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Psychedelic drug

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Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness. [1]

87 relations: Alcoholism, Aldous Huxley, Altered state of consciousness, Amanita muscaria, Ayahuasca, BBC, Bwiti, Concord Prison Experiment, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Depersonalization, Derealization, Dissociative, Dream, Drug, Drug harmfulness, Echinopsis pachanoi, Echinopsis peruviana, Empathogen–entactogen, Endogeny (biology), Entheogen, Ergine, Ethnobotany, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Freedom of thought, God in a Pill?, Greek language, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic fish, Hallucinogenic plants in Chinese herbals, Humphry Osmond, Ibogaine, Ibotenic acid, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Κ-opioid receptor, Ketamine, List of psychedelic drugs, List of psychoactive plants, Lysergamides, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Marsh Chapel Experiment, Mazatec, MDMA, Meditation, Mescaline, Morning glory, Muscimol, Mystical psychosis, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Near-death experience, NMDA receptor antagonist, ..., Opioid, Peyote, Phenethylamine, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelia, Psychedelic art, Psychedelic experience, Psychedelic microdosing, Psychedelic music, Psychedelic therapy, Psychedelics in problem-solving experiment, Reindeer, Religious ecstasy, Richard Evans Schultes, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, Sami people, Serotonergic psychedelic, Serotonin receptor agonist, Set and setting, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Stimulant, Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, Synesthesia, Tabernanthe iboga, Timothy Leary, Trance, Tryptamine, War on drugs, Yoga, 2C-B, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-MeO-DMT. Expand index (37 more) »

Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Aldous Huxley

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.

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Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.

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Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.

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Ayahuasca

Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bwiti

Bwiti is a spiritual discipline of the forest-dwelling Babongo and Mitsogo peoples of Gabon (where it is recognized as one of three official religions) and by the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon.

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Concord Prison Experiment

The Concord Prison Experiment was designed to evaluate whether the experiences produced by the psychoactive drug psilocybin, derived from psilocybin mushrooms, combined with psychotherapy, could inspire prisoners to leave their antisocial lifestyles behind once they were released.

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Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

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Depersonalization

Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.

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Derealization

Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.

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Dissociative

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.

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Dream

A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

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Drug

A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Drug harmfulness

Drug harmfulness is the degree to which a psychoactive drug is harmful to a user and is measured in various ways, such as by addictiveness and the potential for physical harm.

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Echinopsis pachanoi

Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.

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Echinopsis peruviana

Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about above sea level.

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Empathogen–entactogen

Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

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Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

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Entheogen

An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.

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Ergine

Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi.

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Ethnobotany

Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.

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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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God in a Pill?

God in a Pill? Meher Baba on L.S.D. and The High Roads was a 1966 pamphlet containing messages from Meher Baba speaking out against taking illicit drugs such as marijuana and LSD, ultimately saying they were harmful "physically, mentally, and spiritually." The pamphlet was published in 1966 by Sufism Reoriented using quotes by Meher Baba where he disparaged the view that hallucinogenic and psychedelic drugs, especially LSD, but also marijuana, psilocybin, and other drugs, might be used to elicit meaningful spiritual insight.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hallucinogen

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hallucinogenic fish

Several species of fish are claimed to produce hallucinogenic effects when consumed.

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Hallucinogenic plants in Chinese herbals

For over two millennia, texts in Chinese herbology and traditional Chinese medicine have recorded medicinal plants that are also hallucinogens and psychedelics.

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Humphry Osmond

Humphry Fortescue Osmond (1 July 1917 – 6 February 2004) was an English psychiatrist who expatriated to Canada, then moved to work in the United States.

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Ibogaine

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.

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Ibotenic acid

Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Κ-opioid receptor

The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.

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Ketamine

Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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List of psychedelic drugs

The following is a list of psychedelic drugs of various classes.

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List of psychoactive plants

A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs.

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Lysergamides

Amides of lysergic acid are collectively known as lysergamides.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.

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Marsh Chapel Experiment

The Marsh Chapel Experiment, also called the "Good Friday Experiment", was a 1962 experiment conducted on Good Friday at Boston University's Marsh Chapel.

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Mazatec

The Mazatec are an indigenous people of Mexico who inhabit the Sierra Mazateca in the state of Oaxaca and some communities in the adjacent states of Puebla and Veracruz.

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Meditation

Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Mescaline

Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.

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Morning glory

Morning glory (also written as morning-glory) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux.

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Muscimol

Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.

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Mystical psychosis

Mystical psychosis is a term coined by Arthur J. Deikman in the early 1970s to characterize first-person accounts of psychotic experiences that are strikingly similar to reports of mystical experiences.

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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

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Near-death experience

A near-death experience (NDE) is a personal experience associated with death or impending death.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Opioid

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Peyote

Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.

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Phenethylamine

Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.

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Psilocin

Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.

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Psilocybin

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.

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Psilocybin mushroom

A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.

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Psychedelia

Psychedelia is the subculture, originating in the 1960s, of people who often use psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline (found in peyote) and psilocybin (found in some mushrooms).

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Psychedelic art

Psychedelic art is any art or visual displays inspired by psychedelic experiences and hallucinations known to follow the ingestion of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin.

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Psychedelic experience

A psychedelic experience (or 'trip') is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs (such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT).

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Psychedelic microdosing

Psychedelic microdosing is a practice to use sub-threshold doses of psychedelic drugs in an attempt to improve creativity, boost physical energy level, emotional balance, increase performance on problems-solving tasks and to treat anxiety, depression and addiction.

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Psychedelic music

Psychedelic music (sometimes psychedelia) covers a wide range of popular music styles and genres influenced by 1960s psychedelia, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of consciousness.

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Psychedelic therapy

Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline, and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy.

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Psychedelics in problem-solving experiment

Psychedelic agents in creative problem-solving experiment was a study designed to evaluate whether the use of a psychedelic substance with supportive setting can lead to improvement of performance in solving professional problems.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Religious ecstasy

Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.

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Richard Evans Schultes

Richard Evans Schultes (SHULL-tees;Jonathan Kandell,, The New York Times, April 13, 2001, Accessed March 11, 2015. January 12, 1915 – April 10, 2001) was an American biologist.

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Salvia divinorum

Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.

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Salvinorin A

Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Serotonergic psychedelic

Serotonergic psychedelics (also known as serotonergic hallucinogens) are a subclass of psychedelic drugs with a method of action strongly tied to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

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Serotonin receptor agonist

A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors.

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Set and setting

Set and setting describes the context for psychoactive and particularly psychedelic drug experiences: one's mindset (shortened to "set") and the physical and social environment (the setting) in which the user has the experience.

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Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.

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Stimulant

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine

Substituted methylenedioxy- phenethylamines (MDxx) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.

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Synesthesia

Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

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Tabernanthe iboga

Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa.

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Timothy Leary

Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions.

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Trance

Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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Tryptamine

Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.

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War on drugs

War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.

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Yoga

Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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2C-B

2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.

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3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine ("MDEA"; also called "MDE" and colloquially, "Eve") is an empathogenic psychoactive drug.

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3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.

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5-HT2A receptor

The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).

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5-MeO-DMT

5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic of the tryptamine class.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychedelic_drug

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