229 relations: Abdominal hair, Acne, Adam's apple, Adipose tissue, Adolescence, Adolescent sexuality, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenarche, Adult, American Academy of Pediatrics, Anabolic steroid, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androstenedione, Anorexia nervosa, Anosmia, Anterior pituitary, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Areola, Aromatase, Aromatization, Axilla, Beard, Beat (acoustics), Bioenergetics, Bipolar disorder, Bisphenol A, Blood, Body hair, Body image, Body odor, Bone, Boy, Brain, Breast, Bulb of vestibule, Calorie, Canada, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Cengage, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Chemical substance, Chest hair, Child, Child sexuality, Childhood obesity, Classroom, ..., Clitoris, Comprehensive sex education, Corpus cavernosum of clitoris, Cyst, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Delayed puberty, Dietary fiber, Dihydrotestosterone, Dysthymia, Egg cell, Ejaculation, Embarrassment, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endocrine disruptor, Endocrine Reviews, Endocrine system, Endometrium, England, Epidemiology, Epiphysis, Erection, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Eunuch, Fatty acid, Fertility, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Foreskin, Fundamental frequency, Gene, Germ cell, Glans penis, Gonad, Gonadarche, Gonadotropic cell, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Granulosa cell, Growth hormone, Gynecomastia, Hebephilia, Hip, Hormone, Human body, Human development (biology), Human hair growth, Human penis, Hypogonadism, Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, Infection, Infertility, Inflammatory bowel disease, Insulin-like growth factor 1, International adoption, Japan, Journal of Pineal Research, Kallmann syndrome, Keratin, Kisspeptin, Labia, Labia majora, Labia minora, Larynx, Latency stage, Latin, Leaching (chemistry), Leptin, Leukorrhea, Leydig cell, Libido, List of voice disorders, Living room, Luteinizing hormone, Major depressive disorder, Medical Hypotheses, Medical test, Medical ultrasound, Melanin, Menarche, Menstrual cycle, Mons pubis, Morphology (biology), Moustache, Mucous membrane, Muscle, Myoepithelial cell, Navel, Neurokinin B, Neuron, Neuropeptide, New Scientist, Nipple, Nocturnal penile tumescence, Norway, Nutrition, Obesity, Octave, Oral mucosa, Oscillation, Ovarian follicle, Ovary, Ovulation, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Parasitism, Pediatrics (journal), Pelvis, Peptide, Perineum, Perspiration, Pheromone, Phimosis, Phthalate, Physiology & Behavior, Pituitary gland, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Precocious puberty, Pregnancy, Progesterone, Progestogen, Prolactin, Protein, Psychosocial, Pubarche, Puberphonia, Pubic hair, Receptor (biochemistry), Reproduction, Resonance, Robert M. Boyar, Schizophrenia, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Sertoli cell, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual abuse, Sexual reproduction, Sideburns, Sigmund Freud, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Spermarche, Spermatogenesis, Spermatozoon, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Stratified squamous epithelium, Swelling (medical), Tachykinin peptides, Tanner scale, Testicle, Testosterone, The Daily Telegraph, The New England Journal of Medicine, Theca of follicle, Thelarche, Thigh, Tuberculosis, United Kingdom, United States, University of Maryland, College Park, Urethral sponge, Uterus, Vagina, Vaginal epithelium, Vandenbergh effect, Vegetarianism, Virilization, Vocal folds, Vulva, Western culture, Women's eNews, Xenoestrogen, Zona reticularis. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal hair is the hair that grows on the abdomen of humans and non-human mammals, in the region between the pubic area and the thorax (chest).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adolescent sexuality is a stage of human development in which adolescents experience and explore sexual feelings.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenarche is an early sexual maturation stage in some higher primates that in humans typically occurs at around 10-12 years of age and is responsible for pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.
A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.
In acoustics, a beat is an interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as a periodic variation in volume whose rate is the difference of the two frequencies.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A boy is a young male human, usually a child or adolescent.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
In female anatomy, the vestibular bulbs, bulbs of the vestibule or clitoral bulbs are two elongated masses of erectile tissue typically described as being situated on either side of the vaginal opening.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cellular and molecular life sciences.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a person in the region between the neck and the abdomen.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Development of sexuality is an integral part of the development and maturation of children.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Comprehensive sex education (CSE) is a sex education instruction method based on-curriculum that aims to give students the knowledge, attitudes, skills and values to make appropriate and healthy choices in their sexual lives.
