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Index Pterosaur

Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria. [1]

214 relations: Aerodynamics, Alanqa, Alcione elainus, Alligator, Allkaruen, American alligator, Anatomy, Anhanguera (pterosaur), Anseriformes, Antorbital fenestra, Anurognathidae, Archaeopterodactyloidea, Archosaur, Archosauriformes, Ardeadactylus, Arm, Austriadactylus, Avemetatarsalia, Azhdarchidae, Azhdarchoidea, Bat, Bear, Bipedalism, Bird, Bird of prey, Boreopteridae, Brain, Caelidracones, Campylognathoides, Carniadactylus, Cat, Cathemerality, Caviramus, Changchengopterus, Chaoyangopteridae, Clade, Cladistics, Cladogram, Convergent evolution, Cosimo Alessandro Collini, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodile, Csehbánya Formation, Ctenochasma, Ctenochasmatidae, Ctenochasmatoidea, Cycnorhamphus, Darren Naish, Darwinopterus, ..., Dimorphodon, Dimorphodontia, Dinosaur, Diurnality, Dorygnathus, Dsungaripteridae, Endotherm, Eopterosauria, Euctenochasmatia, Eudimorphodon, Eudimorphodontidae, Euparkeria, Eupterodactyloidea, Extinction, Falconidae, Faxinalipterus, Feather, Femur, Finger, Flamingo, Flocculus (cerebellar), Flying and gliding animals, Flying squirrel, Fossil, Fossil trackway, Frigatebird, Gallodactylidae, Gannet, Gastralium, Georges Cuvier, Geosternbergia, Germanodactylidae, Germanodactylus, Graphical timeline of pterosaurs, Hair, Haopterus, Harpactognathus, Hatzegopteryx, Histology, Homology (biology), Hongshanopterus, Human, Ichthyosaur, Integument, Interfemoral membrane, Irritator, Istiodactylidae, Jeholopterus, Johann Georg Wagler, Johann Jakob Kaup, Johns Hopkins University, Jurassic Park III, Keratin, Kevin Padian, King Kong, Lagosuchus, Late Cretaceous, Late Triassic, Lazarus taxon, List of pterosaur genera, Lonchodectes, Lonchodectidae, Ludodactylus, Mammal, Maniraptora, Marine reptile, Mary Anning, Mesozoic, Michael Benton, Monofenestrata, Mosasaur, Muscle, Nature (journal), Navajodactylus, Niche differentiation, Nocturnality, Notarium, Novialoidea, Nyctosauridae, Nyctosaurus, On the Wing (1986 film), One Million Years B.C., Order (biology), Ornithischia, Ornithocheirae, Ornithocheiridae, Ornithocheiromorpha, Ornithocheirus, Ovary, Paleobiota of the Solnhofen Formation, Paraphyly, Patagium, Paul MacCready, Phorusrhacidae, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Phylogenetics, Phylogeny of pterosaurs, Piksi, Piscivore, Plantigrade, Plesiosauria, Prejanopterus, Preondactylus, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Protorosauria, Pteranodon, Pteranodontia, Pteranodontidae, Pteranodontoidea, Pterodactyloidea, Pterodactylus, Pterodaustro, Pterorhynchus, Pterosaur, Pterosaur Beach, Pterosaur size, Quadrupedalism, Quetzalcoatlus, Ray Harryhausen, Reptile, Rhamphorhynchidae, Rhamphorhynchoidea, Rhamphorhynchus, Roadrunner, Santana Formation, Saurischia, Scaphognathus, Scapula, ScienceBlogs, Scleromochlus, Sclerotic ring, Sericipterus, Skeleton, Solnhofen Limestone, Sordes, South Asian river dolphin, Spinosauridae, Sterling Nesbitt, Sternum, Takeoff, Tapejara (pterosaur), Tapejaridae, Tapejaromorpha, Taxonomy (biology), Thalassodromeus, Thalassodromidae, The Lost World (1925 film), The Lost World (Conan Doyle novel), Theropoda, Tibia, Timeline of pterosaur research, Tissue (biology), Transitional fossil, Triassic, Tropicbird, Tupuxuara, Turtle, Ultraviolet, Ungulate, University of Portsmouth, Vertebra, Vertebrate, Victoria Arbour, Wukongopteridae. Expand index (164 more) »


Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Alanqa is a genus of pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds (which date to the late Albian or Cenomanian age) of southeastern Morocco.

