133 relations: American Pie (album), Amidah, An Wasserflüssen Babylon, Anno Domini, Antonín Dvořák, Arthur C. Clarke, Arvo Pärt, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Babylon, Babylonian captivity, Belshazzar's Feast (Walton), Biblical Songs, Birkat Hamazon, Boney M., Bright Week, By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept, By the Waters of Babylon, Byzantine Rite, Cambridge University Press, Cantata, Catholic Church, Charles-Valentin Alkan, Chorale prelude, Costanzo Festa, Crusades, David Amram, Don McLean, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church, Elizabeth Smart (Canadian author), Euphrates, Fernando Ortega, Franz Liszt, Frederick Douglass, George Garrett (composer), George Henschel, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Giuseppe Verdi, Gloucester Cathedral, Godspell, Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, Great Lent, Harry Partch, Herbert Sumsion, Heretic Pride, Hilliard Ensemble, Hymn, If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem, If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth, In Exile (Sumsion), ..., Independence Day (United States), Israelites, Jamaica, Jeremiah, Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Out of Darkness Comes Light), Jewish wedding, Jews, Job: A Comedy of Justice, Johann Sebastian Bach, John L. Bell, John Tavener, Jules Van Nuffel, Kathisma, Laetare Sunday, Lake Geneva, Latin, Lent, Liturgy, Luís de Camões, Mad Men, Mad Men (season 1), Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Matins, Matisyahu, Michel Richard Delalande, Middle Ages, Mistress (form of address), Motet, Nabucco, Nachman of Breslov, Nicolas Gombert, Orlande de Lassus, Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded, Papal election, 1268–71, Paul Robeson, Paulo Coelho, Philip Hayes (composer), Philippe de Monte, Polyeleos, Pope Gregory X, Prose poetry, Psalm 126, Psalms, Psalter, Rastafari, Reggae, Rivers of Babylon, Robert A. Heinlein, Robert Burns, Rosh Hashanah, Round (music), Rule of Saint Benedict, Salamone Rossi, Salvatore Quasimodo, Samuel Richardson, Second Vatican Council, Septuagint, Stephen Schwartz (composer), Stephen Vincent Benét, Sublime (band), Super flumina Babylonis (Nuffel), Superscription, T. S. Eliot, Ten New Songs, Terce, The Brothers Karamazov, The Harder They Come, The Melodians, The Mountain Goats, The Trash Can Sinatras, The Waste Land, Tigris, Tikkun HaKlali, Tisha B'Av, Tomás Luis de Victoria, Va, pensiero, Vespers, What to a slave is the 4th of July?, William Billings, William Faulkner, William Walton, 40oz. to Freedom. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
American Pie is the second studio album by the American singer-songwriter Don McLean, released by United Artists Records on 24 October 1971.
The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.
"An Wasserflüssen Babylon" (By the rivers of Babylon) is a Lutheran hymn by Wolfgang Dachstein, which was first published in Strasbourg in 1525.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian composer of classical and religious music.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Belshazzar's Feast is a cantata by the English composer William Walton.
Biblical Songs (Biblické písně) is a song cycle which consists of musical settings by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák of ten texts, selected by him, from the Book of Psalms.
Birkat Hamazon or Birkat Hammazon, known in English as the Grace After Meals (בענטשן; translit. bentshn or "to bless", Yinglish: Benching), is a set of Hebrew blessings that Jewish Halakha ("collective body of Jewish religious laws") prescribes following a meal that includes at least a ke-zayit (olive sized) piece of bread or matzoh made from one or all of wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt.
Boney M. was a Euro-Caribbean vocal group created by German record producer Frank Farian.
Bright Week, Pascha Week or Renewal Week (Διακαινήσιμος Ἑβδομάς) is the name used by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches for the period of seven days beginning on Easter and continuing up to (but not including) the following Sunday, which is known as Thomas Sunday.
By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept is a novel of prose poetry written by the Canadian author Elizabeth Smart (1913–1986) and published in 1945.
