165 relations: Absolute magnitude, Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, African Skies (journal), Age of the universe, Alpha Centauri, American Astronomical Society, Angular diameter, Aperture, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Astrobiology (journal), Astrometry, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Barycenter, Bayer designation, Beta Centauri, Binary star, Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage), Breakthrough Starshot, Brown dwarf, Cape of Good Hope, Cassiopeia (constellation), Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars, Centaurus, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chemical element, Chromosphere, Circumstellar habitable zone, Constellation, Convection, Convection zone, Corona, Coronal mass ejection, Declination, Density, Earth, Earth mass, Einstein Observatory, Epoch (astronomy), Erg, ESO 3.6 m Telescope, European Southern Observatory, EXOSAT, Faint Object Spectrograph, Fine guidance sensor, Flare star, ..., Galactic Center, Galactic tide, Gas giant, Giant planet, Gibor Basri, Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Good faith, Habitability of red dwarf systems, Harlow Shapley, Harold Alden, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, Hipparcos, Hubble Space Telescope, IAU Working Group on Star Names, Infrared, Interferometry, International Astronomical Union, International Celestial Reference System, Interstellar travel, Joan Voûte, Johannesburg, Jupiter, Jupiter mass, Kelvin, La Silla Observatory, Latitude, Light, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, Luminosity, Magnesium, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Main sequence, Mikko Tuomi, Milky Way, Minute and second of arc, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Nuclear pulse propulsion, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital period, Pale Blue Dot, Parallax, Paranal Observatory, Peculiar velocity, Photometry (astronomy), Project Daedalus, Project Longshot, Project Orion (nuclear propulsion), Proper motion, Protoplanetary disk, Proxima Centauri b, Queen Mary University of London, Radial velocity, Radiation zone, Rare Earth hypothesis, Red dwarf, Red giant, Research Consortium On Nearby Stars, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Right ascension, Robert T. A. Innes, ROSAT, Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, Satellite, Science (journal), Scientific American, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Solar cycle, Solar flare, Solar wind, Space Interferometry Mission, Space.com, Spectral line, Springer Publishing, Star catalogue, Star cluster, Star system, Stars and planetary systems in fiction, Starspot, Stellar classification, Stellar kinematics, Stellar magnetic field, Stellar rotation, Stellar wind, Sun, Telegraph Media Group, Telescope, Terrestrial planet, The Astronomical Journal, The Daily Telegraph, The New York Times, Thermonuclear fusion, Tidal locking, Time series, Transit (astronomy), Union Observatory, University of California, Berkeley, University of Hertfordshire, Variable star designation, Very Large Telescope, Volatiles, Voyager 1, Watt, Wavelength, White dwarf, Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, X-ray, XMM-Newton, Zhongshan Station (Antarctica), 27th parallel north. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA, formerly named ASTRO-D) was the fourth cosmic X-ray astronomy mission by JAXA, and the second for which the United States provided part of the scientific payload.
African Skies/Cieux Africains is published by the Working Group on Space Sciences in Africa.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.
The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.
A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.
Beta Centauri (β Centauri, abbreviated Beta Cen, β Cen), also named Agena and Hadar, is a triple star system in the southern constellation of Centaurus.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
A blue dwarf is a predicted class of star that develops from a red dwarf after it has exhausted much of its hydrogen fuel supply.
Breakthrough Starshot is a research and engineering project by the Breakthrough Initiatives to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of light sail spacecraft named StarChip, to be capable of making the journey to the Alpha Centauri star system 4.37 light-years away.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cassiopeia is a constellation in the northern sky, named after the vain queen Cassiopeia in Greek mythology, who boasted about her unrivalled beauty.
The Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars, or CCDM, is an astrometric star catalogue of double and multiple stars.
Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky.
The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Tololo in the Coquimbo Region of northern Chile, with additional facilities located on Cerro Pachón about to the southeast.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable to convection.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
The erg is a unit of energy and work equal to 10−7 joules.
The ESO 3.6 m Telescope is an optical reflecting telescope run by the European Southern Observatory at La Silla Observatory, Chile since 1977, with a clear aperture of about and area.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.
The European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT), originally named HELOS, was an X-ray telescope operational from May 1983 until April 1986 and in that time made 1780 observations in the X-ray band of most classes of astronomical object including active galactic nuclei, stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, clusters of galaxies, and supernova remnants.
The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) was a spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
A fine guidance sensor (FGS) is an instrument on board a space telescope that provides high-precision pointing information as input to the observatory's attitude control systems.
A flare star is a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes.
The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
A galactic tide is a tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gibor Basri is an American astrophysicist, born in New York on May 3, 1951.
The Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars is a modern star catalogue of stars located within 25 parsecs (81.54 ly) of the Earth.
Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
The habitability of red dwarf systems is determined by a large number of factors from a variety of sources.
Harlow Shapley (November 2, 1885 – October 20, 1972) was a 20th-century American scientist, head of the Harvard College Observatory (1921–1952), and political activist during the latter New Deal and Fair Deal.
Harold Lee Alden (January 10, 1890 – February 3, 1964) was an American astronomer.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.
The High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) is a high-precision echelle planet finding spectrograph installed in 2002 on the ESO's 3.6m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) established a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) in May 2016 to catalog and standardize proper names for stars for the international astronomical community.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is the current standard celestial reference system adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Interstellar travel is the term used for hypothetical crewed or uncrewed travel between stars or planetary systems.
Joan George Erardus Gijsbertus Voûte (June 7, 1879 – August 20, 1963) was a Dutch astronomer.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Jupiter mass, also called Jovian mass is the unit of mass equal to the total mass of the planet Jupiter.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
La Silla Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Chile with three telescopes built and operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO).
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The following two lists include all the known stars and brown dwarfs that are within of the Sun, or were/will be within in the astronomically near past or future.
In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Mikko Tuomi is an astronomer from the University of Hertfordshire, most known for his contributions to the discovery of a number of exoplanets, among them the Proxima Centauri b which orbits the closest star to the sun.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nuclear pulse propulsion or external pulsed plasma propulsion, is a hypothetical method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about kilometers (miles, 40.5 AU), as part of that day's ''Family Portrait'' series of images of the Solar System.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO); it is located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile on Cerro Paranal at altitude, south of Antofagasta.
Peculiar motion or peculiar velocity refers to the velocity of an object relative to a rest frame — usually a frame in which the average velocity of some objects is zero.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
Project Daedalus was a study conducted between 1973 and 1978 by the British Interplanetary Society to design a plausible unmanned interstellar spacecraft.
Project Longshot was a conceptual interstellar spacecraft design.
Project Orion was a study of a spacecraft intended to be directly propelled by a series of explosions of atomic bombs behind the craft (nuclear pulse propulsion).
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
Proxima Centauri b (also called Proxima b or Alpha Centauri Cb) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.
A radiation zone, radiative zone or radiative region is a layer of a star's interior where energy is primarily transported toward the exterior by means of radiative diffusion and thermal conduction, rather than by convection.
In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth Hypothesis argues that the origin of life and the evolution of biological complexity such as sexually reproducing, multicellular organisms on Earth (and, subsequently, human intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
The REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) is an international group of astronomers founded in 1994 to investigate the stars nearest to the Solar System - with a focus on those within 10 parsecs (32.6 light years), but as of 2012 stretching the horizon to 25 parsecs.
The Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (often RevMexAA or RMxAA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy founded in 1974.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Robert Thorburn Ayton Innes FRSE FRAS (10 November 1861 – 13 March 1933) was a Scottish astronomer best known for discovering Proxima Centauri in 1915, and numerous binary stars.
ROSAT (short for Röntgensatellit, in German X-rays are called Röntgenstrahlen, in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen) was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, is the oldest continuously existing scientific institution in South Africa.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
The Space Interferometry Mission, or SIM, also known as SIM Lite (formerly known as SIM PlanetQuest), was a planned space telescope proposed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with contractor Northrop Grumman.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
Star clusters are groups of stars.
A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
The planetary systems of stars other than the Sun and the Solar System are a staple element in many works of the science fiction genre.
Starspots are stellar phenomena.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
In astronomy, stellar kinematics is the observational study or measurement of the kinematics or motions of stars through space.
A stellar magnetic field is a magnetic field generated by the motion of conductive plasma inside a star.
Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis.
A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.
A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.
In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.
Union Observatory also known as Johannesburg Observatory (078) is a defunct astronomical observatory in Johannesburg, South Africa that was operated between 1903 and 1971.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Hertfordshire is a university in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
Variable stars are designated using a variation on the Bayer designation format of an identifying label (as described below) combined with the Latin genitive of the name of the constellation in which the star lies.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket.
Zhongshan Station is the second Chinese research station in Antarctica and was opened on February 26, 1989.
The 27th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 27 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Alpha Cen C, Alpha Centauri C, Alpha Proxima, Alpha proxima, GCTP 3278.00, Gl 551, Gliese 551, LHS 49, Nearest star to our planet, Prox Cen, Proxima Cen, Proxima Centari, Proxima Centauri (star), Proxima Centauri C, Proxima Centaurus, Proxima Centuri, Proxima centauri, Rigil Kent C, V645 Centauri, Α Cen C, Α Centauri C.