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Alcione elainus

Alcione is a genus of nyctosaurid pterosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco.

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An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.

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Allkaruen (meaning "ancient brain") is a genus of rhamphorhynchoid pterosaur from the Early-to-Middle Jurassic Cañadon Asfalto Formation in Argentina.

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American alligator

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Anhanguera (pterosaur)

Anhanguera (meaning "old devil") is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (Albian age, 112 Ma) Santana Formation of Brazil.

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Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.

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Antorbital fenestra

An antorbital fenestra (plural: fenestrae) is an opening in the skull that is in front of the eye sockets.

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The Anurognathidae were a family of small pterosaurs, with short or absent tails, that lived in Europe, Asia, and possibly North America during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

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Archaeopterodactyloidea (meaning "ancient Pterodactyloidea") is an extinct clade of pterodactyloid pterosaurs from the middle Late Jurassic to the latest Early Cretaceous (Kimmeridgian to Albian stages) of Africa, Asia and Europe.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Archosauriformes (Greek for 'ruling lizards', and Latin for 'form') is a clade of diapsid reptiles that developed from archosauromorph ancestors some time in the Late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago).

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Ardeadactylus (from Ardea – meaning "heron", and also a name of a genus of herons – and dactylus, meaning "finger") is an extinct genus of pterodactylid archaeopterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone of Bavaria, southern Germany.

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In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.

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Austriadactylus is a genus of "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaur.

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Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodiles.

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Azhdarchidae (from Persian word azhdar (اژدر), a dragon-like creature in Persian mythology) is a family of pterosaurs known primarily from the late Cretaceous Period, though an isolated vertebra apparently from an azhdarchid is known from the early Cretaceous as well (late Berriasian age, about 140 million years ago).

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Azhdarchoidea is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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Boreopteridae (meaning "northern wings") is a group of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs from the Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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The Caelidracones are a group of pterosaurs.

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Campylognathoides ("curved jaw", Strand 1928) is a genus of pterosaur, discovered in the Württemberg Lias deposits (dated to the early Toarcian ageBarrett, P. M., Butler, R. J., Edwards, N. P., & Milner, A. R. (2008). "Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas". Zitteliana, 61-107.) of Germany; this first specimen consisted however only of wing fragments.

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Carniadactylus is a genus of pterosaur which existed in Europe during the Late Triassic period (late Carnian or early Norian, about 228 million years agoBarrett, P. M., Butler, R. J., Edwards, N. P., & Milner, A. R. (2008). Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas. Zitteliana, 61-107.). The genus contains a single species, Carniadactylus rosenfeldi.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Cathemerality, sometimes called metaturnality, is the behaviour in which an organism has sporadic and random intervals of activity during the day or night in which food is acquired, socializing with other organisms occurs, and any other activities necessary for livelihood are performed.

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Caviramus is a genus of "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaur from the Late Triassic (late Norian-early Rhaetian-age) lower Kössen Formation of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Switzerland.

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Changchengopterus is a genus of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur from China, Qinglong County, Hebei Province.

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The Chaoyangopteridae are a family of pterosaurs within the Azhdarchoidea.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Cosimo Alessandro Collini

Cosimo Alessandro Collini (Florence 14 October 1727-Mannheim, 21 March 1806) was an Italian historian and Voltaire's secretary from 1752 to 1756.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Csehbánya Formation

The Csehbánya Formation is a fossil-rich Hungarian geological formation that dates from Santonian stage (around 85 million years ago) of the Late Cretaceous.

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Ctenochasma (meaning 'comb jaw') is a genus of Late Jurassic pterosaur belonging to the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Ctenochasmatidae is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Ctenochasmatoidea is a group of early pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Cycnorhamphus (meaning "swan beak") is a genus of ctenchasmatoid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic of France and Germany.

