419 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acute (medicine), Addiction, Addiction Biology, Affect (psychology), Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe, Albert Hofmann, Algeria, Alkaline phosphatase, Alkaloid, Amanita muscaria, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amphetamine, Analytical chemistry, Antioxidant, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aqueous solution, Artifact (archaeology), Aspirin, Aztecs, Bad trip, Baeocystin, Basal ganglia, Basidiocarp, Basidiomycota, Benzene, Bernardino de Sahagún, Beta-Carboline, Bile, Bill (law), Biogenic amine, Biological half-life, Birth defect, Black market, Blinded experiment, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Body fluid, Breathwork, Bufotenin, Caffeine, California, Cannabis (drug), ..., Capillary electrophoresis, Carlos Castaneda, Carolus Clusius, Catenation, Catholic Church, Cerebral cortex, Chatinos, Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chemical test, Chemotaxonomy, Chloroform, Chromatography, Circulatory system, Clinical chemistry, Clinical psychology, Clinical research, Clinical trial, Closed-eye hallucination, Cocaine, Colorado River toad, Common Era, Comparative religion, Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Computational biology, Concord Prison Experiment, Confusion, Conocybe, Consciousness, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Convulsion, Copelandia, Cross-tolerance, Cultivar, Decarboxylation, Dennis McKenna, Depersonalization disorder, Dephosphorylation, Depression (mood), Derealization, Derivatization, Diego Durán, Divination, Dominican Order, Dopamine, Dopaminergic, Drug, Drug test, Drug tolerance, Dry matter, Dysmetria, Dysphoria, Effective dose (pharmacology), Ehrlich's reagent, Electrochemistry, Electrolyte, Electrospray ionization, Entheogen, Enzyme, Erowid, Ethanol, Ethnomycology, Ethocybin, Ethos, Ethyl group, Ethylamine, Euphoria, Europe, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, European Union, Excretion, Extract, Family (biology), Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Federal government of Mexico, First pass effect, Flashback (psychology), Florentine Codex, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Forensic toxicology, Franciscans, Funding of science, G protein–coupled receptor, Galerina, Gas chromatography, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gastón Guzmán, Genus, Georgia (U.S. state), Germination, Gerronema, Glucuronic acid, Glucuronide, Glucuronosyltransferase, Green Park, Group cohesiveness, Guatemala, Gymnopilus, Hallucination, Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, Haloperidol, Harvard Divinity School, Harvard Psilocybin Project, Harvard University, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Heart rate, Herbal, Herbal tea, Herbarium, Heroin, High-performance liquid chromatography, Horizontal gene transfer, Huautla de Jiménez, Humus, Huston Smith, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypertension, Hypholoma, Hypotension, Idaho, Immunoassay, Indole, Infrared spectroscopy, Inhalant, Inocybe, International Narcotics Control Board, Intravenous therapy, Ion-mobility spectrometry, Isotopic labeling, John Parkinson (botanist), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Jonathan Ott, Ketanserin, Kidney, Lamella (mycology), Lethal dose, Lethargy, Life (magazine), Life satisfaction, Ligand (biochemistry), Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of entheogenic/hallucinogenic species, List of psilocybin mushroom species, List of psychoactive plants, Liver, Liver function tests, Loophole, Lyceum (Classical), Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Marquis reagent, Marsh Chapel Experiment, Matlatzinca, Maya architecture, Maya civilization, Mazatec, MDMA, Median lethal dose, Medical research, Meditation, Melting point, Merck Index, Mescaline, Mesoamerica, Metabolic gene cluster, Metabolite, Methamphetamine, Methanol, Methyl group, Methylation, Methylphenidate, Mexico, Microgram, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Mixe, Moctezuma II, Model organism, Molecular modelling, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Mood (psychology), Mood disorder, Motivation, Mouth, Mural, Mushroom, Mycelium, Mycena, Mydriasis, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nahuas, Nahuatl, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nausea, Neurochemical, Neuroimaging, Neuropharmacology, Neuropsychology, Neurotransmitter, New World, Nicotine, Nightclub, Norbaeocystin, Nova Science Publishers, Novartis, O-Acetylpsilocin, Old World, Openness to experience, Orientation (mental), P-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, Panaeolina, Panaeolus, Panic attack, Paranoia, Partial agonist, Perception, Personality disorder, Personality psychology, Peter Stafford, Petroleum ether, Pharmacology, Phenethylamine, Phosphate, Phosphine oxide, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Physiological condition, Pictogram, Pileus (mycology), Placebo, Pluteus, Poly drug use, Postgraduate diploma, Potency (pharmacology), Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Prodrug, Prohibition of drugs, Prospective cohort study, Protein structure prediction, Pseudohallucination, Psilocin, Psilocybe, Psilocybe