The corpus cavernosum of clitoris is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the clitoris during clitoral erection.
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
Embarrassment is an emotional state that is associated with moderate to high levels of discomfort, and which is usually experienced when someone has a socially unacceptable or frowned-upon act or condition that was witnessed by or revealed to others.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Endocrine Reviews is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal for review articles in endocrinology published by the Endocrine Society.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
In male human anatomy, the foreskin is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue, blood vessels, neurons, skin, and mucous membrane part of the penis that covers and protects the glans penis and the urinary meatus.
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
The glans penis is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the human penis.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadarche refers to the earliest gonadal changes of puberty.
Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Hebephilia is the strong, persistent sexual interest by adults in pubescent (early adolescent) children (especially those showing Tanner stages 2-3 of development), which is typically ages 11–14.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the lips, palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (HH), or secondary hypogonadism is due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parent(s) of a child who is a national of a different country.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Journal of Pineal Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the pineal gland and its hormonal products, chiefly melatonin, in all vertebrate species.
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder that prevents a person from starting or fully completing puberty.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Kisspeptin (formerly known as metastin) is a protein that is encoded by the KISS1 gene in humans.
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.
The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.
The labia minora, Latin for smaller lips, singular: labium minus "smaller lip", also known as the inner labia, inner lips, vaginal lips or nymphae, are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening in the vulva, situated between the labia majora (the Latin for larger lips; also called outer labia, or outer lips).
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
In his model of the child's psychosexual development, Sigmund Freud describes five stages.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Leukorrhea or (leucorrhoea British English) is a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Voice disorders are medical conditions involving abnormal pitch, loudness or quality of the sound produced by the larynx and thereby affecting speech production.
In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room, lounge or sitting room, is a room in a residential house or apartment for relaxing and socializing.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
In human anatomy, and in mammals in general, the mons pubis (pubic mound, also known simply as the mons, and known specifically in females as the mons Venus or mons veneris), is a rounded mass of fatty tissue found over the pubic symphysis of the pubic bones.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
A moustache (mustache) is facial hair grown on the upper lip.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myoepithelial cells (sometimes referred to as myoepithelium) are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the basement membrane but generally beneath the luminal cells.
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.
Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
Nocturnal penile tumescence (abbreviated as NPT) is a spontaneous erection of the penis during sleep or when waking up.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The Palo Alto Medical Foundation for Health Care, Research and Education (PAMF) is a not-for-profit health care organization with medical offices in more than 15 cities in the Bay Area.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans.
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
Physiology & Behavior is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Pubarche refers to the first appearance of pubic hair at puberty.
Puberphonia (also known as mutational falsetto or functional falsetto) is a type of voice disorder characterized by the habitual use of a high-pitched voice after puberty.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Robert Martin Boyar (March 10, 1937, New York – November 27, 1978, Dallas, Texas) was a physician and endocrinologist known for his studies of the neuroendocrinology of puberty.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sideburns, sideboards, or side whiskers are patches of facial hair grown on the sides of the face, extending from the hairline to run parallel to or beyond the ears.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Spermarche—also known as semenarche—is the beginning of development of sperm in boys' testicles at puberty.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
The Tanner scale (also known as the Tanner stages) is a scale of physical development in children, adolescents and adults.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The theca folliculi comprise a layer of the ovarian follicles.
Thelarche is the onset of secondary (postnatal) breast development, usually occurring at the beginning of puberty in girls.
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
The urethral sponge is a spongy cushion of tissue, found in the lower genital area of females, that sits against both the pubic bone and vaginal wall, and surrounds the urethra.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.
The Vandenbergh effect is a phenomenon reported by J.G. Vandenbergh et al. in 1975, in which an early induction of the first estrous cycle in prepubertal female mice occurs as a result of exposure to the pheromone-laden urine of a sexually mature (dominant) male mouse.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Women's eNews is a nonprofit online news service based in New York City.
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen.
The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla.
Age Of Puberty, Female Puberty, Female puberty, Pimple-faced teen, Pubertal, Puberty in boys, Puberty in boys (all), Pubescence, Pubescent, Pubescents, Sexual development, Squeaky-voiced Teen, Strength spurt, Teenage body.