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Darren Naish

Darren Naish is a British vertebrate palaeontologist and science writer.

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Darwinopterus (meaning "Darwin's wing") is a genus of pterosaur, discovered in China and named after biologist Charles Darwin.

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Dimorphodon was a genus of medium-sized pterosaur from the early Jurassic Period.

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Dimorphodontia is a group of early "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs named after Dimorphodon, that lived in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.

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Dorygnathus ("spear jaw") was a genus of pterosaur that lived in Europe during the Early Jurassic period, 180 million years ago when shallow seas flooded much of the continent.

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Dsungaripteridae is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.

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Eopterosauria is a group of basal pterosaurs from the Triassic, which form their own clade.

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Euctenochasmatia is an extinct group of pterodactyloid pterosaurs.

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Eudimorphodon was a pterosaur that was discovered in 1973 by Mario Pandolfi in the town of Cene, Italy and described the same year by Rocco Zambelli.

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Eudimorphodontidae is an extinct family of early pterosaurs from the Late Triassic (early Norian to Rhaetian age) of Europe.

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Euparkeria (meaning "Parker's good animal", named in honor of W.K. Parker) is an extinct genus of archosauriform from the Middle Triassic of South Africa.

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Eupterodactyloidea (meaning "true Pterodactyloidea") is an extinct group of pterodactyloid pterosaurs that existed from the earliest Early Cretaceous to the latest Late Cretaceous (Berriasian to Maastrichtian stages).

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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The falcons and caracaras are around 60 species of diurnal birds of prey that make up the family Falconidae.

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Faxinalipterus is a genus of vertebrate, possibly a pterosaur, from the Late Triassic Caturrita Formation of southern Brazil.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.

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The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.

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A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates.

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Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.

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Flocculus (cerebellar)

The flocculus (Latin: tuft of wool, diminutive) is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule.

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Flying and gliding animals

A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.

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Flying squirrel

Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fossil trackway

A fossil trackway is a type of trace fossil, a trackway made by an organism.

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Frigatebirds (also listed as "frigate bird", "frigate-bird", "frigate", frigate-petrel") are a family of seabirds called Fregatidae which are found across all tropical and subtropical oceans.

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Gallodactylidae is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.Gallodactylids differed from other related pterosaurs in several distinct features, including fewer than 50 teeth present only in the jaw tips, and rounded crests present on the rear portion of the skull and jaws but not near the ends of their snouts.

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Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to boobies.

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Gastralia (singular gastralium) are dermal bones found in the ventral body wall of modern crocodilian and Sphenodon species.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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Geosternbergia is an extinct pteranodontid reptile from the Late Cretaceous geological period of North America.

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Germanodactylidae is a controversial group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Germanodactylus ("German finger") is a genus of dsungaripteroid pterodactyloid pterosaur from Late Jurassic-age rocks of Germany, including the Solnhofen limestone.

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Graphical timeline of pterosaurs

No description.

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Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

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Haopterus is a ornithocheiroid pterodactyloid pterosaur genus from the Barremian-Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China.

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Harpactognathus (meaning "seizing/grasping jaw") was a genus of pterosaur found in the Late Jurassic-age Morrison Formation of Albany County, Wyoming, United States.

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Hatzegopteryx ("Hațeg basin wing") is a genus of azhdarchid pterosaur found in the late Maastrichtian deposits of the Densuș Ciula Formation, an outcropping in Transylvania, Romania.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hongshanopterus is a genus of istiodactylid ornithocheiroid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.

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In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.

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Interfemoral membrane

The interfemoral membrane, or uropatagium, is the membrane that stretches between the legs of bats, pterosaurs and other animals like flying squirrels and colugos.

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Irritator is a genus of spinosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived during the Early Cretaceous Period (Albian stage), around 110 million years ago, of what is now Brazil.

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Istiodactylidae is a small family of pterosaurs.

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Jeholopterus was a small anurognathid pterosaur from the Middle to Late Jurassic Daohugou Beds of the Tiaojishan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, preserved with hair-like pycnofibres and skin remains.

