125 relations: Adi Shamir, Algorithm, Algorithmic efficiency, Alice and Bob, ARPANET, Authentication, Authentication protocol, Bitcoin, Books on cryptography, Brute-force attack, CERN, Certificate authority, Charles Babbage Institute, Claude Shannon, Clifford Cocks, Confidentiality, Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem, CRC Press, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic protocol, Cryptography, Cryptosystem, Denial-of-service attack, Diffie–Hellman key exchange, Digital currency, Digital signature, Digital Signature Algorithm, Discrete logarithm, ElGamal encryption, Elliptic-curve cryptography, Encryption, Ernest Nagel, Exclusive or, Factorization, Forward secrecy, GNU Privacy Guard, Government Communications Headquarters, Hash function, Hierarchy, History of cryptography, Hybrid cryptosystem, ID-based encryption, Information security, Information technology, Integer factorization, Internet, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Key Exchange, James H. Ellis, John Wiley & Sons, ..., Key (cryptography), Key distribution, Key escrow, Key exchange, Key size, Key-agreement protocol, Leonard Adleman, Letter box, Malcolm J. Williamson, Man-in-the-middle attack, Martin Hellman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics, McEliece cryptosystem, Merkle's Puzzles, Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem, Michael O. Rabin, Modular exponentiation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency, Neal Koblitz, Non-repudiation, NTRUEncrypt, Object identifier, Off-the-Record Messaging, One-time pad, One-way function, Over-the-air rekeying, Padlock, Paillier cryptosystem, Password-authenticated key agreement, PGP word list, PKCS 1, Policy, Pretty Good Privacy, Prime number, Pseudonymity, Public key certificate, Public key fingerprint, Public key infrastructure, Quantum computing, Quantum cryptography, Rabin cryptosystem, Ralph Benjamin, Ralph Merkle, Ron Rivest, RSA (cryptosystem), S/MIME, Seal (emblem), Secure channel, Secure Shell, Session key, Side-channel attack, SILC (protocol), Simple public-key infrastructure, Solomon W. Golomb, Symmetric-key algorithm, Taher Elgamal, The Code Book, Three-pass protocol, Threshold cryptosystem, Tim Berners-Lee, Transport Layer Security, Trapdoor function, Trusted third party, Trusted timestamping, Victor S. Miller, Voice over IP, Web browser, Web of trust, Whitfield Diffie, William Stanley Jevons, X.509, YAK (cryptography), ZRTP. Expand index (75 more) »

## Adi Shamir

Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.

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## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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## Algorithmic efficiency

In computer science, algorithmic efficiency is a property of an algorithm which relates to the number of computational resources used by the algorithm.

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## Alice and Bob

Alice and Bob are fictional characters commonly used as placeholder names in cryptology, as well as science and engineering literature.

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## ARPANET

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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## Authentication

Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.

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## Authentication protocol

An authentication protocol is a type of computer communications protocol or cryptographic protocol specifically designed for transfer of authentication data between two entities.

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## Bitcoin

Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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## Books on cryptography

Books on cryptography have been published sporadically and with highly variable quality for a long time.

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## Brute-force attack

In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Certificate authority

In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.

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## Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.

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## Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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## Clifford Cocks

Clifford Christopher Cocks CB FRS (born 28 December 1950) is a British mathematician and cryptographer.

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## Confidentiality

Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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## Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem

The Cramer–Shoup system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm, and was the first efficient scheme proven to be secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack using standard cryptographic assumptions.

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## CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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## Cryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.

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## Cryptographic protocol

A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods, often as sequences of cryptographic primitives.

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## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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## Cryptosystem

In cryptography, a cryptosystem is a suite of cryptographic algorithms needed to implement a particular security service, most commonly for achieving confidentiality (encryption).

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## Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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## Diffie–Hellman key exchange

Diffie–Hellman key exchange (DH)Synonyms of Diffie–Hellman key exchange include.

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## Digital currency

Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).

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## Digital signature

A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.

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## Digital Signature Algorithm

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures.

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## Discrete logarithm

In the mathematics of the real numbers, the logarithm logb a is a number x such that, for given numbers a and b. Analogously, in any group G, powers bk can be defined for all integers k, and the discrete logarithm logb a is an integer k such that.

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## ElGamal encryption

In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange.

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## Elliptic-curve cryptography

Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.

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## Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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## Ernest Nagel

Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.

