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Index Pseudoephedrine

Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. [1]

214 relations: Acrivastine, Actifed, Acura Pharmaceuticals, Adrenergic receptor, Alabama, Alkaloid, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Amine, Amphetamine, Andreea Răducan, Antacid, Antihistamine, Anton Sikharulidze, Arizona, Arkansas, Asia-Pacific, Aspirin, Australian Medicines Handbook, Autonomic nervous system, Ľubomír Višňovský, Bayer, Beetroot, Benadryl, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Benzaldehyde, Beta blocker, Bob Dole, Caffeine, California, Carbinoxamine/pseudoephedrine, Cardiovascular disease, Central nervous system, Cetirizine, Chemical classification, China, Chlorphenamine, Clandestine chemistry, Codral, Colorado, Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, Commission on Human Medicines, Common cold, Controlled Substances Act, Coronary artery disease, Costco, Cough medicine, Croup, DEA list of chemicals, Decongestant, ..., Delaware, Dextromethorphan, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diabetes mellitus, Diastereomer, Digitalis, Dosage form, Drug, Drug Enforcement Administration, Edema, Elena Berezhnaya, Enantiomer, Ephedra, Ephedrine, Erection, Eugeroic, Eustachian tube, Fermentation, Fexofenadine, Fischer projection, Fixed drug reaction, Florida, George W. Bush, Georgia (U.S. state), Glaucoma, GlaxoSmithKline, Glucose, Guaifenesin, Hallucination, Hawaii, Health Canada, Heart arrhythmia, Hydrochloride, Hyperaemia, Hypertension, Hypertensive crisis, Hyperthyroidism, Ibuprofen, Ibuprofen brand names, Ice hockey, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, International nonproprietary name, International Olympic Committee, Ion Țiriac, Iowa, Ischemic colitis, John Key, Johnson & Johnson, Kansas, Kaolinite, Kennel cough, Kentucky, Kidney, Letter case, Liver, Loratadine, Louisiana, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, Massachusetts, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Mecamylamine, Medication, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Methamphetamine, Methcathinone, Methyldopa, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Montana, Mydriasis, N-Methylpseudoephedrine, Naproxen, Nasal congestion, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Nexafed, Nicklas Bäckström, Nonallergic rhinitis, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, North Carolina, Novartis, Off-label use, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Otitis media, Over-the-counter drug, Palpitations, Paracetamol, Paranasal sinuses, Patriot Act, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical industry, Phenylacetylcarbinol, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Precursor (chemistry), Priapism, Pseudoephedrine, Pseudoephedrine/loratadine, Psychosis, Pyruvate decarboxylase, Reckitt Benckiser, Redox, Reductive amination, Reserpine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salt (chemistry), Sanofi, Sigma, Silken Laumann, Sinusitis, Small caps, South Dakota, Southeast Missourian, Stimulant, Stroke, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Sudafed, Sympathomimetic drug, Tachycardia, Tennessee, Texas, The New York Times, Theraflu, Tom Latham (politician), Topical decongestant, Torula, Triprolidine, Turkey, UCB (company), United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United States Attorney General, United States Congress, United States House Committee on Education and the Workforce, Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention, Utah, Vasoconstriction, Veratrum, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (state), Washington Capitals, Washington Missourian, West Virginia, Wisconsin, WLOX, World Anti-Doping Agency, Yahoo! Voices, Yeast, 1995 Pan American Games, 2000 European Figure Skating Championships, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2010 Winter Olympics, 2014 Winter Olympics. Expand index (164 more) »


Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever.

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Actifed is a registered trademark for a combination antihistamine and nasal decongestant medication used for cold and allergy symptoms.

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Acura Pharmaceuticals

Acura Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of deterrents to medication abuse and misuse.

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Adrenergic receptor

The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

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Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Andreea Răducan

Andreea Mădălina Răducan (born 30 September 1983) is a retired gymnast from Bârlad, Romania.

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An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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Anton Sikharulidze

Anton Tarielyevich Sikharulidze (Антон Тариэльевич Сихарулидзе, born 25 October 1976) is a Russian former pair skater.

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Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Australian Medicines Handbook

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH) is a peer-reviewed medicines prescribing guide for Australian health professionals.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Ľubomír Višňovský

Ľubomír Višňovský (born 11 August 1976) is a Slovak former professional ice hockey defenceman.

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Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.

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The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.

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Benadryl is a brand name for a number of different antihistamine medications used to treat allergies.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.

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Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Bob Dole

Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in Congress from 1961 to 1996 and served as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Carbinoxamine/pseudoephedrine is an antihistamine and decongestant combination, marketed as Rondec, Ceron and Coldec.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cetirizine, prominently marketed under the brand name Zyrtec among others, is a potent second-generation antihistamine used in the treatment of hay fever, allergies, angioedema, and urticaria.

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Chemical classification

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.

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Clandestine chemistry

Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

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Codral is a brand name of cold and flu medication manufactured by Johnson & Johnson and sold primarily in Australia & New Zealand.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) is federal legislation enacted in the United States on March 9, 2006, to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of following products because of their use in the manufacture of illegal drugs.

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Commission on Human Medicines

The Commission on Human Medicines (CHM) is a committee of the UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.

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Common cold

The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Costco Wholesale Corporation, trading as Costco, is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only warehouse clubs.

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Cough medicine

Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.

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Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.

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DEA list of chemicals

The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains lists regarding the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules).

