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Index Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin. [1]

293 relations: Acanthosis, Acitretin, Actinic elastosis, Adalimumab, Adaptive immune system, Alefacept, Ancient Rome, Anti-gliadin antibodies, Antimalarial medication, Antioxidant, Apremilast, Arsenic, Arthritis, Atrial fibrillation, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Auspitz's sign, Autoimmune disease, Axilla, Balneotherapy, Basal-cell carcinoma, Beta blocker, Biopharmaceutical, Biopsy, Birth defect, Blister, Blood test, Breast, Bullying, C-reactive protein, Calcipotriol, Calcium channel blocker, Candida albicans, Captopril, Carcinogen, CARD14, Cardiovascular disease, CCHCR1, Cell cycle, Certolizumab pegol, Cholecalciferol, Chromosome 5, Chromosome 6, Ciclosporin, Climate, Coal tar, Coconut oil, Coeliac disease, Coiled coil, Conjunctivitis, Contagious disease, ..., Corneodesmosin, Corticosteroid, Crohn's disease, Cutaneous condition, Cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Cytokine, Dactylitis, Dandruff, Dead Sea, Decoy receptors, Dendritic cell, Depression (mood), Dermatitis repens, Dermatology, Dermis, Desoximetasone, Differential diagnosis, Dimethyl fumarate, Dithranol, DNA, Docosahexaenoic acid, Efalizumab, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Endothelin 1, Endothelium, Epidermis, Equator, Erythema, Esophageal cancer, Etanercept, Family history (medicine), Fatigue, Finger tip unit, Fish oil, Fissured tongue, Fluocinonide, Folliculitis, Food and Drug Administration, Foot, Forehead, Fowler's solution, Fumaric acid, Generalized pustular psoriasis, Genetic disorder, Genetic linkage, Genome-wide association study, Geographic tongue, Glibenclamide, Glucocorticoid, Gluten-free diet, Golimumab, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Greek language, Guselkumab, Guttate psoriasis, Hand, Headache, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatotoxicity, Herpes labialis, Herpes simplex virus, HIV, HLA-C, Human leukocyte antigen, Hydroxycarbamide, Hypercholesterolemia, ICD-10, IL36G, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, Immunosuppressive drug, Incidence (epidemiology), Inflammatory bowel disease, Infliximab, Inframammary fold, Injection (medicine), Innate immune system, Insulin resistance, Integrin alpha L, Interferon, Interleukin, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 17, Interleukin 22, Interleukin 23 subunit alpha, Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1 family, Interleukin-12 subunit beta, Interleukin-23 receptor, Intertriginous, Inverse psoriasis, Iodine, Irritant diaper dermatitis, Itch, Ixekizumab, Janus kinase inhibitor, Keratinocyte, Keratitis, Koebner phenomenon, Kohen, Leprosy, Leukonychia, Lichen planus, Light therapy, Lipid-lowering agent, Lithium, Liver cancer, Liver function tests, Liver spot, Locus (genetics), Lung cancer, Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, Lymphoma, Macrophage, Major depressive disorder, Major histocompatibility complex, Malassezia, Mechanism of action, Medical diagnosis, Medical error, Medical sign, Medication, Melanoma, Mercury (element), Metabolic syndrome, Methotrexate, Mineral oil, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Monoclonal antibody, Multiple sclerosis, Mutation, Nail (anatomy), Nanometre, Napkin psoriasis, Nasolabial fold, National Guideline Clearinghouse, National Psoriasis Foundation, Natural killer cell, Nausea, Neutralizing antibody, Neutrophil, NF-κB, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nummular dermatitis, Obesity, Onycholysis, Onychomycosis, Oxidative stress, Pancreatic cancer, Panniculus, Papulosquamous disorder, Parakeratosis, Paricalcitol, Phenol, Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, Pityriasis rosea, Placebo, Poikiloderma, Poison, Polyphenol, Pregnancy, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Protein kinase C, Protein kinase inhibitor, Psoralen, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Psoriatic arthritis, Psoriatic erythroderma, Psoriatic onychodystrophy, Psychological stress, Pus, Pustular psoriasis, Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris, PUVA therapy, Pyrimidine dimer, Quality of life, Rebound effect, Renin–angiotensin system, Rete pegs, Retinoid, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Robert Willan, Sacroiliac joint, Sacroiliitis, Salicylic acid, Scalp, Sebaceous gland, Seborrheic-like psoriasis, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Sex, Sex organ, Skin cancer, Skin fold, Sleep, Social isolation, Splinter hemorrhage, Spondylitis, Sport, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous cell skin cancer, Staphylococcus aureus, Statin, Sternum, Stratum corneum, Stratum granulosum, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Suicidal ideation, Sulfur, Sunburn, Sunlight, Synovitis, Syphilis, T cell, T helper 17 cell, T helper cell, Tanakh, Terbinafine, Thermoregulation, Thomas Bateman (physician), TNF inhibitor, Tobacco smoking, Tonsillectomy, Topical medication, Tumah and taharah, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Twin, Twin study, Tzaraath, Ulcerative colitis, Ultraviolet, Urea-containing cream, Urologic disease, Ustekinumab, Vaseline, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Wavelength, White blood cell, Wound healing, 4-Aminobenzoic acid. Expand index (243 more) »