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## Exclusive or

Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).

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## Factorization

In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind.

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## Forward secrecy

In cryptography, forward secrecy (FS), also known as perfect forward secrecy (PFS), is a feature of specific key agreement protocols that gives assurances your session keys will not be compromised even if the private key of the server is compromised.

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## GNU Privacy Guard

GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for Symantec's PGP cryptographic software suite.

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## Government Communications Headquarters

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.

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## Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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## Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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## History of cryptography

Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.

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## Hybrid cryptosystem

In cryptography, a hybrid cryptosystem is one which combines the convenience of a public-key cryptosystem with the efficiency of a symmetric-key cryptosystem.

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## ID-based encryption

ID-based encryption, or identity-based encryption (IBE), is an important primitive of ID-based cryptography.

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## Information security

Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.

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## Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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## Integer factorization

In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers.

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## Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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## Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).

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## Internet Key Exchange

In computing, Internet Key Exchange (IKE, sometimes IKEv1 or IKEv2, depending on version) is the protocol used to set up a security association (SA) in the IPsec protocol suite.

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## James H. Ellis

James Henry Ellis (25 September 1924 – 25 November 1997) was a British engineer and cryptographer.

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## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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## Key (cryptography)

In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.

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## Key distribution

In symmetric key cryptography, both parties must possess a secret key which they must exchange prior to using any encryption.

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## Key escrow

Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.

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## Key exchange

Key exchange (also key establishment) is any method in cryptography by which cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm.

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## Key size

In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).

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## Key-agreement protocol

In cryptography, a key-agreement protocol is a protocol whereby two or more parties can agree on a key in such a way that both influence the outcome.

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## Leonard Adleman

Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist.

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## Letter box

A letter box, letterbox, letter plate, letter hole, mail slot or mailbox is a receptacle for receiving incoming mail at a private residence or business.

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## Malcolm J. Williamson

Malcolm John Williamson was a British mathematician and cryptographer.

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## Man-in-the-middle attack

In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.

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## Martin Hellman

Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## McEliece cryptosystem

In cryptography, the McEliece cryptosystem is an asymmetric encryption algorithm developed in 1978 by Robert McEliece.

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## Merkle's Puzzles

In cryptography, Merkle's puzzles is an early construction for a public-key cryptosystem, a protocol devised by Ralph Merkle in 1974 and published in 1978.

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## Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem

The Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem was one of the earliest public key cryptosystems invented by Ralph Merkle and Martin Hellman in 1978.

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## Michael O. Rabin

Michael Oser Rabin (מִיכָאֵל עוזר רַבִּין, born September 1, 1931) is an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.

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## Modular exponentiation

Modular exponentiation is a type of exponentiation performed over a modulus.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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## National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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## Neal Koblitz

Neal I. Koblitz (born December 24, 1948) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington.

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## Non-repudiation

Non-repudiation refers to a state of affairs where the author of a statement will not be able to successfully challenge the authorship of the statement or validity of an associated contract.

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## NTRUEncrypt

The NTRUEncrypt public key cryptosystem, also known as the NTRU encryption algorithm, is a lattice-based alternative to RSA and ECC and is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice (which is not known to be breakable using quantum computers).

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## Object identifier

In computing, object identifiers or OIDs are an identifier mechanism standardized by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and ISO/IEC for naming any object, concept, or "thing" with a globally unambiguous persistent name.

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## Off-the-Record Messaging

Off-the-Record Messaging (OTR) is a cryptographic protocol that provides encryption for instant messaging conversations.

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## One-time pad

In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.

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## One-way function

In computer science, a one-way function is a function that is easy to compute on every input, but hard to invert given the image of a random input.

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## Over-the-air rekeying

Over-the-air rekeying (OTAR) refers to transmitting or updating encryption keys (rekeying) in secure information systems by conveying the keys via encrypted electronic communication channels (“over the air”).

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## Padlock

Padlocks are portable locks with a shackle that may be passed through an opening (such as a chain link, or hasp staple) to prevent use, theft, vandalism or harm.

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## Paillier cryptosystem

The Paillier cryptosystem, invented by and named after Pascal Paillier in 1999, is a probabilistic asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography.

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## Password-authenticated key agreement

In cryptography, a password-authenticated key agreement method is an interactive method for two or more parties to establish cryptographic keys based on one or more party's knowledge of a password.

