162 relations: Abu Maʿshar, Africa, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Almagest, Almanac, Alps, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek units of measurement, Aphorism, Arabic, Aristotelian physics, Aristoxenus, Asger Aaboe, Astrology, Astronomer, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Atlantic Ocean, Autun, Babylonian astronomical diaries, Babylonian astronomy, Baroque, Book of Optics, Brill Publishers, Byzantium, Calendar, Canary Islands, Canon of Kings, Carl Benjamin Boyer, Centiloquium, Cf., China, Claudia (gens), Claudius, Clime, Color, Constellation, Coordinate system, Country, Cyclic quadrilateral, Deferent and epicycle, Degree (angle), Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Earth, Eclipse, Ecumene, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Electional astrology, ..., Ephemeris, Epigram, Equator, Eratosthenes, Eugenius of Palermo, Eumenius, Europe, Fortunate Isles, Galileo Galilei, Gaul, Gazetteer, Geocentric model, Geographer, Geographic coordinate system, Geography, Geography (Ptolemy), Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, Geometric modeling, George Sarton, Gerald J. Toomer, Greco-Roman world, Greek Anthology, Greek language, Greeks in Egypt, Grid (spatial index), Heliocentrism, Hellenization, Hipparchus, History of cartography, History of geodesy, History of Iran, History of optics, Horoscopic astrology, Ibn al-Haytham, Internet Archive, J. H. Parry, Johannes Kepler, Koine Greek, Latin translations of the 12th century, Latitude, Library of Congress, Light, Loeb Classical Library, Longitude, Map, Map projection, Marinus of Tyre, Mars, Martin Bernal, Mathematician, Maximus Planudes, Medical astrology, Medicine, Meridian (geography), Messier 7, Midsummer, Monochord, Moon, Moon illusion, Music theory, Musica universalis, Natural philosophy, Nature versus nurture, Nero, Numerology, Octave, Pei Xiu, Persian people, Physics in the medieval Islamic world, Planet, Plato Tiburtinus, Polar circle, Princeton University Press, Pseudepigrapha, Ptolemaeus (lunar crater), Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemaic graph, Ptolemais Hermiou, Ptolemy (name), Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy Slocum, Ptolemy's inequality, Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale, Ptolemy's table of chords, Ptolemy's theorem, Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, Race (human categorization), Reflection (physics), Refraction, Roman citizenship, Roman Empire, Roman naming conventions, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Scientific Revolution, Shetland, Sidereal time, Springer Science+Business Media, St. John's College (Annapolis/Santa Fe), Star catalogue, Syracuse University, Tetrabiblos, Tetrachord, Thebaid, Theodore Meliteniotes, Topography, Ulm, University of California Press, Upper Egypt, Zhang Heng, Zij, 4001 Ptolemaeus. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Maʿshar, Latinized as Albumasar (also Albusar, Albuxar; full name Abū Maʿshar Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar al-Balkhī أبو معشر جعفر بن محمد بن عمر البلخي; –, AH 171–272), was an early Persian Muslim astrologer, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek units of measurement varied according to location and epoch.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Aristoxenus of Tarentum (Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle.
Asger Hartvig Aaboe (April 26, 1922 – January 19, 2007) was a historian of the exact sciences and mathematician who is known for his contributions to the history of ancient Babylonian astronomy.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France.
The Babylonian astronomical diaries are a collection of Babylonian cuneiform texts which contain systematic records of astronomical observations and political events, as well as predictions based on astronomical observations.
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Book of Optics (Kitāb al-Manāẓir; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965– c. 1040 AD).
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses.
Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 – April 26, 1976) was an American historian of sciences, and especially mathematics.
The Centiloquium (.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The gens Claudia, sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
The climes (singular clime; also clima, plural climata, from Greek κλίμα klima, plural κλίματα klimata, meaning "inclination" or "slope") in classical Greco-Roman geography and astronomy were the divisions of the inhabited portion of the spherical Earth by geographic latitude.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
In Euclidean geometry, a cyclic quadrilateral or inscribed quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle.
In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
The ecumene (US) or oecumene (UK; οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, "inhabited") was an ancient Greek term for the known world, the inhabited world, or the habitable world.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Electional astrology, also known as event astrology, is a branch found in most traditions of astrology in which a practitioner decides the most appropriate time for an event based on the astrological auspiciousness of that time.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Eugenius of Palermo (also Eugene) (Eugenius Siculus, Εὐγενἠς Εὐγένιος ὁ τῆς Πανόρμου, Eugenio da Palermo; 1130 – 1202) was an amiratus (admiral) of the Kingdom of Sicily in the late twelfth century.
Eumenius (born c. 260 CE at the latest, more probably between 230 and 240 CE), was one of the Ancient Roman panegyrists and author of a speech transmitted in the collection of the Panegyrici Latini (Pan. Lat. IX).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed (μακάρων νῆσοι, makárōn nêsoi) were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
Geometric modeling is a branch of applied mathematics and computational geometry that studies methods and algorithms for the mathematical description of shapes.
