95 relations: Alternation of generations, American Journal of Botany, Annals of Botany, Antheridium, Archegonium, Biological life cycle, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Cambridge University Press, Ceratopteris, Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Cryptogam, Dioecy, Egg cell, Embryophyte, Endodermis, Equisetaceae, Equisetidae, Equisetopsida, Equisetum, Euphyllophyte, Eupolypods I, Eupolypods II, Eusporangiate fern, Extinction, Family (biology), Fern, Fern ally, Flagellum, Flower, Flowering plant, Fossil, Gamete, Gametophyte, Gymnosperm, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Isoetes, Isoetopsida, Lateral root, Lepidodendrales, Leptosporangiate fern, Lycopodiidae, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodiopsida, Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Marattiidae, Mark Wayne Chase, Marsileaceae, ..., Molecular phylogenetics, Monoicous, Monophyly, Nature (journal), New Phytologist, Ophioglossales, Ophioglossidae, Order (biology), Paraphyly, Phloem, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Phytotaxa, Plant reproductive morphology, Plasmodium (life cycle), Ploidy, Polypodiales, Polypodiidae (plant), Progymnosperm, Prothallium, Psilotaceae, Psilotopsida, Psilotum, Rhyniophytina, Salviniaceae, Seed, Selaginella, Sequential hermaphroditism, Smithsonian Institution, Sperm, Spermatophyte, Spermatozoon, Spore, Sporophyte, Subphylum, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Tapetum (botany), Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Tree of Life Web Project, Trimerophytopsida, Vascular plant, Vascular tissue, Xylem, Zosterophyllopsida. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm).
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Ceratopteris is the only genus among homosporous ferns that is exclusively aquatic.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds.
Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.
Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species.
Equisetidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns).
Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
The euphyllophytes are a clade of plants within the tracheophytes (the vascular plants).
Eupolypods I is a clade of ferns in the order Polypodiales, class Polypodiopsida.
Eupolypods II is a clade of ferns in the order Polypodiales, under the class Polypodiopsida.
Eusporangiate ferns are vascular spore plants, whose sporangia arise from several epidermal cells and not from a single cell as in leptosporangiate ferns.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fern allies are a diverse group of seedless vascular plants that are not true ferns.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
Isoetes, commonly known as the quillworts, is a genus of plants in the class Isoetopsida and order Isoetales.
The Isoetopsida is a class of Lycopodiophyta.
Lateral roots extend horizontally from the primary root (radicle) and serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil.
Lepidodendrales (from Gr. "scale tree") were primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plants related to the lycopsids (club mosses).
Leptosporangiate ferns are the largest group of living ferns, including some 11000 species worldwide.
Lycopodiidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass comprises the Lycopods.
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
Dr Maarten Joost Maria Christenhusz (born 27 April 1976) is a Dutch botanist and plant photographer.
Marattiidae is a subclass of class Polypodiopsida (ferns).
Mark Wayne Chase (born 1951) is a US-born British botanist.
The Marsileaceae are a small family of heterosporous aquatic and semi-aquatic ferns, though at first sight they do not physically resemble other ferns.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Monoicous plants are those species that bear both sperm and eggs on the same gametophyte.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.
Ophioglossales (lit. 'snake-tongue ') are a small group of pteridophyte plants.
Ophioglossidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns).
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for rapid publication on any aspect of systematic botany.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
A plasmodium is a living structure of cytoplasm that contains many nuclei, rather than being divided into individual cells each with a single nucleus.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
The order Polypodiales encompasses the major lineages of polypod ferns, which comprise more than 80% of today's fern species.
Polypodiidae is a subclass of Polypodiopsida (ferns), and of the four subclasses comprises the vast number of species.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.
A prothallium, or prothallus (from Latin pro.
Psilotaceae is a family of Pteridophyta (in order Psilotales) consisting of two genera, Psilotum and Tmesipteris with a dozen species.
Psilotopsida is a class of ferns or fern-like plants, considered to be one of the three classes of eusporangiate ferns.
Psilotum is a genus of fern-like vascular plants, commonly known as whisk ferns.
Rhyniophytina is a subdivision of extinct early vascular plants that are considered to be similar to the genus Rhynia, found in the Early Devonian (around). Sources vary in the name and rank used for this group, some treating it as the class Rhyniopsida, others as the division Rhyniophyta.
Salviniaceae (or formerly Salviniaceæ) is a family of heterosporous ferns in the order Salviniales.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selaginella is the sole genus of primitive vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.
Sequential hermaphroditism (called dichogamy in botany) is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish, gastropods, and plants.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
The tapetum is a specialised layer of nutritive cells found within the anther, of flowering plants, where it is located between the sporangenous tissue and the anther wall.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
The Tree of Life Web Project is an Internet project providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth.
Trimerophytopsida (or Trimeropsida) is a class of early vascular plants from the Devonian, informally called trimerophytes.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
The zosterophylls were a group of extinct land plants that first appeared in the Silurian period.