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Public health

Index Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". [1]

333 relations: Academic degree, Alcohol, American Board of Preventive Medicine, American Heart Association, Ancient Rome, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiseptic, Atlanta, Bachelor's degree, Background radiation, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Barracks, Behavior change (public health), Behavioral medicine, Behavioural sciences, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bioethics, Biopower, Biostatistics, Birmingham, Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding promotion, Broadwick Street, Canada, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Carlos Chagas, Carlos Finlay, Cemetery, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chagas disease, Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, Childhood obesity, Chlorpyrifos, Cholera, Chronic condition, Civilization, Columbia University, Community health, Condom, Conurbation, Council on Education for Public Health, Criticisms of the sugar industry, Crowdsourcing, Cuban medical internationalism, Cuban Revolution, Delta Omega, Demography (journal), Developed country, ..., Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Disease, Disease surveillance, Diseases of affluence, Diseases of poverty, Disgust, Dissemination, Doctor of Health Science, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Public Health, Doctor of Science, Dot distribution map, Early warning system, Educational equity, Edward Jenner, Edwin Chadwick, Elena Arizmendi Mejia, Encyclopedia of Public Health, Endemic (epidemiology), Engineering, England, Environmental health, Environmental health officer, Environmental protection, Epidemiological transition, Epidemiology, Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, Eugenics, Eugenics in Mexico, Europe, European Union, Evidence-based medicine, Evidence-based policy, Evolutionary psychology, Exercise, Exeter, Extreme poverty, Factory, Family planning, Federal government of the United States, First Russell ministry, Flea, Food, Food contaminant, Food security, French Third Republic, Fruit, Gale (publisher), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, Gender equality, Germ theory of disease, GIS and public health, Global health, Global mental health, Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, Governmentality, Hand washing, Harvard University, Health, Health 2.0, Health administration, Health blog, Health care, Health communication, Health department, Health economics, Health education, Health equity, Health human resources, Health in China, Health indicator, Health of Towns Association, Health policy, Health professional, Health promotion, Health system, Healthcare in Cuba, Healthy community design, Healthy diet, Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, Henry Street Settlement, Henry Whitehead (priest), History of China, History of medicine, History of water supply and sanitation, HIV, HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS in South Africa, Honor society, Human right to water and sanitation, Human sexual activity, Hurricane Katrina, Incineration, Industrial Revolution, Infant mortality, Infection, Infectious Disease (Notification) Act 1889, Information exchange, Inoculation, Institute for Health 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Ronald Ross, Royal Navy, Safe sex, Sam Zemurray, Samuel Finer, Sanitary sewer, Sanitation, Sara Josephine Baker, Scurvy, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Sewage treatment, Sexually transmitted infection, Slum, Smallpox, Social determinants of health, Social determinants of health in poverty, Soho, Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company, Spanish Empire, Steven Johnson (author), Stovepiping, Suicide prevention, Surgeon General of the United States, Surgery, Sustainable Development Goals, Teenage pregnancy, The Ghost Map, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, The Hispanic American Historical Review, The Lancet, Thesis, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Southwood Smith, Timeline of global health, Tobacco control, Tobacco smoking, Toilet, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tuberculosis, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, UNICEF, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Agency for International Development, United States Deputy Secretary of State, United States dollar, United States Public Health Service, Universal health care, Urbanism, Urbanization, User-centered design, Vaccination, Variolation, Veterinary physician, Visiting Nurse Service of New York, Walter Reed, Waste management, Water, Water chlorination, Water pollution, Waterborne diseases, Wealth, Web 2.0, WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Wickliffe Rose, William H. Welch, Workhouse, World Bank, World Health Day, World Health Organization, World Health Report, Yale University, Yellow fever, Zoonosis, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2010 Haiti earthquake. Expand index (283 more) »

Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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American Board of Preventive Medicine

The American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) is a member of the American Board of Medical Specialties that issues "certificates of special knowledge" in the specialty of preventive medicine.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Background radiation

Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.