George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.
Gerald James Toomer (born 23 November 1934) is a historian of astronomy and mathematics who has written numerous books and papers on ancient Greek and medieval Islamic astronomy.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
The Greek Anthology (Anthologia Graeca) is a collection of poems, mostly epigrams, that span the classical and Byzantine periods of Greek literature.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
There has been a large community of Greeks in Egypt, also known as Egyptiotes (Αιγυπτιώτες), from the Hellenistic period until the aftermath of the Egyptian revolution of 1952, when most were forced to leave.
In the context of a spatial index, a grid or mesh is a regular tessellation of a manifold or 2-D surface that divides it into a series of contiguous cells, which can then be assigned unique identifiers and used for spatial indexing purposes.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world.
Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology that uses a horoscope, a visual representation of the heavens, for a specific moment in time in order to interpret the inherent meaning underlying the alignment of the planets at that moment.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
John Horace Parry CMG, MBE (born in Handsworth, Birmingham, England, on 26 April 1914 - died in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 25 August 1982) was a distinguished maritime historian, who served as Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History and Affairs at Harvard University.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.
Marinus of Tyre (Μαρῖνος ὁ Τύριος, Marînos o Týrios; 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized, possibly Phoenician, geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy's influential Geography.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Martin Gardiner Bernal (10 March 1937 – 9 June 2013) was a British scholar of modern Chinese political history.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Maximus Planudes (Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, Máximos Planoúdēs) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, anthologist, translator, grammarian and theologian at Constantinople.
Medical astrology (traditionally known as iatromathematics) is an ancient medical system that associates various parts of the body, diseases, and drugs as under the influence of the sun, moon, and planets, along with the twelve astrological signs.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
Messier 7 or M7, also designated NGC 6475 and sometimes known as the Ptolemy Cluster, is an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Scorpius.
Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening.
A monochord, also known as sonometer (see below), is an ancient musical and scientific laboratory instrument, involving one (mono) string (Chord).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The Moon illusion is an optical illusion which causes the Moon to appear larger near the horizon than it does higher up in the sky.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Musica universalis (literally universal music), also called Music of the spheres or Harmony of the Spheres, is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music).
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plato Tiburtinus (Plato Tiburtinus, "Plato of Tivoli"; fl. 12th century) was a 12th-century Italian mathematician, astronomer and translator who lived in Barcelona from 1116 to 1138.
A polar circle is either the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.
Ptolemaeus is an ancient lunar impact crater close to the center of the near side, named for Claudius Ptolemy, the Greco-Roman writer, mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
In graph theory, a Ptolemaic graph is an undirected graph whose shortest path distances obey Ptolemy's inequality, which in turn was named after the Greek astronomer and mathematician Ptolemy.
Ptolemais Hermiou or Ptolemais in the Thebaid was a city and Metropolitan Archbishopric in Greco-Roman Egypt and remains a Catholic titular see.
The name Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus may refer to.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy Slocum (born 20 November 1975) is an American actor, best known for his role as Sylvester in Westworld.
In Euclidean geometry, Ptolemy's inequality relates the six distances determined by four points in the plane or in a higher-dimensional space.
Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale, also known as Ptolemaic sequence, justly tuned major scale, or syntonous (or syntonic) diatonic scale, is a tuning for the diatonic scale proposed by Ptolemy, declared by Zarlino to be the only tuning that could be reasonably sung, and corresponding with modern just intonation.
The table of chords, created by the astronomer, geometer, and geographer Ptolemy in Egypt during the 2nd century AD, is a trigonometric table in Book I, chapter 11 of Ptolemy's Almagest, a treatise on mathematical astronomy.
In Euclidean geometry, Ptolemy's theorem is a relation between the four sides and two diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose vertices lie on a common circle).
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States.
Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος) 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) "Effects", and in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90– AD 168).
In music theory, a tetrachord (τετράχορδoν, tetrachordum) is a series of four notes separated by three smaller intervals.
The Thebaid or Thebais (Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.
Theodore Meliteniotes (Θεόδωρος Μελιτηνιώτης; Constantinople, c. 1320 - 8 March 1393) was a Byzantine Greek astronomer, a sakellarios (treasurer) in the Byzantine bureaucracy, a supporter of Gregory Palamas and an opponent of the reunion with the Catholic Church.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.
A zīj (زيج) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
4001 Ptolemaeus, provisional designation, is a Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.
Analemma (Ptolemy), Astronomer Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemaeus, Claudius Ptolemaios, Claudius Ptolemaus, Claudius Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemy Of Alexandria, Claudius Ptolemäus, Claudius Ptolemæus, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Klaudius Ptolemaeus, Klaudius Ptolemeus, Klaúdios Ptolemaĩos, Potolemy, Ptolemaeus, Ptolemaus, Ptolemeus, Ptolemey, Ptolemy (geographer), Ptolemy of Alexandria, Ptolemy's Optics, Ptolemy's discovery, Ptolemy's optics, Ptolemäus, Ptolemæus, Ptolomey, Ptolomy, Tolemaeus.