Acanthosis is diffuse epidermal hyperplasia (thickening of the skin).

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Acitretin (trade names Soriatane and Neotigason) is a second-generation retinoid.

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Actinic elastosis

Actinic elastosis, also known as solar elastosis, is an accumulation of abnormal elastin (elastic tissue) in the dermis of the skin, or in the conjunctiva of the eye, which occurs as a result of the cumulative effects of prolonged and excessive sun exposure, a process known as photoaging.

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Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

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Alefacept is a genetically engineered immunosuppressive drug.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anti-gliadin antibodies

Anti-gliadin antibodies are produced in response to gliadin, a prolamin found in wheat.

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Antimalarial medication

Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Apremilast, brand name Otezla among others, is a medication for the treatment of certain types of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Aulus Cornelius Celsus

Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.

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Auspitz's sign

Auspitz's sign is the appearance of punctate bleeding spots when psoriasis scales are scraped off, named after Heinrich Auspitz.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.

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Balneotherapy (balneum "bath") is the presumed benefit from disease by bathing, a traditional medicine technique usually practiced at spas.

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Basal-cell carcinoma

Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.

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Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Calcipotriol (INN) or calcipotriene (USAN) is a synthetic derivative of calcitriol, a form of vitamin D. It is used in the treatment of psoriasis, marketed under the trade name "Dovonex" in the United States, "Daivonex" outside North America, and "Psorcutan" in Germany.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Candida albicans

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.

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Captopril, sold under the trade name Capoten, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure.

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14, also known as CARD-containing MAGUK protein 2 (Carma 2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD14 gene.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1, also known as CCHCR1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCHCR1 gene.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Certolizumab pegol

Certolizumab pegol (CDP870, tradename Cimzia) is a biologic medication for the treatment of Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

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Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.

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Chromosome 5

Chromosome 5 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Coal tar

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.

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Coconut oil

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Coiled coil

A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2–7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope (dimers and trimers are the most common types).

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Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.

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Contagious disease

A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

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Corneodesmosin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDSN gene.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Cutaneous T cell lymphoma

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Dactylitis or sausage digit is inflammation of an entire digit (a finger or toe), and can be painful.

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Dandruff is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Decoy receptors

A decoy receptor is a receptor that is able to recognize and bind specific growth factors or cytokines efficiently, but is not structurally able to signal or activate the intended receptor complex.

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Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Dermatitis repens

Dermatitis repens (also known as "Acrodermatitis continua," "Acrodermatitis perstans," "Pustular acrodermatitis," "Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau," "Acrodermatitis continua suppurativa Hallopeau," "Hallopeau's acrodermatitis,", "Hallopeau's acrodermatitis continua," and "Dermatitis repens Crocker") is a rare, sterile, pustular eruption of the fingers and toes that slowly extends proximally.