"By the Waters of Babylon" is a post-apocalyptic short story by American writer Stephen Vincent Benét, first published July 31, 1937, in The Saturday Evening Post as "The Place of the Gods".
The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cantata (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles-Valentin Alkan (30 November 1813 – 29 March 1888) was a French-Jewish composer and virtuoso pianist.
In music, a chorale prelude is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Costanzo Festa (ca. 1485–1490 – 10 April 1545) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David Amram (born November 17, 1930) is an American composer, conductor, multi-instrumentalist, and author.
Donald McLean III (born October 2, 1945) is an American singer-songwriter.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Elizabeth Smart (December 27, 1913 – March 4, 1986) was a Canadian poet and novelist.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Juan Fernando Ortega Work ID No.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
George Mursell Garrett (8 June 1834 – 8 April 1897) was an English organist and composer.
Sir Isidor George Henschel (18 February 185010 September 1934) was a German-born British baritone, pianist, conductor, and composer.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.
Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn.
Godspell is a musical, composed by Stephen Schwartz with the spoken parts by John-Michael Tebelak.
The Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, BWV 651–668, are a set of chorale preludes for organ prepared by Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig in his final decade (1740–1750), from earlier works composed in Weimar, where he was court organist.
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer, music theorist, and creator of musical instruments.
Herbert Whitton Sumsion CBE (14 January 1899 – 11 August 1995) was an English musician who was organist of Gloucester Cathedral from 1928 to 1967.
Heretic Pride, is the eleventh studio album by the Mountain Goats, released on February 19, 2008 by 4AD, their sixth album on the label.
The Hilliard Ensemble was a British male vocal quartet originally devoted to the performance of early music.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem is a novel by the American author William Faulkner published in 1939.
"If I Forget Thee, O Earth" is a short story written by Arthur C. Clarke and first published in 1951 in the magazine Future.
In Exile is a motet by Herbert Sumsion, who was for decades organist at Gloucester Cathedral.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
"Jerusalem" is a song by American reggae singer Matisyahu, produced by Jimmy Douglass & The Ill Factor, and first released in 2006 on his major label debut, Youth.
A Jewish wedding is a wedding ceremony that follows Jewish laws and traditions.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
John Lamberton Bell (born 1949) is a Scottish hymn-writer and Church of Scotland minister.
Sir John Kenneth Tavener (28 January 1944 – 12 November 2013) was an English composer, known for his extensive output of religious works, including The Protecting Veil, Song for Athene and The Lamb.
Jules Van Nuffel (1883 – 1953) was a Belgian priest, musicologist, composer, and a renowned expert on religious music.
A kathisma (Greek: κάθισμα; Slavonic: каѳисма, kafisma), literally, "seat", is a division of the Psalter, used by Eastern Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholics who follow the Byzantine Rite.
Laetare Sunday is the fourth Sunday in the season of Lent, in the Western Christian liturgical calendar.
Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Mad Men is an American period drama television series created by Matthew Weiner and produced by Lionsgate Television.
The first season of the American television drama series Mad Men premiered on July 19, 2007 and concluded on October 18, 2007.
Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 – 24 February 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era.
Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.
Matthew Paul Miller (born June 30, 1979), known by his Hebrew and stage name Matisyahu (מתּתיהו, "Gift of God"), is a Jewish American reggae vocalist, beatboxer, and alternative rock musician.
Michel Richard Delalande (15 December 1657 – 18 June 1726) was a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mistress is an old form of address for a woman.
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present.
Nabucco (short for Nabucodonosor ~, English Nebuchadnezzar) is an Italian-language opera in four acts composed in 1841 by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera.
Nachman of Breslov (נחמן מברסלב), also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Reb Nachman Breslover (רבי נחמן ברעסלאווער), Nachman from Uman (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810), was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicolas Gombert (c. 1495 – c. 1560)Atlas, p. 396 was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.
Orlande de Lassus (also Roland de Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlandus Lassus, Orlande de Lattre or Roland de Lattre; 1532, possibly 1530 – 14 June 1594) was a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance.
Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by English writer Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740.