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Johann Georg Wagler

Johann Georg Wagler (28 March 1800 – 23 August 1832) was a German herpetologist.

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Johann Jakob Kaup

Johann Jakob von Kaup (10 April 1803 – 4 July 1873) was a German naturalist.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Jurassic Park III

Jurassic Park III is a 2001 American science-fiction adventure film and the third installment in the ''Jurassic Park'' film series.

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Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Kevin Padian

Kevin Padian (born 1951) is a Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, Curator of Paleontology, University of California Museum of Paleontology and President of the National Center for Science Education.

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King Kong

King Kong is a giant movie monster, resembling an enormous gorilla, that has appeared in various media since 1933.

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Lagosuchus is a genus of small archosaur from the middle Triassic period.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Late Triassic

The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.

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Lazarus taxon

In paleontology, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later.

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List of pterosaur genera

This list of pterosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the order Pterosauria, excluding purely vernacular terms.

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Lonchodectes (meaning "lance biter") was a genus of lonchodectid pterosaur from several formations dating to the Turonian (Late Cretaceous) of England, mostly in the area around Kent.

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Lonchodectidae is a group of pterosaurs within the clade Pterodactyloidea.

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Ludodactylus was a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaurs from the Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Ceará, Brazil.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Maniraptora is a clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs that includes the birds and the non-avian dinosaurs that were more closely related to them than to Ornithomimus velox.

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Marine reptile

Reptiles that live in the sea. Marine reptiles are reptiles which have become secondarily adapted for an aquatic or semiaquatic life in a marine environment.

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Mary Anning

Mary Anning (21 May 1799 – 9 March 1847) was an English fossil collector, dealer, and paleontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Michael Benton

Michael James "Mike" Benton FRS (born 8 April 1956) is a British palaeontologist, and professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.

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The Monofenestrata are an unranked group of pterosaurs that includes the family Wukongopteridae and the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Navajodactylus (meaning "Navajo finger") is an extinct genus of pterosaur from Late Cretaceous (late Campanian stage) deposits of San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Alberta, Canada.

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Niche differentiation

The term niche differentiation (synonymous with niche segregation, niche separation and niche partitioning), as it applies to the field of ecology, refers to the process by which competing species use the environment differently in a way that helps them to coexist.

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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.

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Notarium is a term used for the fused vertebra of the shoulder in birds and some pterosaurs.

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Novialoidea (meaning "new wings") is an extinct clade of macronychopteran pterosaurs that lived from the latest Early Jurassic to the latest Late Cretaceous (early Toarcian to late Maastrichtian ageBarrett, P. M., Butler, R. J., Edwards, N. P., & Milner, A. R. (2008). Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas. Zitteliana, 61-107.), their fossils having been found on all continents except Antarctica.

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Nyctosauridae (meaning "night lizards" or "bat lizards") is a family of specialized soaring pterosaurs of the late Cretaceous Period of North America and, possibly, Europe.

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Nyctosaurus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur, the remains of which have been found in the Niobrara Formation of the mid-western United States, which, during the late Cretaceous Period, was covered in an extensive shallow sea.

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On the Wing (1986 film)

On the Wing is a 1986 IMAX film featuring a half-sized robotic Quetzalcoatlus that demonstrates principles of animal flight.

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One Million Years B.C.

One Million Years B.C. is a 1966 British adventure/fantasy film starring Raquel Welch and John Richardson, set in a fictional age of caveman and dinosaurs.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Ornithischia is an extinct clade of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs characterized by a pelvic structure similar to that of birds.

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Ornithocheirae is an extinct clade of pteranodontoid pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous (middle Barremian to middle Campanian stages) of Asia, Europe, North America and South America.

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Ornithocheiridae is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Ornithocheiromorpha is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Ornithocheirus (from Ancient Greek "ὄρνις", meaning bird, and "χεῖρ", meaning hand) is a pterosaur genus known from fragmentary fossil remains uncovered from sediments in the UK.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Paleobiota of the Solnhofen Formation

The Solnhofen Plattenkalk, or Solnhofen Limestone Formation, is famous for its well preserved fossil flora and fauna.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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The patagium (plural: patagia) is a membranous structure that assists an animal in gliding or flight.