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Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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Desoximetasone is a medication belonging to the family of medications known as topical corticosteroids.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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Dimethyl fumarate

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the methyl ester of fumaric acid.

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Dithranol (INN) or anthralin (USAN and former BAN) is a Hydroxyanthrone, anthracene derivative, medicine applied to the skin of people with psoriasis.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Efalizumab (trade name Raptiva, Genentech, Merck Serono) is a formerly available medication designed to treat autoimmune diseases, originally marketed to treat psoriasis.

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Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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Endothelin 1

Endothelin 1 (ET-1), also known as preproendothelin-1 (PPET1), is a potent vasoconstrictor that in humans is encoded by the EDN1 gene and produced by vascular endothelial cells.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.

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Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

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Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

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Family history (medicine)

In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Finger tip unit

In medicine, a finger tip unit (FTU) is defined as the amount of ointment, cream or other semi-solid dosage form expressed from a tube with a 5mm diameter nozzle, applied from the distal skin-crease to the tip of the index finger of an adult.

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Fish oil

Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.

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Fissured tongue

Fissured tongue (also known as "scrotal tongue," "lingua plicata," "Plicated tongue," and "furrowed tongue") is a benign condition characterized by deep grooves (fissures) in the dorsum of the tongue.

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Fluocinonide (Fluonex, Lidex, Lidex-E, Lonide, Lyderm, and Vanos) is a potent glucocorticoid used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of skin disorders such as eczema and seborrhoeic dermatitis.

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Folliculitis is the infection and inflammation of one or more hair follicles.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.

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In human anatomy, the forehead is an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp.

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Fowler's solution

Fowler's solution is a solution containing 1% potassium arsenite (KAsO2), and once prescribed as a remedy or a tonic.

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Fumaric acid

Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.

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Generalized pustular psoriasis

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is an extremely rare type of psoriasis that can present in a variety of forms.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Geographic tongue

Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface.

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Glibenclamide, also known as glyburide, is an antidiabetic drug in a class of medications known as sulfonylureas, closely related to sulfonamide antibiotics.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Golimumab (CNTO 148) is a human monoclonal antibody which is used as an immunosuppressive drug and marketed under the brand name Simponi.

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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guselkumab, sold under the trade name Tremfya, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat plaque psoriasis.

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Guttate psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis (also known as eruptive psoriasis) is a type of psoriasis that presents as small (0.5–1.5 cm in diameter) lesions over the upper trunk and proximal extremities; it is found frequently in young adults.

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A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Herpes labialis

Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip.

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Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Hydroxycarbamide, also known as hydroxyurea, is a medication used in sickle-cell disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, cervical cancer, and polycythemia vera.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Interleukin-36 gamma previously known as interleukin-1 family member 9 (IL1F9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL36G gene.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immune tolerance

Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.

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Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response.

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Immunosuppressive drug

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Inframammary fold

Inframammary fold (IMF), inframammary crease or inframammary line is the feature of human anatomy which is a natural boundary of a breast from below, the place where the breast and the chest meet.

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Injection (medicine)

Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.

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Innate immune system

The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Integrin alpha L

Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system.

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Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

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Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).

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Interleukin 10

Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 17

Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 22

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is protein that in humans is encoded by the IL22 gene.

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Interleukin 23 subunit alpha

Interleukin-23 subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL23A gene.

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Interleukin 6

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

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Interleukin-1 family

The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.

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Interleukin-12 subunit beta

Subunit beta of interleukin 12 (also known as IL-12B, natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor p40, or interleukin-12 subunit p40) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL12B gene.

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Interleukin-23 receptor

Interleukin-23 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor.

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In medicine, an intertriginous area is where two skin areas may touch or rub together.

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Inverse psoriasis

Inverse psoriasis or flexural psoriasis is a form of psoriasis that selectively and often exclusively involves the folds, recesses, and flexor surfaces such as the ears, axillae, groin folds, inframammary folds, navel, intergluteal cleft, penis, lips, and webspaces.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Irritant diaper dermatitis

Irritant diaper dermatitis is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants.

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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

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Ixekizumab (trade name Taltz; pronounced ix-ee-KIZ-ue-mab) is an injectable drug for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

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Janus kinase inhibitor

Janus kinase inhibitors, also known as JAK inhibitors or jakinibs, are a type of medication that functions by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the Janus kinase family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2), thereby interfering with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

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A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

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Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed.

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Koebner phenomenon

The Koebner phenomenon or Köbner phenomenon, also called the Koebner response or the isomorphic response, attributed to Heinrich Köbner, is the appearance of skin lesions on lines of trauma.

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Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.

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Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

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Leukonychia (or leuconychia), also known as white nails or milk spots,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).

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Lichen planus

Lichen planus (LP) is a disease characterized by itchy reddish-purple polygon-shaped skin lesions on the lower back, wrists, and ankles.

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Light therapy

Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.

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Lipid-lowering agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Liver cancer

Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Liver spot

Liver spots (also known as age spot, solar lentigo, "lentigo senilis", "old age spot", "senile freckle") are blemishes on the skin associated with aging and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1

Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a cellular adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

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Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi.

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical error

A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient.

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Mineral oil

Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase

A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Nail (anatomy)

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Napkin psoriasis

Napkin psoriasis, or psoriasis in the diaper area, is characteristically seen in infants between two and eight months of age.

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Nasolabial fold

The nasolabial folds, commonly known as "smile lines" or "laugh lines", are facial features.

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National Guideline Clearinghouse

National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) is a database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents.

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National Psoriasis Foundation

The National Psoriasis Foundation (NPF) is the world's largest nonprofit organization serving people with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Neutralizing antibody

A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically.

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Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Nummular dermatitis

Nummular dermatitis (also known as "discoid dermatitis," "discoid eczema," "microbial eczema," "nummular eczema," and "nummular neurodermatitis") is one of the many forms of dermatitis.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Onycholysis is a common medical condition characterized by the painless detachment of the nail from the nail bed, usually starting at the tip and/or sides.

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Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Panniculus, sometimes referred to incorrectly as FUPA (Fat Upper Pelvic Area) or pannus, is a medical term describing a dense layer of fatty tissue growth, consisting of subcutaneous fat in the lower abdominal area.

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Papulosquamous disorder

A papulosquamous disorder is a condition which presents with both papules and scales, or both scaly papules and plaques.

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Parakeratosis is a mode of keratinization characterized by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum.

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Paricalcitol (chemically it is 19-nor-1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D2. Marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Zemplar) is a drug used for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone) associated with chronic renal failure.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor

A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

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Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a type of skin rash.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Poikiloderma is a skin condition that consists of areas of hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias and atrophy.

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In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and usually fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal).

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Protein kinase C

Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC, is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.

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Protein kinase inhibitor

A protein kinase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor that blocks the action of one or more protein kinases.

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Psoralen (also called psoralene) is the parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins.

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Psoriasis Area and Severity Index

Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used tool for the measurement of severity of psoriasis.

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Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.

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Psoriatic erythroderma

Psoriatic erythroderma (also known as erythrodermic psoriasis) represents a generalized form of psoriasis that affects all body sites, including the face, hands, feet, nails, trunk, and extremities.

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Psoriatic onychodystrophy

Psoriatic onychodystrophy or psoriatic nails is a nail disease.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.

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Pustular psoriasis

The term pustular psoriasis is used for a heterogeneous group of diseases that share pustular skin characteristics.

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Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris

Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (also known as pustulosis of palms and soles, palmoplantar pustulosis, persistent palmoplantar pustulosis, pustular psoriasis of the Barber type, and pustular psoriasis of the extremities) is a chronic recurrent pustular dermatosis (that is, a pustulosis or pustular psoriasis) localized on the palms and soles only, characterized histologically by intraepidermal pustules filled with neutrophils.