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## PGP word list

The PGP Word List ("Pretty Good Privacy word list", also called a biometric word list for reasons explained below) is a list of words for conveying data bytes in a clear unambiguous way via a voice channel.

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## PKCS 1

In cryptography, PKCS #1 is the first of a family of standards called Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS), published by RSA Laboratories.

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## Policy

A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.

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## Pretty Good Privacy

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.

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## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

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## Pseudonymity

Pseudonymity, a word derived from pseudonym, meaning 'false name', is a state of disguised identity.

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## Public key certificate

In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.

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## Public key fingerprint

In public-key cryptography, a public key fingerprint is a short sequence of bytes used to identify a longer public key.

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## Public key infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.

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## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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## Quantum cryptography

Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

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## Rabin cryptosystem

The Rabin cryptosystem is an asymmetric cryptographic technique, whose security, like that of RSA, is related to the difficulty of factorization.

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## Ralph Benjamin

Ralph Benjamin FRSA (born 17 November 1922) is a British scientist and electrical engineer.

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## Ralph Merkle

Ralph C. Merkle (born February 2, 1952) is a computer scientist.

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## Ron Rivest

Ronald Linn Rivest (born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.

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## RSA (cryptosystem)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.

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## S/MIME

S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.

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## Seal (emblem)

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.

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## Secure channel

In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering.

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## Secure Shell

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.

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## Session key

A session key is a single-use symmetric key used for encrypting all messages in one communication session.

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## Side-channel attack

In computer security, a side-channel attack is any attack based on information gained from the implementation of a computer system, rather than weaknesses in the implemented algorithm itself (e.g. cryptanalysis and software bugs).

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## SILC (protocol)

SILC (Secure Internet Live Conferencing protocol) is a protocol that provides secure synchronous conferencing services (very much like IRC) over the Internet.

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## Simple public-key infrastructure

Simple public key infrastructure (SPKI, pronounced spoo-key) was an attempt to overcome the complexity of traditional X.509 public key infrastructure.

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## Solomon W. Golomb

Solomon Wolf Golomb (May 30, 1932 – May 1, 2016) was an American mathematician, engineer, and professor of electrical engineering at the University of Southern California, best known for his works on mathematical games.

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## Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.

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## Taher Elgamal

Taher Elgamal (Arabic: طاهر الجمل) (born 18 August 1955) is an Egyptian cryptographer.

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## The Code Book

The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography is a book by Simon Singh, published in New York in 1999 by Doubleday.

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## Three-pass protocol

In cryptography, a three-pass protocol for sending messages is a framework which allows one party to securely send a message to a second party without the need to exchange or distribute encryption keys.

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## Threshold cryptosystem

In cryptography, a cryptosystem is called a threshold cryptosystem, if in order to decrypt an encrypted message or to sign a message, several parties (more than some threshold number) must cooperate in the decryption or signature protocol.

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## Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

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## Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.

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## Trapdoor function

A trapdoor function is a function that is easy to compute in one direction, yet difficult to compute in the opposite direction (finding its inverse) without special information, called the "trapdoor".

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## Trusted third party

In cryptography, a trusted third party (TTP) is an entity which facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party; the Third Party reviews all critical transaction communications between the parties, based on the ease of creating fraudulent digital content.

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## Trusted timestamping

Trusted timestamping is the process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document.

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## Victor S. Miller

Victor Saul Miller (born 3 March 1947 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American mathematician at the Center for Communications Research (CCR) of the Institute for Defense Analyses in Princeton, New Jersey, U.S. He received his A.B. in mathematics from Columbia University in 1968, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from Harvard University in 1975.

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## Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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## Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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## Web of trust

In cryptography, a web of trust is a concept used in PGP, GnuPG, and other OpenPGP-compatible systems to establish the authenticity of the binding between a public key and its owner.

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## Whitfield Diffie

Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.

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## William Stanley Jevons

William Stanley Jevons FRS (1 September 1835 – 13 August 1882) was an English economist and logician.

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## X.509

In cryptography, X.509 is a standard that defines the format of public key certificates.

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## YAK (cryptography)

The YAK is a public-key authenticated key agreement protocol, proposed by Feng Hao in 2010.

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## ZRTP

ZRTP (composed of Z and Real-time Transport Protocol) is a cryptographic key-agreement protocol to negotiate the keys for encryption between two end points in a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone telephony call based on the Real-time Transport Protocol.

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## Redirects here:

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography