265 relations: Absolute monarchy, Afrika Korps, Airpower, Albrecht von Roon, Alexander von Spaen, Alfred von Schlieffen, Alsace, Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq, Aristocracy, Army, August Neidhardt von Gneisenau, Austrian Armed Forces, Austrian Empire, Austro-Prussian War, Ślęża, Balance of power (international relations), Baroque, Battalion, Battle of Chotusitz, Battle of Dybbøl, Battle of Eylau, Battle of Fehrbellin, Battle of Hochkirch, Battle of Hohenfriedberg, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Königgrätz, Battle of Kolín, Battle of Kunersdorf, Battle of Langensalza (1866), Battle of Leipzig, Battle of Leuthen, Battle of Mollwitz, Battle of Rossbach, Battle of Saalfeld, Battle of Soor, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of Warsaw (1656), Battle of Waterloo, Battle of Wörth, Battle of Zorndorf, Bayonet, Blitzkrieg, Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien, Bohemia, Brandenburg, Brandenburg-Prussia, Brigade, Bundeswehr, Canton System (Prussia), Carl Gustaf Wrangel, ..., Carl von Clausewitz, 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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Airpower or air power consists of the application of military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare.
Albrecht Theodor Emil Graf von Roon (30 April 180323 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and statesman.
Alexander Freiherr von Spaen (14 January 1619 – 23 October 1692) was a Generalfeldmarschall of Brandenburg-Prussia.
Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, generally called Count Schlieffen (28 February 1833 – 4 January 1913) was a German field marshal and strategist who served as chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq (16 August 1738 – 5 January 1815) was a Prussian cavalry general best known for his command of the Prussian troops at the Battle of Eylau.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 176023 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal.
The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Ślęża (Zobten or Zobtenberg, later also Siling) is a mountain in the Sudeten Foreland (Polish: Przedgórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, from Wrocław, southern Poland.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Chotusitz, or Chotusice, sometimes called the Battle of Czaslau, was fought on May 17, 1742, in Bohemia between the Austrians under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and the Prussians under Frederick the Great.
The Battle of Dybbøl (Slaget ved Dybbøl; Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen) was the key battle of the Second Schleswig War, fought between Denmark and Prussia.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Fehrbellin was fought on June 18, 1675 (Julian calendar date, June 28th, Gregorian), between Swedish and Brandenburg-Prussian troops.
The Battle of Hochkirch took place on 14 October 1758 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Hohenfriedberg or Hohenfriedeberg, now Dobromierz, also known as the Battle of Striegau, now Strzegom, was one of Frederick the Great's most admired victories.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Kolín on 18 June 1757 saw 44,000 Austrians under Count von Daun defeat 32,000 Prussians under Frederick the Great during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War).
The decisive Battle of Kunersdorf occurred on 12 August 1759 near Kunersdorf (Kunowice), immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder (the second largest city in Prussia).
The Battle of Langensalza was fought on 27 June 1866 near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the Prussians.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun.
The Battle of Mollwitz was fought by Prussia and Austria on 10 April 1741, during the First Silesian War (in the early stages of the War of the Austrian Succession).
The Battle of Rossbach took place on 5 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (1756–1763, part of the Seven Years' War) near the village of Rossbach (Roßbach), in the Electorate of Saxony.
The Battle of Saalfeld (10 October 1806) saw Marshal Lannes and a division of his V Corps defeat 8,300 Prussians under Prince Louis Ferdinand.
The Battle of Soor (30 September 1745) was a battle between Frederick the Great's Prussian army and an Austro-Saxon army led by Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine during the Second Silesian War (part of the War of the Austrian Succession).
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
The Battle of Warsaw (Schlacht von Warschau; Bitwa pod Warszawą; Tredagarsslaget vid Warszawa) was a battle which took place near Warsaw on, between the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden and Brandenburg.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Battle of Wörth, also known as the Battle of Reichshoffen or as the Battle of Frœschwiller, refers to the second battle of Wörth, which took place on 6 August 1870 in the opening stages of the Franco-Prussian War (the first Battle of Wörth occurred on 23 December 1793 during the French Revolutionary Wars).
The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming victory.Franz A.J. Szabo. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge. 2013. P. 167 The site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf (now Sarbinowo, Poland).
A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel Graf Tauentzien von Wittenberg (15 September 1760 – 20 February 1824) was a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Canton System (German: Kantonsystem or Kantonssystem) or Canton Regulation (Kantonreglement) was a system of recruitment used by the Prussian army between 1733 and 1813.
Carl Gustaf Wrangel (also Carl Gustav Wrangel; 23 December 1613 – 5 July 1676) was a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg und Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) (9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806), was ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a military leader.