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Paul MacCready

Paul B. MacCready Jr. (September 29, 1925 – August 28, 2007) was an American aeronautical engineer.

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Phorusrhacids, colloquially known as terror birds, are an extinct clade of large carnivorous flightless birds that were the largest species of apex predators in South America during the Cenozoic era; their temporal range covers from 62 to 1.8 million years (Ma) ago.

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Phylogenetic nomenclature

Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Phylogeny of pterosaurs

This phylogeny of pterosaurs entails the various phylogenetic trees used to classify pterosaurs throughout the years and varying views of these animals.

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Piksi is a potential pterosaur genus containing the single species Piksi barbarulna (meaning "strange elbowed big bird", from Blackfoot piksi, "big bird" or, specifically, "chicken" and Latin barbarus "strange, outlandish" + ulna, elbow).

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A piscivore is a carnivorous animal that eats primarily fish.

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Human skeleton, showing plantigrade habit In terrestrial animals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the toes and metatarsals flat on the ground.

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Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

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Prejanopterus is an extinct genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous (lower Aptian age) layers of the Leza Formation of La Rioja, Spain.

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Preondactylus is a genus of long-tailed pterosaurs from the Late Triassic (late Carnian or early Norian age, about 228 million years agoBarrett, P. M., Butler, R. J., Edwards, N. P., & Milner, A. R. (2008). Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas. Zitteliana, 61-107.) that inhabited what is now Italy.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Protorosauria is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic, group of archosauromorph reptiles from the latest Permian (Changhsingian stage) to the early Late Triassic (Carnian stage) of Asia, Europe, North America.

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Pteranodon (from Greek πτερόν (pteron, "wing") and ἀνόδων (anodon, "toothless") is a genus of pterosaur which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over. They lived during the late Cretaceous geological period of North America in present-day Kansas, Alabama, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota. More fossil specimens of Pteranodon have been found than any other pterosaur, with about 1,200 specimens known to science, many of them well preserved with nearly complete skulls and articulated skeletons. It was an important part of the animal community in the Western Interior Seaway. Pteranodon were pterosaurs, not dinosaurs. By definition, all dinosaurs belong to one of the two groups within Dinosauria, i.e. Saurischia or Ornithischia. As such, this excludes pterosaurs. Nonetheless, Pteranodon are frequently featured in dinosaur media and are strongly associated with dinosaurs by the general public. While not dinosaurs, they form a sister clade to dinosaurs within the clade Avemetatarsalia.

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Pteranodontia is an extinct group of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs that lived from the Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous (middle Barremian to middle Campanian stages) of Asia, Europe, North America and South America.

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The Pteranodontidae are a family of large pterosaurs of the Cretaceous Period of North America.

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Pteranodontoidea is an extinct clade of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous (middle Barremian to middle Campanian stages) of Asia, Europe, North America and South America.

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Pterodactyloidea (derived from the Greek words πτερόν (pterón, for usual ptéryx) "wing", and δάκτυλος (dáctylos) "finger" meaning "winged finger", "wing-finger" or "finger-wing") is one of the two traditional suborders of pterosaurs ("wing lizards"), and contains the most derived members of this group of flying reptiles.

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Pterodactylus (from the πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning "winged finger") is an extinct flying reptile genus of pterosaurs, whose members are popularly known as pterodactyls. It is currently thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, the first pterosaur species to be named and identified as a flying reptile.

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Pterodaustro is a genus of Cretaceous pterodactyloid pterosaur from South America, which lived 105 million years ago.

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Pterorhynchus was a genus of pterosaur from the mid-Jurassic aged Daohugou Formation of Inner Mongolia, China.

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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Pterosaur Beach

Pterosaur Beach is the name that paleontologists have given to an area along a long gone lagoon in what is now southwestern France.

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Pterosaur size

Pterosaurs included the largest flying animals ever to have lived.