azurescens, Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa, Psilocybe hispanica, Psilocybe hoogshagenii, Psilocybe liniformans, Psilocybe mexicana, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe serbica, Psilocybe stuntzii, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe tampanensis, Psilocybe weilii, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Psychedelic experience, Psychiatric history, Psychoactive drug, Psychopharmacology (journal), Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Psychotomimetic, Psychotropic Substances Act (United States), PubChem, Publications Office of the European Union, Questionnaire, R. Gordon Wasson, Ralph Metzner, Ram Dass, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Redox, Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Regression (psychology), Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Rick Doblin, Risk factor, Rock art, Roger Heim, Ronin Publishing, Sacrament, Sahara, Schizophrenia, Scholarly approaches to mysticism, Scientific control, Sclerotium, Seeking the Magic Mushroom, Selective enforcement, Self-awareness, Self-harm, Self-report study, Seminary, Serotonin, Serum (blood), Set and setting, Smart shop, Solubility, Solvent, Soma (drink), Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spirituality, Spore, Spore print, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Standard solution, State court (United States), Statute, Stimulant, Stipe (mycology), Stretch reflex, Structural analog, Substance dependence, Substituent, Subtropics, Suggestibility, Suicide, Synesthesia, Tapping rate, Taxon, Ten Speed Press, Terence McKenna, Tetrahydroisoquinoline, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Therapeutic index, Thin-layer chromatography, Thomas J. Dodd, Time perception, Timothy Leary, Tobacco, Totonac, Toxicity, Tremor, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Tropics, Tryptamine, Tryptophan, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, United Nations, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States National Library of Medicine, Villar del Humo, Volatility (chemistry), Walter Pahnke, Wired (magazine), Yield (chemistry), Zapotec peoples, Zwitterion, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 4-HO-DET, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor. Expand index (369 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Addiction Biology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on substance abuse.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.
Agrocybe is a genus of mushrooms in the family Strophariaceae.
Albert Hofmann (11 January 1906 – 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
A bad trip (drug-induced temporary psychosis or psychedelic crisis) is a frightening and unpleasant experience triggered by psychoactive drugs, especially psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms.
Baeocystin is a psilocybin mushroom alkaloid and analog of psilocybin.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
In fungi, a basidiocarp, basidiome or basidioma (plural: basidiomata) is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete, the multicellular structure on which the spore-producing hymenium is borne.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).
β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Breathwork is an umbrella term for various New Age practices in which the conscious control of breathing is meant to influence a person's mental, emotional and/or physical state, with a claimed therapeutic effect.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels.
Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925April 27, 1998) was an American author with a Ph.D. in anthropology.
Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius (Arras, February 19, 1526 – Leiden, April 4, 1609), seigneur de Watènes, was an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The Chatinos are an indigenous people of Mexico.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
In chemistry, a chemical test is a qualitative or quantitative procedure designed to identify, quantify, or characterise a chemical compound or chemical group.
Merriam-Webster defines chemotaxonomy as the method of biological classification based on similarities in the structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Closed-eye hallucinations and closed-eye visualizations (CEV) are a distinct class of hallucination.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
The Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius), also known as the Sonoran Desert toad, is found in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970,, is a United States federal law that, with subsequent modifications, requires the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
The Concord Prison Experiment was designed to evaluate whether the experiences produced by the psychoactive drug psilocybin, derived from psilocybin mushrooms, combined with psychotherapy, could inspire prisoners to leave their antisocial lifestyles behind once they were released.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with Conocybe tenera as the type species and at least 243 other species.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Copelandia is a now deprecated genus of mushrooms consisting of at least 12 species.