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A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.

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Behavior change (public health)

Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change people's personal habits to prevent disease.

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Behavioral medicine

Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness.

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Behavioural sciences

The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.

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Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault.

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Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Breastfeeding promotion

Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding.

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Broadwick Street

Broadwick Street (formerly Broad Street) is a street in Soho, City of Westminster, London.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carlos Chagas

Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas, or Carlos Chagas (July 9, 1879 – November 8, 1934), was a Brazilian sanitary physician, scientist and bacteriologist who worked as a clinician and researcher.

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Carlos Finlay

Carlos Juan Finlay (December 3, 1833 – August 20, 1915) was a Cuban epidemiologist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, determining that it was transmitted through mosquitoes Aedes aegypti.

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A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.

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Charles-Edward Amory Winslow

Charles-Edward Amory Winslow (February 4, 1877 – January 8, 1957) was an American bacteriologist and public health expert who was, according to the Encyclopedia of Public Health, "a seminal figure in public health, not only in his own country, the United States, but in the wider Western world." Winslow was born in Boston, Massachusetts and attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), obtaining a B.S. in 1898 and an M.S. in 1910.

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Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.

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Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Community health

Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.

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Council on Education for Public Health

The Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) is an independent agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education to accredit schools of public health and public health programs offered in settings other than schools of public health.

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Criticisms of the sugar industry

In recent years, many public figures and members of the scientific community have become more outspoken in terms of criticisms of the sugar industry, particularly in the context of the ongoing national "sugar vs fat" debate.

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Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.

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Cuban medical internationalism

Cuban medical internationalism is the Cuban programme, since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, of sending Cuban medical personnel overseas, particularly to Latin America, Africa and, more recently, Oceania,, Prensa Latina, March 29, 2008 and of bringing medical students and patients to Cuba. In 2007, "Cuba has 42,000 workers in international collaborations in 103 different countries, of whom more than 30,000 are health personnel, including no fewer than 19,000 physicians." Cuba provides more medical personnel to the developing world than all the G8 countries combined, although this comparison does not take into account G8 development aid spent on developing world healthcare. The Cuban missions have had substantial positive local impact on the populations served. It is widely believed that medical workers are Cuba's most important export commodity.

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Cuban Revolution

The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.

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Delta Omega

Delta Omega (ΔΩ) is the honorary society for graduate studies in public health.

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Demography (journal)

Demography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering issues related to population and demography.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Disease surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

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Diseases of affluence

Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.

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Diseases of poverty

Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.

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Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.

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To disseminate (from lat. disseminare "scattering seeds"), in the field of communication, means to broadcast a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience.

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Doctor of Health Science

The Doctor of Health Science (D.H.S. or D.H.Sc.) is a post-professional academic degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in Health Arts and Sciences, and Health Care Delivery Systems, to include clinical practice, education, administration, and research.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Doctor of Public Health

The Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH or DPH; Latin Publica Sanitas Doctor) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.

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Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.

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Dot distribution map

A dot distribution map, or dot density map, is a map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature or a phenomenon.

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Early warning system

An early warning system can be implemented as a chain of information communication systems and comprises sensors, event detection, decision subsystems.

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Educational equity

Educational equity, also referred to as equity in education, is a measure of achievement, fairness, and opportunity in education.

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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

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Edwin Chadwick

Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 1800 – 6 July 1890) was an English social reformer who is noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Laws in England and instituting major reforms in urban sanitation and public health.

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Elena Arizmendi Mejia

Elena Arizmendi Mejía (18 January 1884 – 1949) was a Mexican feminist who established the Neutral White Cross organisation during the Mexican Revolution.

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Encyclopedia of Public Health

The Encyclopedia of Public Health is a reference set of four volumes covering all aspects of public health for the lay reader.

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Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Environmental health

Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.

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Environmental health officer

Environmental Health Officers (also known as Public Health Inspectors or Environmental Health Practitioners) are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazards.

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Environmental protection

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.

