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, during the Troubles.
The South Armagh Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) operated during the Troubles in south County Armagh.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
From 1969 until 1997,Moloney, p. 472 the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) conducted an armed paramilitary campaign primarily in Northern Ireland and England, aimed at ending British rule in Northern Ireland in order to create a united Ireland.
Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service.
Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.
Raymond Gilmour (1959 – October 2016) was an Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) and Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) volunteer who worked clandestinely from 1977 to 1982 for the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) within those paramilitary organisations.
The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) since 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland.
The Remembrance Day bombing (also known as the Enniskillen bombing or Poppy Day massacre) took place on 8 November 1987 in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, also known as the Irish border, runs for Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999MFPP Working Paper No.
Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) was an Irish republican vigilante group active mainly in Derry and the surrounding area, including parts of counties Londonderry and Tyrone in Northern Ireland, and parts of County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland.
The Republican Defence Army (RDA) is a splinter group from the Provisional Irish Republican Army that appears to have emerged in June 2006.
The republican movement refers to the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and other political, social and paramilitary organisations and movements associated with it.
ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.
Richard Ludlow English, (born 1963) is a historian from Northern Ireland.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001.
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born Peter Roger Casement Brady; 2 October 1932 – 5 June 2013) was an Irish republican political and military leader.
Seamus Twomey (Séamus Ó Tuama; 5 November 1919 – 12 September 1989) was an Irish republican activist, militant, and twice chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928 – 18 May 2001), born John Stephenson, was an English-born chief of staff of the Provisional IRA, a position he held between 1969 and 1972.
The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.
Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive containing RDX and PETN.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
The Smithwick Tribunal was an Irish Tribunal of Inquiry into the events surrounding the killing of Chief Superintendent Harry Breen and Superintendent Robert Buchanan of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) is a social-democratic and Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland.
The South Armagh Republican Action Force was an Irish republican paramilitary group that was active from September 1975 to April 1977 during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
The South Armagh Sniper is the generic name"At first, we believed it was one unit, one weapon and one trigger man (...) It developed into at least two".
In July 1972, William Whitelaw, the British government's Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, granted Special Category Status (SCS) to all prisoners convicted of Troubles-related offences.
The Special Criminal Court (SCC) (Cúirt Choiriúil Speisialta) is a juryless criminal court in Ireland which tries terrorism and serious organised crime cases.
Stakeknife is the code name of a spy who infiltrated the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) at a high level, while working for the top secret Force Research Unit (FRU) of the British Army.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The Sunday Tribune was an Irish Sunday broadsheet newspaper published by Tribune Newspapers plc.
Supergrass is a British slang term for an informant who turns Queen's evidence, often in return for protection and immunity from prosecution.
A TD (plural TDanna in Irish or TDs in English; full Irish form Teachta Dála,, plural Teachtaí Dála) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament).
The Terrorism Act 2000 (c.11) is the first of a number of general Terrorism Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Green Book is a training and induction manual issued by the Irish Republican Army to new volunteers.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The News Letter is one of Northern Ireland's main daily newspapers, published Monday to Saturday.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Thompson submachine gun is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1918, that became infamous during the Prohibition era, becoming a signature weapon of various organized crime syndicates in the United States.
Timothy Patrick "Tim Pat" Coogan (born 22 April 1935) is an Irish historian, writer, broadcaster and newspaper columnist.
Toby Harnden (born 14 January 1966) is an Anglo-American journalist and author.
Tony Geraghty (born 13 January 1932) is a British-Irish writer and journalist.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army established in 1970, with a comparatively short existence ending in 1992.
Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
Ulster University (Ollscoil Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr Universitie or Ulstèr Varsitie), officially the University of Ulster, is a multi-campus public university located in Northern Ireland.
Ulsterisation refers to one part – "primacy of the police" – of a three-part strategy (the other two being "normalisation" and "criminalisation") of the British government during the conflict known as the Troubles.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983.
The 1992 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 April 1992, to elect 651 members to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (Васи́лий Ники́тич Митро́хин; March 3, 1922 – January 23, 2004) was a major and senior archivist for the Soviet Union's foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, who defected to the United Kingdom in 1992 after providing the British embassy in Riga with a vast collection of KGB files, which became known as the Mitrokhin Archive.
Volunteer, often abbreviated Vol., is a term used by a number of Irish republican paramilitary organisations to describe their members.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, east of Liverpool, and west of Manchester.
The Warrington bombings were two separate bomb attacks that took place during early 1993 in Warrington, England.
William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, (28 June 1918 – 1 July 1999), often known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative Party politician who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Home Secretary and de facto Deputy Prime Minister.
During 12–17 August 1969, intense political and sectarian rioting took place in Northern Ireland.
The 1981 Irish hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during The Troubles by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland.
The Jonesborough ambush took place on 20 March 1989 near the Irish border outside the village of Jonesborough, County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
The London Docklands bombing (also known as the South Quay bombing or erroneously referred to as the Canary Wharf bombing) occurred on 9 February 1996, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a powerful truck bomb in South Quay (which is outside of Canary Wharf).
The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Saturday 15 June 1996.
The 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment (1 PARA), forms the United Kingdom's Special Forces Support Group (SFSG). An airborne light infantry unit, the battalion has since 2006 been the main contributor of manpower to the Special Forces Support Group (SFSG) and is capable of a wide range of operations. Personnel regularly deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations and training. All personnel complete the Pre Parachute Selection (P Company) course at the Infantry Training Centre Catterick Garrison, North Yorkshire (previously at Aldershot, Hampshire). 1 PARA is permanently attached to the SFSG. Once selected, they receive further training on additional weapons, communications equipment and specialist assault skills. Under Army 2020, it is expected that 1 PARA will remain as part of the SFSG.