Cross-tolerance is a phenomenon that occurs when tolerance to the effects of a certain drug produces tolerance to another drug.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Dennis Jon McKenna (born December 17, 1950 in Paonia, Colorado) is an American ethnopharmacologist, research pharmacognosist, lecturer and author.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Derivatization is a technique used in chemistry which transforms a chemical compound into a product (the reaction's derivate) of similar chemical structure, called a derivative.
Diego Durán (c. 1537 – 1588) was a Dominican friar best known for his authorship of one of the earliest Western books on the history and culture of the Aztecs, The History of the Indies of New Spain, a book that was much criticised in his lifetime for helping the "heathen" maintain their culture.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva — to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
The dry matter or dry weight is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.
Dysmetria (wrong length) refers to a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
Ehrlich's reagent or Ehrlich reagent is a reagent that contains ''p''-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) and thus can act as an indicator to presumptively identify indoles and urobilinogen.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a technique used in mass spectrometry to produce ions using an electrospray in which a high voltage is applied to a liquid to create an aerosol.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities and technologies that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation, lucid dreaming, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroceuticals.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology.
Ethocybin (CEY-19; 4-phosphoryloxy-DET; 4-PO-DET) is a homologue of the mushroom alkaloid psilocybin, and a semi-synthetic psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2NH2.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union located in Lisbon, Portugal.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
The federal government of Mexico (alternately known as the Government of the Republic or Gobierno de la Republica) is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
A flashback, or involuntary recurrent memory, is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience.
The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún.
Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.
Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Galerina is a genus of small brown-spored saprobic mushrooms, with over 300 species found throughout the world, from the far north to remote Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Gastón Guzmán Huerta (August 26, 1932 – January 12, 2016), a Mexican mycologist and anthropologist, was an authority on the genus Psilocybe.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gerronema is a genus of small- to medium-sized lignicolous agarics with white, nonamyloid, spores and decurrent gills.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
The Green Park, usually known without the article simply as Green Park, is one of the Royal Parks of London.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Gymnopilus is a genus of gilled mushrooms within the fungal family Strophariaceae containing about 200 rusty-orange spored mushroom species formerly divided among Pholiota and the defunct genus Flammula.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The Harvard Psilocybin Project was a series of experiments in psychology conducted by Dr.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a toxicology database on the U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET).
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
A herbal is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their medicinal, tonic, culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, and the legends associated with them.
Herbal teas — less commonly called tisanes (UK and US, US also) — are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water.
A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Huautla de Jimenez is a town and municipality in the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
Huston Cummings Smith (May 31, 1919 – December 30, 2016) was a religious studies scholar in the United States.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Fungi of the genus Hypholoma are quite well known due to the commonness of sulphur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare) on stumps in temperate woodlands.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Inocybe is a large genus of mushroom-forming fungi.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique used to separate and identify ionized molecules in the gas phase based on their mobility in a carrier buffer gas.
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
John Parkinson (1567–1650; buried 6 August 1650) was the last of the great English herbalists and one of the first of the great English botanists.
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (founded in 1893) is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876.
Jonathan Ott (born 1949 in Hartford, Connecticut) is an ethnobotanist, writer, translator, publisher, natural products chemist and botanical researcher in the area of entheogens and their cultural and historical uses, and helped coin the term "entheogen".
Ketanserin (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand name Sufrexal; former developmental code name R41468) is a drug used clinically as an antihypertensive agent and in scientific research to study the serotonin system; specifically, the 5-HT2 receptor family.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A lamella, or gill, is a papery hymenophore rib under the cap of some mushroom species, most often but not always agarics.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Life satisfaction is the way in which people show their emotions and feelings (moods) and how they feel about their directions and options for the future.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
This is a list of species and genera that are used as entheogens or are used in an entheogenic concoction (such as ayahuasca).
Psilocybin mushrooms are mushrooms which contain the hallucinogenic substances psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin.
A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
A loophole is an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system.
The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Marquis reagent is used as a simple spot-test to presumptively identify alkaloids as well as other compounds.
The Marsh Chapel Experiment, also called the "Good Friday Experiment", was a 1962 experiment conducted on Good Friday at Boston University's Marsh Chapel.
Matlatzinca is a name used to refer to different indigenous ethnic groups in the Toluca Valley in the state of México, located in the central highlands of Mexico.