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Epidemiological transition

In demography and medical geography, epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought by improved food security and innovations in public health and medicine, followed by a re-leveling of population growth due to subsequent declines in fertility rates.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Eugenics in Mexico

Following the Mexican Revolution, the eugenics movement gained prominence in Mexico.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evidence-based medicine

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.

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Evidence-based policy

Evidence-based policy is a term often applied in multiple fields of public policy to refer to situations whereby policy decisions are informed by rigorously established objective evidence.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).

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Extreme poverty

Extreme poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.

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A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Family planning

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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First Russell ministry

Whig Lord John Russell led the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1846 to 1852.

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Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food contaminant

Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

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Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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GIS and public health

Geographic information systems (GISs) and geographic information science (GIScience) combine computer-mapping capabilities with additional database management and data analysis tools.

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Global health

Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".

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Global mental health

Global mental health is the international perspective on different aspects of mental health.

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Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health

The Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health is a program of the United Nations (UN) directed at improving women's and children's health in the developing world.

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Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time.

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Hand washing

Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health 2.0

"Health 2.0" is a term introduced in the mid-2000s, as the subset of health care technologies mirroring the wider Web 2.0 movement.

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Health administration

Health administration or healthcare administration is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks.

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Health blog

Health blogs are niche blogs that cover health topics, events and/or related content of the health industry and the general community.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Health communication

Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient.

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Health department

A health department or health ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry.

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Health economics

Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.

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Health education

Health education is a profession of educating people about health.

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Health equity

Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.

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Health human resources

Health human resources (HHR) – also known as human resources for health (HRH) or health workforce – is defined as "all people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health", according to the World Health Organization's ''World Health Report 2006''.

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Health in China

See also Healthcare in China.

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Health indicator

Health indicators are quantifiable characteristics of a population which researchers use as supporting evidence for describing the health of a population.

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Health of Towns Association

The Health of Towns Association was formed at a meeting in Exeter on 11 December 1844 and was a key organisation in the development of public health in the United Kingdom.

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Health policy

Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".

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Health professional

A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.

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Health promotion

Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities".

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Healthcare in Cuba

The Cuban government operates a national health system and assumes fiscal and administrative responsibility for the health care of all its citizens.

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Healthy community design

Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives.

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Healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.

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Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan

Hell's Kitchen, also known as Clinton, is a neighborhood on the West Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City.

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Henry Street Settlement

The Henry Street Settlement is a not-for-profit social service agency in the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City that provides social services, arts programs and health care services to New Yorkers of all ages.

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Henry Whitehead (priest)

Henry Whitehead (22 September 1825 – 5 March 1896) was a Church of England priest and the assistant curate of St Luke's Church in Soho, London, during the 1854 cholera outbreak.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of medicine

The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.

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History of water supply and sanitation

The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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HIV/AIDS in South Africa

HIV/AIDS is the most serious health concern in South Africa.

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Honor society

In the United States, an honor society is a rank organization that recognizes excellence among peers.

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Human right to water and sanitation

The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.

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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infectious Disease (Notification) Act 1889

The Infectious Disease (Notification) Act first appeared on the UK national statute books in 1889.

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Information exchange

Information exchange or information sharing are informal terms that can either refer to bidirectional information transmission/information transfer in telecommunications and computer science or communication seen from a system-theoretic or information-theoretic point of view.

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The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.

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Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle.

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Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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Intermittent preventive therapy

Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp).

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International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes

The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (also known as the WHO Code) is an international health policy framework for breastfeeding promotion adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1981.

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James Carroll (scientist)

Major James Carroll (June 5, 1854 – September 16, 1907) was a US Army physician.

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James Kay-Shuttleworth

Sir James Phillips Kay-Shuttleworth, 1st Baronet (20 July 1804 – 26 May 1877) was a British politician and educationist.

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James Lind

James Lind (4 October 1716 – 13 July 1794) was a Scottish physician.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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John Adams

John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).