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Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Quetzalcoatlus northropi is a pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage) and one of the largest-known flying animals of all time.

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Ray Harryhausen

Raymond Frederick Harryhausen (June 29, 1920 – May 7, 2013) was an American-British artist, designer, visual effects creator, writer and producer who created a form of stop-motion model animation known as "Dynamation".

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Rhamphorhynchidae is a group of early "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs named after Rhamphorhynchus, that lived in the Late Jurassic.

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The Rhamphorhynchoidea forms one of the two suborders of pterosaurs and represent an evolutionary grade of primitive members of this group of flying reptiles.

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Rhamphorhynchus ("beak snout") is a genus of long-tailed pterosaurs in the Jurassic period.

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The roadrunners (genus Geococcyx), also known as chaparral birds or chaparral cocks, are two species of fast-running ground cuckoos with long tails and crests.

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Santana Formation

The Santana Formation is a geologic Lagerstätte (undisturbed fossil accumulation) in northeastern Brazil's Araripe Basin where the states of Pernambuco, Piauí and Ceará come together.

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Saurischia (meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia).

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Scaphognathus was a pterosaur that lived around Germany during the Late Jurassic.

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In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

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ScienceBlogs was an invitation-only blog network and virtual community that operated for a little less than twelve years, from 2006 to 2017.

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Scleromochlus (Greek for "hard fulcrum") is an extinct genus of small avemetatarsalians from the Late Triassic period.

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Sclerotic ring

Sclerotic rings are rings of bone found in the eyes of several groups of vertebrate animals, except for mammals and crocodilians.

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Sericipterus is an extinct genus of rhamphorhynchid pterosaur.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Solnhofen Limestone

The Solnhofen Plattenkalk, or Solnhofen Limestone, is a Jurassic Konservat-Lagerstätte that preserves a rare assemblage of fossilized organisms, including highly detailed imprints of soft bodied organisms such as sea jellies.

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Sordes was a small pterosaur from the late Jurassic (Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian) Karabastau Svita of Kazakhstan.

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South Asian river dolphin

The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).

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Spinosauridae (meaning 'spined lizards') is a family of megalosauroidean theropod dinosaurs.

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Sterling Nesbitt

Sterling Nesbitt (born March 25, 1982, in Mesa, Arizona) is an American paleontologist.

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The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.

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Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.

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Tapejara (pterosaur)

Tapejara (from a Tupi word meaning "the old being") is a genus of Brazilian pterosaur from the Cretaceous Period (Santana Formation, dating to about 112 Ma ago).

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Tapejaridae (meaning "the old beings") are a family of pterodactyloid pterosaurs from the Cretaceous period.

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Tapejaromorpha is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Thalassodromeus is a genus of large pterodactyloid pterosaur found in northeastern Brazil.

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Thalassodromidae (meaning "sea runners", due to previous misconceptions of skimming behaviour; they are now thought to be terrestrial predators) is a family of pterodactyloid pterosaurs from the early Cretaceous period of Brazil.

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The Lost World (1925 film)

The Lost World is a 1925 American silent fantasy monster adventure film adapted from Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel of the same name.

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The Lost World (Conan Doyle novel)

The Lost World is a novel released in 1912 by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle concerning an expedition to a plateau in the Amazon basin of South America where prehistoric animals (dinosaurs and other extinct creatures) still survive.

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Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.

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The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.

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Timeline of pterosaur research

This timeline of pterosaur research is a chronologically ordered list of important fossil discoveries, controversies of interpretation, and taxonomic revisions of pterosaurs, the famed flying reptiles of the Mesozoic era.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transitional fossil

A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic seabirds.

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Tupuxuara is a genus of large, crested, toothless pterodactyloid pterosaur.

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Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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University of Portsmouth

The University of Portsmouth is a public university in the city of Portsmouth, Hampshire, England.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Victoria Arbour

Victoria Megan Arbour is a Canadian evolutionary biologist and palaeontologist working as a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada postdoctoral fellow at the University of Toronto and Royal Ontario Museum.

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The Wukongopteridae are a group of basal pterosaurs, found in China and the UK.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterosaur

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