A unique and intricate style, the tradition of Maya architecture spans several thousands of years.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mazatec are an indigenous people of Mexico who inhabit the Sierra Mazateca in the state of Oaxaca and some communities in the adjacent states of Puebla and Veracruz.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Metabolic gene clusters are tightly linked sets of mostly non-homologous genes participating in a common, discrete metabolic pathway.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Mixe (Spanish mixe or rarely mije) are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the eastern highlands of the state of Oaxaca.
Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
Mycena is a large genus of small saprotrophic mushrooms that are rarely more than a few centimeters in width.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
Norbaeocystin is a psilocybin mushroom alkaloid and analog of psilocybin.
Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
O-Acetylpsilocin (also known as psilacetin, 4-acetoxy-DMT, or 4-AcO-DMT) is a synthetically produced psychoactive drug and has been suggested by David Nichols to be a potentially useful alternative to psilocybin for pharmacological studies, as they are both believed to be prodrugs of psilocin.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Openness to experience is one of the domains which are used to describe human personality in the Five Factor Model.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
p-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Panaeolina is a small genus of small mushrooms, containing only about four species.
Panaeolus is a genus of small, black-spored, saprotrophic agarics.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
Peter Stafford (April 11, 1939 – July 20, 2007) was an American writer and author of the Psychedelics Encyclopedia.
Petroleum ether is the petroleum fraction consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons and boiling in the range 35‒60 °C; commonly used as a laboratory solvent. Despite the name, petroleum ether is not classified as an ether; the term is used only figuratively, signifying extreme lightness and volatility.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphine oxides are phosphorus compounds with the formula OPX3.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Physiological condition or, more often "physiological conditions" is a term used in biology, biochemistry, and medicine.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
The pileus is the technical name for the cap, or cap-like part, of a basidiocarp or ascocarp (fungal fruiting body) that supports a spore-bearing surface, the hymenium.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Pluteus is a large genus of fungi with over 300 species.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
A postgraduate diploma (PgD, PgDip, PGDip, PG Dip., PGD, Dipl. PG, PDE) is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.
Protein structure prediction is the inference of the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence—that is, the prediction of its folding and its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.
A pseudohallucination is an involuntary sensory experience vivid enough to be regarded as a hallucination, but recognised by the patient not to be the result of external stimuli.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybe is a genus of gilled mushrooms growing worldwide.
Psilocybe azurescens is a psychedelic mushroom whose main active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin.
Psilocybe baeocystis is a psilocybin mushroom of the family Hymenogastraceae.
Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principal active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin.
Psilocybe cyanescens (sometimes referred to as wavy caps or as the potent Psilocybe) is a species of potent psychedelic mushroom.
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa also known as Rhododendron Psilocybe and Blue-Haired Psilocybe is a psilocybin mushroom of the Agaricales family having psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds.
Psilocybe hispanica is a species of fungus in the family Hymenogastraceae.
Psilocybe hoogshagenii is species of psilocybin mushroom in the Strophariaceae family.
Psilocybe liniformans is a mushroom in the family Hymenogastraceae.
Psilocybe mexicana is a psychedelic mushroom.
Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the liberty cap, is a psilocybin or "magic" mushroom that contains the psychoactive compounds psilocybin which the body breaks down to psilocin, and the alkaloid baeocystin.
Psilocybe serbica is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family.
Psilocybe stuntzii, also known as Stuntz's Blue legs and Blue Ringers it is a psilocybin mushroom of the Hymenogastraceae family, having psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds.
Psilocybe subcubensis is an entheogenic species of mushroom in the Hymenogastraceae family.
Psilocybe tampanensis is a very rare psychedelic mushroom in the Strophariaceae family.
Psilocybe weilii is a psilocybin mushroom having psilocybin and/or psilocin as main active compounds.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychedelic experience (or 'trip') is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs (such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT).
A psychiatric history is the result of a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a psychiatrist) systematically records the content of an interview with a patient.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering psychopharmacology that is published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
A drug with psychotomimetic (also known as psychotogenic) actions mimics the symptoms of psychosis, including delusions and/or delirium, as opposed to just hallucinations.
The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays.
The Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office) is an interinstitutional office that publishes and disseminates the publications of the institutions and other bodies of the European Union (see.
