281 relations: Acceptance and commitment therapy, Adenylyl cyclase, Agonist, Agranulocytosis, Alcohol, Alcoholism, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, Alogia, Alzheimer's disease, American Psychiatric Association, Amisulpride, Amphetamine, Ancient Greek, Anesthesia, António Egas Moniz, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Aphasia, Atypical antipsychotic, Auditory hallucination, Autism spectrum, Autoimmunity, Avolition, Basal ganglia, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Blame, Blood, Bloodletting, Borderline personality disorder, Brain injury, Brain tumor, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Brief psychotic disorder, Brief reactive psychosis, British Journal of Psychiatry, Broca's area, Calcium in biology, Cambridge University Press, Cannabidiol, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Catatonia, Cathinone, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrospinal fluid, ..., Childbirth, Chlorpromazine, Chronic hallucinatory psychosis, Clozapine, Cocaine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Complete blood count, Corticosteroid, Critical period, CT scan, Cushing's syndrome, Cyclothymia, Daniel Paul Schreber, David Healy (psychiatrist), Delirium, Delusion, Delusional disorder, Dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Demon, Depersonalization, Derealization, Dextromethorphan, Diagnosis of exclusion, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dietary supplement, Differential diagnosis, DiGeorge syndrome, Dissociative, Dissociative disorder, Dissociative identity disorder, Dopamine, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DSM-5, Early intervention in psychosis, Ebers Papyrus, Edward Bullmore, Electroconvulsive therapy, Electroencephalography, Electrolyte, Elyn Saks, Emil Kraepelin, Enadoline, Epilepsy, Ernst, Baron von Feuchtersleben, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Factor analysis, Folie à deux, Frontal lobe, Frontotemporal dementia, Gene expression, Glutamate decarboxylase, Gottlieb Burckhardt, Grandiosity, Grief, Hallucination, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Corpus, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Holism, Hostility, Humorism, Humour, Hypercalcaemia, Hypermagnesemia, Hypernatremia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypnagogia, Hypnopompic, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycemia, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Hyponatremia, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypophosphatemia, Hypothyroidism, Hypoxia (medical), ICD-10, Illusion, Inferior frontal gyrus, Insanity, Insulin shock therapy, International Review of Psychiatry, Iodobenzamide, James Tilly Matthews, Jesus, Jim van Os, Julius Ludwig August Koch, Karl Friedrich Canstatt, Karl Jaspers, Kay Redfield Jamison, Ketamine, Kidney, Kindling (sedative–hypnotic withdrawal), Kurt Schneider, L-DOPA, Lewy body dementia, Lingual gyrus, Lisdexamfetamine, List of counseling topics, Liver, Lobotomy, Long-term effects of alcohol consumption, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Malaria, Mania, Mark 5, Mark Vonnegut, Medical diagnosis, Medication, Meditation, Melancholia, Menstrual cycle, Menstrual psychosis, Mental disorder, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolic syndrome, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Middle frontal gyrus, Middle temporal gyrus, Mind, Mixed affective state, Monothematic delusion, Mood disorder, Multiple sclerosis, Myxedematous psychosis, Narcolepsy, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nervous system, Neurological disorder, Neurosis, Neurotransmitter, New Latin, New Testament, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nobel Prize, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olanzapine, Ondansetron, Parahippocampal gyrus, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Paranoid personality disorder, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Patient, Peduncular hallucinosis, Pentylenetetrazol, Personality disorder, Phencyclidine, Philip K. Dick, Phlegm, Pneumoencephalography, Porphyria, Postpartum psychosis, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Precentral gyrus, Proprioception, Psilocybin, Psychedelic drug, Psychiatry, Psychosurgery, Quetiapine, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rethinking Madness, Reward system, Risperidone, Salience network, Salvinorin A, Sarcoidosis, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizoid personality disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform disorder, Schizotypal personality disorder, Self-harm, Serology, Side effect, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Social support, Solitude, Sterilization (microbiology), Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Stroke, Substance intoxication, Substituted amphetamine, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, Suicide, Superior temporal gyrus, Suspicion (emotion), Sympathomimetic drug, Syphilis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tardive dyskinesia, Tardive psychosis, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Thalamus, The Eden Express, The Starry Night, Thiamine, Thought disorder, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Trepanning, Typical antipsychotic, Unitary psychosis, VALIS, Vigabatrin, Vincent van Gogh, Viral encephalitis, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Waxy flexibility, White blood cell, World Health Organization, X-ray, 4th century BC. 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Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of counseling and a branch of clinical behavior analysis.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alice in Wonderland syndrome is a disorienting neuropsychological condition that affects perception.
In psychology, alogia (Greek ἀ-, “without”, and λόγος, “speech”), or poverty of speech, is a general lack of additional, unprompted content seen in normal speech.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, also known as NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, is an acute form of brain inflammation.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Avolition, as a symptom of various forms of psychopathology, is the decrease in the motivation to initiate and perform self-directed purposeful activities.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a rating scale which a clinician or researcher may use to measure psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviour.
Brief psychotic disorder is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, is not always non-recurring, but can be, and is not caused by another condition.
Brief reactive psychosis, referred to in the DSM IV-TR as "brief psychotic disorder with marked stressor(s)", is the psychiatric term for psychosis which can be triggered by an extremely stressful event in the life of an individual.
The British Journal of Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published monthly by the Royal College of Psychiatrists containing original research, systematic reviews, commentaries on contentious articles, short reports, a comprehensive book review section, and a correspondence column relating to all aspects of psychiatry.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Chronic hallucinatory psychosis is a psychosis subtype, classified under "Other nonorganic psychosis" by the ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to certain environmental stimuli.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
Daniel Paul Schreber (25 July 1842 – 14 April 1911) was a German judge who suffered from what was then diagnosed as dementia praecox (later known as paranoid schizophrenia or schizophrenia, paranoid type).
David Healy, a professor of psychiatry at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, is a psychiatrist, psychopharmacologist, scientist and author.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model that attributes symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a section of the prefrontal cortex in mammalian brain anatomy.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Early intervention in psychosis is a clinical approach to those experiencing symptoms of psychosis for the first time.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Edward Thomas Bullmore, (born 27 September 1960) is a British Neuropsychiatrist, neuroscientist, and academic.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elyn R. Saks is Associate Dean and Orrin B. Evans Professor of Law, Psychology, and Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences at the University of Southern California Gould Law School, an expert in mental health law and a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship winner.
Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.
Enadoline is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Baron Ernst von Feuchtersleben (full name: Ernst Maria Johann Karl Freiherr von Feuchtersleben; 29 April 18063 September 1849), was an Austrian physician, poet and philosopher.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
Folie à deux (French for "madness of two"), or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief and sometimes hallucinations are transmitted from one individual to another.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt (24 December 1836 – 6 February 1907) was a Swiss psychiatrist and the medical director of a small mental hospital in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel.
Grandiosity refers to an unrealistic sense of superiority, a sustained view of oneself as better than others that causes the narcissist to view others with disdain or as inferior, as well as to a sense of uniqueness: the belief that few others have anything in common with oneself and that one can only be understood by a few or very special people.
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Hashimoto's encephalopathy, also known as steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a neurological condition characterized by encephalopathy, thyroid autoimmunity, and good clinical response to steroids.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Humour (British English) or humor (American English; see spelling differences) is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hypermagnesemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a high level of magnesium in the blood.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypnagogia, also referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.
The hypnopompic state (or hypnopompia) is the state of consciousness leading out of sleep, a term coined by the psychical researcher Frederic Myers.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypomagnesemia, also spelled hypomagnesaemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of phosphate in the blood.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
The inferior frontal gyrus is a part of the frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (the yellow area of the human brain image to the right).
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy (ICT) was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected with large doses of insulin in order to produce daily comas over several weeks.
The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).
IBZM (abbreviation for iodobenzamide) is a chemical substance.
James Tilly Matthews (1770 – 10 January 1815) was a London tea broker, originally from Wales and of Huguenot descent, who was committed to Bethlem (colloquially Bedlam) psychiatric hospital in 1797.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jim van Os (born 1960) is a Dutch professor of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Public Mental Health at Utrecht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands.
Julius Ludwig August Koch (4 December 1841, Laichingen, Württemberg – 25 June 1908, Zwiefalten) was a German psychiatrist whose work influenced later concepts of personality disorders.
Karl Friedrich Canstatt (11 July 1807, Regensburg – 10 March 1850, Erlangen) was a German physician and medical author.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Kay Redfield Jamison (born June 22, 1946) is an American clinical psychologist and writer.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kindling due to substance withdrawal refers to the neurological condition which results from repeated withdrawal episodes from sedative–hypnotic drugs such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Kurt Schneider (7 January 1887 – 27 October 1967) was a German psychiatrist known largely for his writing on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, as well as personality disorders then known as psychopathic personalities.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lewy body dementia (LBD, sometimes referred to as Lewy body disorder) is an umbrella term that includes Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), two dementias characterized by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain.
The lingual gyrus is a brain structure that is linked to processing vision, especially related to letters.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
The long-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular diseaseAssociation of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Mark 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
Mark Vonnegut (born May 11, 1947) is an American pediatrician and memoirist.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Menstrual psychosis is a debated form of psychosis with a brief, sudden onset related to the menstrual cycle.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, also called arylsulfatase A deficiency) is a lysosomal storage disease which is commonly listed in the family of leukodystrophies as well as among the sphingolipidoses as it affects the metabolism of sphingolipids.
The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain.
Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
A monothematic delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Myxedema psychosis, more colloquially known as myxedema madness, is a relatively uncommon consequence of hypothyroidism, such as in Hashimoto's thyroiditis or in patients who have had the thyroid surgically removed and are not taking thyroxine.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
The parahippocampal gyrus (Syn. hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus and is part of the limbic system.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes.
Pentylenetetrazol, also known as pentylenetetrazole, metrazol, pentetrazol (INN), pentamethylenetetrazol, Corazol, Cardiazol, deumacard or PTZ, is a drug formerly used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.
Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.
Pneumoencephalography (sometimes abbreviated PEG; also referred to as an "air study") was a common medical procedure in which most of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained from around the brain by means of a lumbar puncture and replaced with air, oxygen, or helium to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray image.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Postpartum psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks after childbirth.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
The precentral gyrus (also known as the motor strip) is a prominent structure on the surface of the posterior frontal lobe.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Rethinking Madness: Towards a Paradigm Shift In Our Understanding and Treatment of Psychosis (Sky’s Edge Publishing, 2012) is a book by the psychologist Paris Williams which explores creative ways of dealing with madness (psychosis).
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The salience network (SN) is a large scale brain network of the human brain that is primarily composed of the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC).
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizoid personality disorder (often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and most popularly, that one is part of a supportive social network.
Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the degradation pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.
Suspicion is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Tardive psychosis is a term for a hypothetical form of psychosis, proposed in 1978.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The Eden Express: A Memoir of Insanity is a 1975 memoir by Mark Vonnegut, son of American writer Kurt Vonnegut, about Mark's experiences in the late 1960s and his major psychotic breakdown and recovery.
The Starry Night is an oil on canvas by the Dutch post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Thought disorder (TD) or formal thought disorder (FTD) refers to disorganized thinking as evidenced by disorganized speech.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
Unitary psychosis (Einheitspsychose) refers to the 19th-century belief prevalent in German psychiatry until the era of Emil Kraepelin that all forms of psychosis were surface variations of a single underlying disease process.
VALIS is a 1981 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Viral encephalitis is a type of encephalitis caused by a virus.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
Waxy flexibility is a psychomotor symptom of catatonia as associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or other mental disorders which leads to a decreased response to stimuli and a tendency to remain in an immobile posture.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC.
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