226 relations: Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, Acetylcholine, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Addiction psychiatry, Adverse effect, Age of Enlightenment, Aggression, Alienist, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, American Psychiatric Association, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andrei Snezhnevsky, Anger, Anti-psychiatry, Antireductionism, Anxiety, Assertive community treatment, Australians, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Baghdad, Behaviorism, Bethlem Royal Hospital, Bicêtre Hospital, Biochemistry, Biological psychiatry, Biology, Biomedical model, Biopsychiatry controversy, Biopsychosocial model, Bipolar disorder, Blood plasma, Blood test, Bullying in medicine, Cairo, Capital punishment, Charaka Samhita, Child and adolescent psychiatry, Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Chinese Society of Psychiatry, Chlorpromazine, Citizens Commission on Human Rights, Clinic, Clinical neurophysiology, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive test, Cognitive therapy, Community mental health service, ..., Community reinforcement approach and family training, Complete blood count, Confidentiality, Conflict of interest, Consumer, Court order, Cross-cultural psychiatry, Culture, Customer, David Cooper (psychiatrist), Delusion, Dementia, Democritus, Depression (mood), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Differential diagnosis, Dignity, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor–patient relationship, Donald Ewen Cameron, DSM-5, Edward Parker Charlesworth, Electroconvulsive therapy, Emergency psychiatry, Emotion, Endogeny (biology), Epidemiology, Ethical code, Etiology, Euthanasia, Exorcism, Fear, Fez, Morocco, Fixation (psychology), Forensic psychiatry, Genetics, Geriatric psychiatry, Global mental health, Glossary of medicine, Glossary of psychiatry, Harry Bailey, Health professional, Henry Cotton (doctor), Hippocrates, Hospice and palliative medicine, Human, Humanistic psychology, ICD-10, Institutional review board, International Early Psychosis Association, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Involuntary commitment, Islamic Golden Age, Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol, Johann Christian Reil, John Conolly, John F. Kennedy, Kirkbride Plan, Learning disability, Liaison psychiatry, List of diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry, Lithium carbonate, Lobotomy, London, Louis XIV of France, Lunacy Act 1845, Major depressive disorder, Maladaptation, Medical ethics, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical laboratory, Medical psychology, Medical research, Medicalization, Medicine, Mental disorder, Mental health counselor, Mental health law, Mental health professional, Mental status examination, Mentalism (philosophy), Middle Ages, Military psychiatry, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Mood disorder, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, National Council on Disability, National Institute of Mental Health, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuroimaging, Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neuropsychiatry, Neuroscience, Normality (behavior), Nursing, Old age, Otto Loewi, Pain management, Palliative care, Paradigm, Pathology, Patient, Personality disorder, Personality test, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacology, Philippe Pinel, Philosophy of science, Physical examination, Physical restraint, Physician, President of the United States, Preventive healthcare, Professional ethics, Psychiatric and mental health nursing, Psychiatric assessment, Psychiatric hospital, Psychiatric medication, Psychiatric survivors movement, Psychiatrist, Psychiatry Innovation Lab, Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalytic theory, Psychological testing, Psychologist, Psychology, Psychology in medieval Islam, Psychopathology, Psychopharmacology, Psychosis, Psychosocial, Psychosomatic medicine, Psychotherapy, Public health, Quakers, Radiology, Rationality, Reliability (statistics), Robert Gardiner Hill, Sadness, SAGE Publications, Samuel A. Cartwright, Schizophrenia, Scientific method, Self-harm, Sigmund Freud, Sleep medicine, Social psychiatry, Social science, Social work, Specialty (medicine), St Bernard's Hospital, Hanwell, Supernatural, Supported employment, Symptom, Telemedicine, Telepsychiatry, The Lawn, Lincoln, The Linacre Quarterly, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Szasz, Timeline of psychiatry, Torture, Treatment of mental disorders, United States, Utica Psychiatric Center, Validity (statistics), William Battie, William Tuke, World Health Organization, World Psychiatric Association. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
The Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica is a Scandinavian peer-reviewed medical journal containing original research, systematic reviews etc.
Addiction psychiatry is a medical subspecialty within psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Alienist is an archaic term for a psychiatrist or psychologist.
The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Inc. (ABPN) is a nonprofit corporation that was founded in 1934 following conferences of committees appointed by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Neurological Association, and the then "Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases" of the American Medical Association.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrei Vladimirovich Snezhnevsky (p;, Kostroma – 12 July 1987, Moscow) was a Soviet psychiatrist whose name was lent to the unbridled broadening of the diagnostic borders of schizophrenia in the Soviet Union, the key architect of the Soviet concept of sluggish schizophrenia, the inventor of the term "sluggish schizophrenia," an embodier of history of repressive psychiatry, and a direct participant in psychiatric repression against dissidents.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.
Antireductionism is the position in science and metaphysics that stands in contrast to reductionism (anti-holism) by advocating that not all properties of a system can be explained in terms of its constituent parts and their interactions.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an intensive and highly integrated approach for community mental health service delivery.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Bethlem Royal Hospital, also known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London.
The Bicêtre Hospital is located in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, which is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The biomedical model of medicine has been around since the mid-19th century as the predominant model used by physicians in diagnosing diseases.
The biopsychiatry controversy is a dispute over which viewpoint should predominate and form a basis of psychiatric theory and practice.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee physicians.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
Child and adolescent psychiatry or pediatric psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in children, adolescents, and their families.
The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD), published by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP), is a clinical guide used in China for the diagnosis of mental disorders.
The Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) is the largest organization for psychiatrists in China.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The Citizens Commission on Human Rights International (CCHR) is a nonprofit organization established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology and psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, headquartered in Los Angeles, California.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals.
Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.
Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as community mental health teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum).
Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings.
Cross-cultural psychiatry (also known as transcultural psychiatry or cultural psychiatry) is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In sales, commerce and economics, a customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration.
David Graham Cooper (1931 in Cape Town, South Africa – 29 July 1986 in Paris, France) was a South African-born psychiatrist and theorist who was prominent in the anti-psychiatry movement.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine.
Donald Ewen Cameron (–) — known as D. Ewen Cameron or Ewen Cameron — was a Scottish-born psychiatrist who served as President of the American Psychiatric Association (1952–1953), Canadian Psychiatric Association (1958-1959), American Psychopathological Association (1963), Society of Biological Psychiatry (1965) and World Psychiatric Association (1961-1966).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Edward Parker Charlesworth (1783–1853) was an English physician, known as an innovator in psychiatric treatment.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Emergency psychiatry is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.
Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geriatric psychiatry, also known as geropsychiatry, psychogeriatrics or psychiatry of old age, is a subspecialty of psychiatry dealing with the study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age.
Global mental health is the international perspective on different aspects of mental health.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
This glossary covers terms found in the psychiatric literature; the word origins are primarily Greek, but there are also Latin, French, German, and English terms.
Harry Richard Bailey (29 October 1922, Picton, New South Wales – 8 September 1985, Mount White, New South Wales) was an Australian psychiatrist and hospital administrator.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Henry Andrews Cotton (18 May 1876 – 8 May 1933) was an American psychiatrist and the medical director of New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton (previously the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, and now the Trenton Psychiatric Hospital) in Trenton, New Jersey from 1907 to 1930.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hospice and palliative medicine is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.
The International Early Psychosis Association (IEPA) is a professional body and international network for those with a professional interest in early psychosis intervention.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (3 February 1772 – 12 December 1840) was a French psychiatrist.
Johann Christian Reil (20 February 1759, Rhaude (an urban district of Rhauderfehn) – 22 November 1813, Halle an der Saale) was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist.
John Conolly (27 May 1794 – 5 March 1866) was an English psychiatrist.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The Kirkbride Plan refers to a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride (1809–1883) in the mid-19th century.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Liaison psychiatry, also known as consultative psychiatry or consultation-liaison psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in the interface between general medicine and psychiatry, usually taking place in a hospital or medical setting.