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Robert Gordon Wasson (September 22, 1898 – December 23, 1986) was an American author, ethnomycologist, and Vice President for Public Relations at J.P. Morgan & Co. In the course of CIA-funded research, Wasson made contributions to the fields of ethnobotany, botany, and anthropology.
Ralph Metzner PhD (born May 18 1936, in Germany) is an American psychologist, writer and researcher, who participated in psychedelic research at Harvard University in the early 1960s with Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (later named Ram Dass).
Ram Dass (born Richard Alpert; April 6, 1931) is an American spiritual teacher, former academic and clinical psychologist, and the author of the seminal 1971 book Be Here Now. He is known for his personal and professional associations with Timothy Leary at Harvard University in the early 1960s, for his travels to India and his relationship with the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba, and for founding the charitable organizations Seva Foundation and Hanuman Foundation.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference to the validity or usefulness of the studies reported.
Regression (Regression), according to psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, is a defense mechanism leading to the temporary or long-term reversion of the ego to an earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adaptive way.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers legal aspects of toxicological and pharmacological regulations.
The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) is a personality inventory that examines a person's Big Five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism).
Richard "Rick" Doblin (born November 30, 1953) is the founder and executive director of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
Roger Heim (February 12, 1900 – September 17, 1979) was a French botanist specialising in mycology and tropical phytopathology.
Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scholarly approaches to mysticism include typologies of mysticism and the explanation of mystical states.
A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
A sclerotium, plural sclerotia, is a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves.
"Seeking the Magic Mushroom" is a 1957 photo essay by amateur mycologist Robert Gordon Wasson describing his experience taking psilocybin mushrooms in 1955 during a Mazatec ritual in Oaxaca, Mexico.
In law, selective enforcement occurs when government officials such as police officers, prosecutors, or regulators exercise enforcement discretion, which is the power to choose whether or how to punish a person who has violated the law.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Set and setting describes the context for psychoactive and particularly psychedelic drug experiences: one's mindset (shortened to "set") and the physical and social environment (the setting) in which the user has the experience.
A smart shop (or smartshop) is a retail establishment that specializes in the sales of psychoactive substances, usually including psychedelics, as well as related literature and paraphernalia.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Soma (सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indians.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Making a spore print of the mushroom ''Volvariella volvacea'' shown in composite: (photo lower half) mushroom cap laid on white and dark paper; (photo upper half) cap removed after 24 hours showing pinkish-tan spore print. A 3.5-centimeter glass slide placed in middle allows for examination of spore characteristics under a microscope. A printable chart to make a spore print and start identification The spore print is the powdery deposit obtained by allowing spores of a fungal fruit body to fall onto a surface underneath.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
In analytical chemistry, a standard solution is a solution containing an accurately known concentration of an element or a substance, A known weight of solute is dissolved to make a specific volume.
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state, as opposed to the federal government.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In mycology, a stipe is the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom.
The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others where false but plausible information is given and one fills in the gaps in certain memories with false information when recalling a scenario or moment.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
The tapping rate is a psychological test given to assess the integrity of the neuromuscular system and examine motor control.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Ten Speed Press is a publishing house founded in Berkeley, California in 1971 by Philip Wood.
Terence Kemp McKenna (November 16, 1946 – April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, author, and an advocate for the responsible use of naturally occurring psychedelic plants.
Tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C9H11N.
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures.
Thomas Joseph Dodd (May 15, 1907 – May 24, 1971) was a United States Senator and Representative from Connecticut, He is the father of former U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd and Thomas J. Dodd, Jr., who served as the United States Ambassador to Uruguay from 1993 to 1997 and to Costa Rica from 1997 to 2001.
Time perception is a field of study within psychology, cognitive linguistics and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience, or sense, of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and unfolding of events.
Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Totonac are an indigenous people of Mexico who reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A10 gene.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A9 gene.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Villar del Humo is a municipality located in the province of Cuenca, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Walter Norman Pahnke (Jan 18, 1931 - July 10, 1971) was a minister, physician, and psychiatrist most famous for the "Good Friday Experiment", also referred to as the Marsh Chapel Experiment or the "Miracle of Marsh Chapel".
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
In chemistry, yield, also referred to as reaction yield, is the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction.
The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
4-HO-DET, also known as 4-hydroxy-diethyl-tryptamine, CZ-74, is a hallucinogenic drug and psychedelic compound of moderate duration.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).