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PUVA therapy

PUVA (psoralen and ultraviolet A) is an ultraviolet light therapy treatment for eczema, psoriasis, graft-versus-host disease, vitiligo, mycosis fungoides, large-plaque parapsoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma using the sensitizing effects of the drug psoralen.

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Pyrimidine dimer

Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Rete pegs

Rete pegs (also known as rete processes or rete ridges) are the epithelial extensions that project into the underlying connective tissue in both skin and mucous membranes.

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The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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Robert Willan

Robert Willan (12 November 1757 near Sedbergh, Yorkshire – 7 April 1812, Madeira) was an English physician and the founder of dermatology as a medical specialty.

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Sacroiliac joint

The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tus) is a medical condition caused by any inflammation within one, or both, of the sacroiliac joints.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.

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Sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

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Seborrheic-like psoriasis

Seborrheic-like psoriasis (also known as "Sebopsoriasis," and "Seborrhiasis") is a skin condition characterized by psoriasis with an overlapping seborrhoeic dermatitis.

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Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Skin fold

Skin folds or skinfolds are areas of skin where it folds.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Social isolation

Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.

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Splinter hemorrhage

Splinter hemorrhages (or haemorrhages) are tiny blood clots that tend to run vertically under the nails.

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Spondylitis is an inflammation of the vertebra.

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Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

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Squamous cell skin cancer

Squamous-cell skin cancer, also known as cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (cSCC), is one of the main types of skin cancer along with basal cell cancer, and melanoma.

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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.

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Stratum corneum

The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes).

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Stratum granulosum

The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis.

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Streptococcal pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).

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Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Synovitis is the medical term for inflammation of the synovial membrane.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T helper 17 cell

T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Terbinafine, sold under the brand name Lamisil among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat ringworm, pityriasis versicolor, and fungal nail infections.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Thomas Bateman (physician)

Thomas Bateman (29 April 1778 – 9 April 1821) was a British physician and a pioneer in the field of dermatology who was a native of Whitby, Yorkshire.

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TNF inhibitor

A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils (hereafter called "tonsils") are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.

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Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.

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Tumah and taharah

In Jewish law, ṭumah and ṭaharah) are the state of being ritually "impure" and "pure" respectively. The Hebrew noun ṭum'ah, meaning "impurity," describes a state of ritual impurity. A person or object which contracts ṭumah is said to be ṭamei (Hebrew adjective, "ritually impure"), and thereby unsuited for certain holy activities and utilisations (kedusha in Hebrew) until undergoing predefined purification actions that usually include the elapse of a specified time-period. The contrasting Hebrew noun ṭaharah (טָהֳרָה) describes a state of ritual purity that qualifies the ṭahor (טָהוֹר; ritually pure person or object) to be used for kedusha. The most common method of achieving ṭaharah is by the person or object being immersed in a mikveh (ritual bath). This concept is connected with ritual washing in Judaism, and both ritually impure and ritually pure states have parallels in ritual purification in other world religions. The laws of ṭumah and ṭaharah were generally followed by the Israelites, particularly during the First and Second Temple Period, and to a limited extent are a part of applicable halakha in modern times.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

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The Hebrew noun tzaraath (Hebrew צרעת, Romanized Tiberian Hebrew ṣāraʻaṯ and numerous variants of English transliteration, including saraath, tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas and tsaraat) describes disfigurative conditions of the skin, hair of the beard and head, clothing made of linen or wool, or stones of homes located in the land of Israel.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Urea-containing cream

Urea, also known as carbamide-containing cream, is used as a medication and applied to the skin to treat dryness and itching such as may occur in psoriasis, dermatitis, or ichthyosis.

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Urologic disease

Urologic disease is any congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.

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Ustekinumab, sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis.

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Vaseline Also pronounced with the main stress on the last syllable.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Wound healing

Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.

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4-Aminobenzoic acid

4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the number 4 carbon in the benzene ring is also known as the para position) is an organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4CO2H.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psoriasis

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