The Chassepot, officially known as Fusil modèle 1866, was a bolt action military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the French forces in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
In politics, a concession is the act of a losing candidate publicly yielding to a winning candidate after an election after the overall result of the vote has become clear.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of Prussia (Verfassungsurkunde für den preußischen Staat), was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Convention of Tauroggen was an armistice signed 30 December 1812 at Tauroggen (now Tauragė, Lithuania) between General Ludwig Yorck on behalf of his Prussian troops and General Hans Karl von Diebitsch of the Imperial Russian Army.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark, Comté de La Marck colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
"Der Hohenfriedberger" (AM I, 21 (Army March I, 1c and Army march III, 1b)), also called "Hohenfriedberger Marsch" or "Der Hohenfriedberger Marsch", is one of the most classic and well known German military marches.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve; Hertogdom Kleef) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau (de).
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eduard Ernst Friedrich Hannibal Vogel von Fal(c)kenstein (5 January 1797 – 6 April 1885) was a Prussian General der Infanterie.
Eduard von Bonin (7 March 1793 – 13 March 1865) was a Prussian general officer who served as Prussian Minister of War from 1852–54 and 1858-59.
Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (24 February 1809 – 17 June 1885) was a German Generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.
Ferdinand Baptista von Schill (6 January 1776 – 31 May 1809) was a Prussian Major who revolted unsuccessfully against French domination of Prussia in May 1809.
The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Schleswig War (Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
The First Silesian War was a theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession.
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (18 January 1641 – 16 July 1691) was the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Graf von Wrangel (13 April 1784 – 2 November 1877) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the Prussian Army.
Friedrich Leopold Freiherr von Schrötter (1743 – 1815) was a German Junker, Prussian government minister and until 1806 Reichsfreiherr of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Seydlitz (3 February 1721 – 8 November 1773) was a Prussian officer, lieutenant general, and among the greatest of the Prussian cavalry generals.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
The Gardes du Corps (Regiment der Gardes du Corps) was the personal bodyguard of the king of Prussia and, after 1871, of the German emperor (in German, the Kaiser).
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).
Georg von Derfflinger (20 March 1606 – 14 February 1695) was a field marshal in the army of Brandenburg-Prussia during and after the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (12 November 1755 – 28 June 1813), was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
The German nobility (deutscher Adel) and royalty were status groups which until 1919 enjoyed certain privileges relative to other people under the laws and customs in the German-speaking area.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The goose step is a special marching step performed on formal military parades and other ceremonies.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
"The Great Sleigh Drive" (Die große Schlittenfahrt) was a daring and bold maneuver by Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia, to drive Swedish forces out of the Duchy of Prussia, a territory of his which had been invaded by the Swedes during the winter of 1678.
The Großer Zapfenstreich ("Grand Tattoo") is a military ceremony performed in Germany and Austria.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Hans Delbrück (11 November 1848 – 14 July 1929) was a German historian.
Hans Joachim von Zieten, sometimes spelled Johann Joachim von Ziethen, (14 May 1699 – 26 January 1786), also known as Zieten aus dem Busch, was a cavalry general in the Prussian Army.
Hans Karl von Winterfeldt (4 April 1707 – 8 September 1757), a Prussian general, served in the War of the Polish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, Frederick the Great's Silesian wars and the Seven Years' War.
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (25 October 1757 – 29 June 1831), commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (26 October 1800, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 24 April 1891, Berlin) was a German Field Marshal.
Helmuth Johann Ludwig Graf von Moltke (23 May 1848 – 18 June 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914.
Leopold Hermann Ludwig von Boyen (20 June 1771 – 15 February 1848) was a Prussian army officer who helped to reform the Prussian Army in the early 19th century.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
Hugo Ewald Graf von Kirchbach (23 May 1809 – 26 October 1887) was a Prussian general who commanded the Prussian V Corps during the Franco-Prussian War.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Johann Gottfried Piefke (9 September 1817 – 25 January 1884) was a German conductor, Kapellmeister and composer of military music.
John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (17 November 1627 – 7 August 1693) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1660 to 1693.
Julius August Reinhold von Grawert (1746–1821) was a Prussian general.Julius was the son of Johann Benjamin von Grawert (1709–1759) and his wife Christiane Sophie, née von Schollenstern (1717–1796).
Junker (Junker, Scandinavian: Junker, Jonkheer, Yunker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.
Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750 – 26 November 1822) was a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia.
Karl Wilhelm Georg von Grolman(n) (30 July 1777 – 1 June 1843) was a Prussian general who fought in the Napoleonic Wars.
The Königgrätzer Marsch (AM II, 134 (AM II, 195)), also known as Der Königgrätzer or Der Königgrätzer Marsch, is one of the most famous German military marches, composed in 1866 by Johann Gottfried Piefke in commemoration of the Battle of Königgrätz, the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 – 6 May 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.
The German Landsknechts, sometimes also rendered as (singular), were colourful mercenary soldiers with a formidable reputation, who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe.
In German-speaking countries, the term Landsturm was historically used to refer to militia or military units composed of troops of inferior quality.
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe.