The following diagnostic systems and rating scales are used in psychiatry and clinical psychology.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Lunacy/Lunatics Act 1845 (8 & 9 Vict., c. 100) and the County Asylums Act 1845 formed mental health law in England and Wales from 1845 to 1890.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A maladaptation is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medical psychology is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, and is clearly comprehensive rather than primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
A mental health counselor (MHC), or counselor, is a person who uses psychotherapeutic methods to help others.
Mental health law includes a wide variety of legal topics and pertain to people with a diagnosis or possible diagnosis of a mental health condition, and to those involved in managing or treating such people.
A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.
The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
In philosophy of mind, mentalism is the view that the mind and mental states exist as causally efficacious inner states of persons.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Military psychiatry covers special aspects of psychiatry and mental disorders within the military context.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
The National Council on Disability (NCD) is an independent federal agency of the United States government.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Normality is a behavior that can be normal for an individual (intrapersonal normality) when it is consistent with the most common behaviour for that person.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
A personality test is a method of assessing human personality constructs.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philippe Pinel (20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical restraint refers to means of purposely limiting or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Professional ethics encompass the personal, and corporate standards of behavior expected by professionals.
Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the appointed position of a nurse that specialises in mental health, and cares for people of all ages experiencing mental illnesses or distress.
A psychiatric assessment, or psychological screening, is the process of gathering information about a person within a psychiatric service, with the purpose of making a diagnosis.
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.
The psychiatric survivors movement (more broadly peer/consumer/survivor/ex-patient movement) is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health services.
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
The Psychiatry Innovation Lab is an incubator at the American Psychiatric Association that catalyzes the formation of innovative ventures to transform mental healthcare.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Islamic psychology or ʿilm al-nafs (Arabic: علم النفس), the science of the nafs ("self" or "psyche"), is the medical and philosophical study of the psyche from an Islamic perspective and addresses topics in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and psychiatry as well as psychosomatic medicine.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.
Robert Gardiner Hill MD (26 February 1811 – 30 May 1878) was a British surgeon specialising in the treatment of lunacy.
Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Samuel Adolphus Cartwright (November 3, 1793 – May 2, 1863) was a physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
Social psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the interpersonal and cultural context of mental disorder and mental wellbeing.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
St Bernard's Hospital, also known as Hanwell Insane Asylum and the Hanwell Pauper and Lunatic Asylum, was built for the pauper insane.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Supported employment refers to service provisions wherein people with disabilities, including intellectual disabilities, mental health, and traumatic brain injury, among others, are assisted with obtaining and maintaining employment.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technology to provide clinical health care from a distance.
Telepsychiatry is the application of telemedicine to the specialty field of psychiatry.
The Lawn, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, is a notable early nineteenth century Greek revival building designed by Richard Ingleman (who was also architect for HM Prison, Devizes).
The Linacre Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1932.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomas Stephen Szasz (Szász Tamás István; 15 April 1920 – 8 September 2012) was a Hungarian-American academic, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
This is a timeline of the modern development of psychiatry.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Mental disorders are classified as a psychological condition marked primarily by sufficient disorganization of personality, mind, and emotions to seriously impair the normal psychological and often social functioning of the individual. Individuals diagnosed with certain mental disorders can be unable to function normally in society.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Utica Psychiatric Center, also known as Utica State Hospital, opened in Utica on January 16, 1843.
Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.
William Battie (sometimes spelt Batty)), 1 September 1703–13 June 1776, was an English physician who published in 1758 the first lengthy book on the treatment of mental illness, A Treatise on Madness, and by extending methods of treatment to the poor as well as the affluent, helped raise psychiatry to a respectable specialty. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians in 1764.
William Tuke (24 March 1732 – 6 December 1822) was an English businessman, philanthropist and Quaker.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Psychiatric Association is an international umbrella organisation of psychiatric societies.
Adult Psychiatry, Criticism of psychiatry, Ethics of psychiatry, Modern psychiatry, Personalistic disease theories, Psichiatry, Psychaitry, Psychiatric, Psychiatric medicine, Psychiatric treatment, Pyschiatric care, Pyschiatry.