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A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.

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Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.

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Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.

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Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.

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Dosage form

Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Elena Berezhnaya

Elena Viktorovna Berezhnaya (Елена Викторовна Бережная, born 11 October 1977) is a Russian former pair skater.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Ephedra is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica.

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Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.

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An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.

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Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.

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Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.

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Fischer projection

The Fischer projection, devised by Hermann Emil Fischer in 1891, is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection.

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Fixed drug reaction

Fixed drug reactions are common and so named because they recur at the same site with each exposure to a particular medication.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Health Canada

Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).

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Hyperemia, hyperæmia, or hyperaemia (Greek ὑπέρ (hupér, "over") + αἷμα (haîma, “blood”)) is the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertensive crisis

Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Ibuprofen brand names

The analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen is sold under a wide variety of brand names across the world; the most common being its first registered trademark name of Brufen, along with Advil, Motrin, and Nurofen.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

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Ion Țiriac

Ion Țiriac (born 9 May 1939), also known as the 'Brașov Bulldozer' is a Romanian businessman and former professional tennis and ice hockey player.

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Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.

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Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply.

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John Key

Sir John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand and Leader of the New Zealand National Party.

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Johnson & Johnson

Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.

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Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

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Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Kennel cough

Kennel cough (also known as canine infectious tracheobronchitis) is an upper respiratory infection affecting dogs.

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Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Loratadine, sold under the brand name Claritin among others, is a medication used to treat allergies.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference is a reference book published by Pharmaceutical Press listing some 6,000 drugs and medicines used throughout the world, including details of over 180,000 proprietary preparations.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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McNeil Consumer Healthcare

McNeil Consumer Healthcare is an American medicals products company belonging to the Johnson & Johnson healthcare products group.

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Mecamylamine (INN, BAN; or mecamylamine hydrochloride (USAN); brand names Inversine, Vecamyl) is a non-selective, non-competitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was introduced in the 1950s as an antihypertensive drug.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.

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Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "intash") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone.

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Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure.

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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.

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Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.

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Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).

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Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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N-Methylpseudoephedrine is a stimulant.

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Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.

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Nasal congestion

Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.

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Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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Nexafed is a special formulation of pseudoephedrine developed by Acura Pharmaceuticals used to deter the use of the pseudoephedrine contained in the product for illicit methamphetamine synthesis.

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Nicklas Bäckström

Nicklas Bäckström (born 23 November 1987) is a Swedish professional ice hockey centre and an alternate captain for the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League (NHL).

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Nonallergic rhinitis

Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inner part of the nose that is not caused by an allergy.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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North Carolina

North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.

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Off-label use

Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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Otitis media

Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.

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Over-the-counter drug

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.

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Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.

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Patriot Act

The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Phenylacetylcarbinol (PAC) is an organic compound that has two enantiomers, one with R- and one with S-configuration.

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Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.

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Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.

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Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

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Pseudoephedrine/loratadine (trade names Claritin-D, Clarinase, Clarinase Repetabs, Lorinase) is an orally administered combination drug used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and the common cold.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Pyruvate decarboxylase

Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes.

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Reckitt Benckiser

Reckitt Benckiser Group plc (RB) is a British multinational consumer goods company headquartered in Slough, England.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reductive amination

Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.

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Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.

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Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Silken Laumann

Silken Suzette Laumann, (born November 14, 1964) is a Canadian champion rower.

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Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.

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Small caps

In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.

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South Dakota

South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Southeast Missourian

The Southeast Missourian is a daily newspaper published in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, United States, and serves (as the name implies) the southeastern portion of Missouri.

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Substituted amphetamine

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

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Substituted phenethylamine

Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

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Sudafed is a brand name and registered trademark for over the counter (OTC) decongestants manufactured by McNeil Laboratories (a division of Johnson & Johnson) for sale in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Sympathomimetic drug

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theraflu is a brand of over-the-counter cold and flu medicines from GSK Consumer Healthcare that contain different groupings of various cold and flu symptom medications.

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Tom Latham (politician)

Thomas Paul Latham (born July 14, 1948) is a retired American politician who served as a U.S. Representative from Iowa from 1995 to 2015.

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Topical decongestant

Topical decongestants are decongestants applied directly to the nasal cavity.

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Torula (Latin name: Cyberlindnera jadinii) is a species of yeast.

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Triprolidine is an over-the-counter antihistamine with anticholinergic properties.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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UCB (company)

UCB (Union Chimique Belge) is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.

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United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.

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United States Attorney General

The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States House Committee on Education and the Workforce

The Committee on Education and the Workforce is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Urinary retention

Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Veratrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae.

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Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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Washington Capitals

The Washington Capitals are a professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL).

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Washington Missourian

The Washington Missourian is the Franklin County paper based in Washington, Missouri.

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West Virginia

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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WLOX, virtual channel 13 (UHF digital channel 39), is a dual ABC/CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Biloxi, Mississippi, United States and serving the Mississippi Gulf Coast.

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World Anti-Doping Agency

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.

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Yahoo! Voices

Yahoo! Voices, formerly Associated Content (AC), was a division of Yahoo! that focused on online publishing.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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1995 Pan American Games

The 12th Pan American Games were held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, from March 12 to March 26, 1995.

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2000 European Figure Skating Championships

The 2000 European Figure Skating Championships was a senior international figure skating competition in the 1999–2000 season.

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2000 Summer Olympics

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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2010 Winter Olympics

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoephedrine

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