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (3 July 1676 – 7 April 1747) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1693 to 1747.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (26 September 1759 – 4 October 1830) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from a French alliance to a Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a military band.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Martial music or military music is a specific genre of music intended for use in military settings.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
A military decoration is an award, usually a medal of some sort that consists of a ribbon and medallion given to an individual as a distinctively designed mark of honor denoting heroism, or meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.
Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities.
The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
The Miracle of the House of Brandenburg is the name given by Frederick II of Prussia to the failure of Russia and Austria to follow up their victory over him at the Battle of Kunersdorf on 12 August 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
Mission-type tactics (Auftragstaktik, from Auftrag and Taktik; also known as mission command in the US and UK), is a form of military tactics where the emphasis is on the outcome of a mission rather than the specific means of achieving it.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
A needle gun is a firearm that has a needle-like firing pin, which can pass through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base.
Northern Wars is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century.
The oblique order is a military tactic whereby an attacking army focuses its forces to attack a single enemy flank.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Vom Kriege is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife Marie von Brühl in 1832.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
Otto Christoph Freiherr von Sparr (13 November 1599 or 1605 – 9 May 1668) was a Generalfeldmarschall of Brandenburg-Prussia.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties involving France during the French Revolution (represented by François de Barthélemy).
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, "point" or "pickaxe", and Haube, "bonnet", a general word for "headgear"), also Pickelhelm, is a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German military, firefighters, and police.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The Potsdam Giants was the Prussian infantry regiment No 6, composed of taller-than-average soldiers.
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
A pragmatic sanction is a sovereign's solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law.
Prince Friedrich Carl Nicolaus of Prussia (20 March 1828 – 15 June 1885) was the son of Prince Charles of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877).
The Prussian War Ministry was gradually established between 1808 and 1809 as part of a series of reforms initiated by the Military Reorganization Commission created after the disastrous Treaty of Tilsit.
The Prussian Navy (German: Preußische Marine), was the naval force of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian Staff College, also Prussian War College (Preußische Kriegsakademie) was the highest military facility of the Kingdom of Prussia to educate, train, and develop general staff officers.
Prussian virtues (preußische Tugenden.) refers to the virtues associated with the historical Kingdom of Prussia, especially its militarism and the ethical code of the Prussian army, but also bourgeois values as influenced by Lutheranism and Calvinism.
The Punctation of Olmütz (Olmützer Punktation), also called the Agreement of Olmütz, was a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated 29 November 1850, by which Prussia abandoned the Erfurt Union and accepted the revival of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
A ramrod is a metal or wooden device used with early firearms to push the projectile up against the propellant (mainly gunpowder).
A regiment is a military unit.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
A Royal Guard describes any group of military bodyguards, soldiers or armed retainers responsible for the protection of a royal person, such as Emperor/Empress, King/Queen, or Prince/Princess.
To run the gauntlet is to take part in a form of corporal punishment in which the party judged guilty is forced to run between two rows of soldiers who strike out and attack them.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.
The Second Silesian War was a theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession.
The Secretary of State for War was one of the four or five specialized secretaries of state in France during the Ancien Régime.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
A squadron was historically a cavalry subunit, a company sized military formation.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
In a static battle, both sides suffer heavy casualties and battlefronts move so slowly that the result is "static" (a lack of change).
Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.
The Swedish Army (Armén) is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces in which its main responsibility is land operations.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
A tirailleur, in the Napoleonic era, was a type of light infantry trained to skirmish ahead of the main columns.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Bromberg (Latin: Pacta Bydgostensia) or Treaty of Bydgoszcz was a treaty between John II Casimir of Poland and Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia, ratified at Bromberg (Bydgoszcz) on 6 November 1657.
The Treaty of Hubertusburg (Frieden von Hubertusburg) was signed on 15 February 1763 at Hubertusburg Castle by Prussia, Austria and Saxony to end the Third Silesian War.
The Treaty or Peace of Oliva of 23 April (OS)/3 May (NS) 1660Evans (2008), p.55 (Pokój Oliwski, Freden i Oliva, Vertrag von Oliva) was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War (1655-1660).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Truppenamt or 'Troop Office' was the cover organisation for the German General Staff from 1919 through until 1935 when the General Staff of the German Army (Heer) was re-created.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
A Saxon–Prussian alliance fought the War of the Bavarian Succession (July 1778 – 21 May 1779) against the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy to prevent the Habsburgs from acquiring the Electorate of Bavaria.
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
A wargame (also war game) is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg (Wenzel Anton Fürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg, Václav Antonín z Kounic a Rietbergu; 2 February 1711 – 27 June 1794) was an Austrian and Czech diplomat and statesman in the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Zieten Hussars,Also known as the Ziethen Hussars (both spellings are used in sources on military history) (Husaren-Regiment "von Zieten"), last designation: "Hussars Regiment 'von Zieten' (Brandenburg) No.