The papal election of 1268–71 (from November 1268 to September 1, 1271), following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church.
Paul Leroy Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism.
Paulo Coelho de Souza (born 24 August 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist and the recipient of numerous international awards.
Philip Hayes (baptised 17 April 1738 – 19 March 1797) was an English composer, organist, singer and conductor.
Philippe de Monte (1521 – 4 July 1603), sometimes known as Philippus de Monte, was a Flemish composer of the late Renaissance active all over Europe.
The Polyeleos (Greek: Πολυέλεος (pl. Πολυέλεοι), meaning "of much mercy", because of the repetition in one of the Polyeleoi of the phrase "ὅτι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ", meaning "because forever His mercy"), is a festive portion of the Matins or All-Night Vigil service as observed on higher-ranking feast days in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches.
Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.
Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.
Psalm 126 (Greek numbering: Psalm 125) or Shir Hama'alot (שיר המעלות) is a psalm and common piece of liturgy.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
"Rivers of Babylon" is a Rastafari song written and recorded by Brent Dowe and Trevor McNaughton of the Jamaican reggae group The Melodians in 1970.
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.
A round (also called a perpetual canon or infinite canon) is a musical composition, a limited type of canon, in which a minimum of three voices sing exactly the same melody at the unison (and may continue repeating it indefinitely), but with each voice beginning at different times so that different parts of the melody coincide in the different voices, but nevertheless fit harmoniously together.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
Salamone Rossi or Salomone Rossi (סלומונה רוסי or שלמה מן האדומים) (Salamon, Schlomo; de' Rossi) (ca. 1570 – 1630) was an Italian Jewish violinist and composer.
Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 – June 14, 1968) was an Sicilian novelist and poet.
Samuel Richardson (19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an 18th-century English writer and printer.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Stephen Lawrence Schwartz (born March 6, 1948) is an American musical theatre lyricist and composer.
Stephen Vincent Benét (July 22, 1898 – March 13, 1943) was an American poet, short story writer, and novelist.
Sublime was an American ska punk band from Long Beach, California, formed in 1988.
Super flumina Babylonis (By the rivers of Babylon),, is a musical setting of Psalm 137 (Psalm 136 in the Vulgate) in Latin by Jules Van Nuffel, composed in 1916 for mixed choir and organ.
Superscription may refer to.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
Ten New Songs is Leonard Cohen's tenth studio album, released in 2001.
Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian liturgies.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The Harder They Come is a 1972 Jamaican crime film directed by Perry Henzell and co-written by Trevor D. Rhone, and starring Jimmy Cliff.
The Melodians are a rocksteady band formed in the Greenwich Town area of Kingston, Jamaica, in 1963, by Tony Brevett (born 1949, nephew of The Skatalites bassist, Lloyd Brevett), Brent Dowe and Trevor McNaughton.
The Mountain Goats (stylized "the Mountain Goats") are an American band formed in Claremont, California by singer-songwriter John Darnielle.
The Trashcan Sinatras are a Scottish band that was formed in Irvine, Scotland in 1986.
The Waste Land is a long poem by T. S. Eliot, widely regarded as one of the most important poems of the 20th century and a central work of modernist poetry.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tikkun HaKlali (תיקון הכללי, lit., "The General (or Comprehensive) Rectification"), also known as The General Remedy, is a set of ten Psalms whose recital serves as teshuvah (repentance) for all sins — in particular the sin of wasted seed through involuntary nocturnal emission or masturbation.
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c. 1548 – 27 August 1611) was the most famous composer in 16th-century Spain, and was one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso.
"", also known in English as the "Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves", is a chorus from the third act of the opera Nabucco (1842) by Giuseppe Verdi, with a libretto by Temistocle Solera, inspired by Psalm 137.
Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
The speech, commonly republished as "What to a slave is the 4th of July?" or "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?", is an untitled speech originally given by Frederick Douglass on July 5, 1852.
William Billings (October 7, 1746 – September 26, 1800) is regarded as the first American choral composer.
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi.
Sir William Turner Walton, OM (29 March 19028 March 1983) was an English composer.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.