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John Pringle

Sir John Pringle, 1st Baronet, PRS (10 April 1707 – 18 January 1782) was a British physician who has been called the "father of military medicine" (although Ambroise Paré and Jonathan Letterman have also been accorded this sobriquet).

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John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.

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John Snow

John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.

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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

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Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Journal of Women's History

The Journal of Women's History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1989 covering women's history.

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La Cruz Blanca

La Cruz Blanca Neutral (The Neutral White Cross) was a volunteer infirmary and relief service established during the Mexican Revolution to care for those wounded in the conflict.

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A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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A latrine is a toilet or an even simpler facility which is used as a toilet within a sanitation system.

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Lillian Wald

Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author.

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Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Local board of health

Local boards or local boards of health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London Fever Hospital

The London Fever Hospital was a voluntary hospital founded in 1802 in London with 15 beds.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel Ávila Camacho (24 April 1897 – 13 October 1955) served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946.

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Master of Health Administration

The Master of Health Administration or Master of Healthcare Administration (MHA or M.H.A.) is a master's-level professional degree granted to students who complete a course of study in the knowledge and competencies needed for careers in health administration, involving the management of hospitals and other health services organizations, as well as public health infrastructure and consulting.

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Master of Science

A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.

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Maternal health

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Medical assistant

A Medical Assistant is an allied health professional that supports the work of physicians and other health professionals, usually in a clinic setting.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.

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Mexican Social Security Institute

The Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) is a governmental organization that assists public health, pensions and social security in Mexico operating under Secretaría de Salud (Secretariat of Health).

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Mexican Studies

Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos is a bilingual, peer reviewed academic journal covering Mexican studies.

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Miasma theory

The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.

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A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Mission Barrio Adentro

Mission Barrio Adentro (English: Into the Neighborhood Mission) is a Bolivarian national social welfare program established under late Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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National public health institutes

National public health institutes (NPHIs) are science-based governmental organizations that serve as a focal point for a country's public health efforts, as well as a critical component of global disease prevention and response systems.

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Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

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Needle exchange programme

A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.

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Neil Arnott

Dr Neil Arnott FRS LLD (15 May 1788March 1874) was a Scottish physician and inventor.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Non-communicable disease

A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Nutrition psychology

Nutrition psychology (NP) is the psychological study of how cognitive choices, such as meal decisions, influence nutrition, psychological health, and overall health.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Occupational safety and health

Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Outline of health sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Passive smoking

Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Paul-Louis Simond

Paul-Louis Simond (30 July 1858 – 3 March 1947) was a French physician, chief medical officer and biologist whose major contribution to science was his demonstration that the intermediates in the transmission of bubonic plague from rats to humans are the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis that dwell on infected rats.

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Per capita

Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Pit latrine

A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Police science

Police science is the study and research which deals with police work.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Politics of Cuba

Cuba has had a communist political system since 1959 based on the "one state – one party" principle.

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Polizeiwissenschaft (German for "Police science", though "Polizei" may in this case be better translated as "Public Policy" or "Politics" in a broad sense) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century.

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Poor Law Commission

The Poor Law Commission was a body established to administer poor relief after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834.

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Population health

Population health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group".

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Poverty trap

A poverty trap is a self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist.

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President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief

The President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.

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Preventable causes of death

The World Health Organization has traditionally classified death according to the primary type of disease or injury.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Professional degrees of public health

The Master of Public Health (M.P.H.), Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH), Master of Medical Science in Public Health (MMSPH) and the Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.), International Masters for Health Leadership (IMHL) are multi-disciplinary professional degrees awarded for studies in areas related to public health.

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Public Health Act

Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.

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Public Health Act 1875

The Public Health Act 1875 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, one of the Public Health Acts, and a significant step in the advance of public health in Britain.

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Public Health Agency of Canada

The Public Health Agency of Canada (French: Agence de la santé publique du Canada) is an agency of the Government of Canada that is responsible for public health, emergency preparedness, and response and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention.

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Public health intervention

A public health intervention is any effort or policy that attempts to improve mental and physical health on a population level.

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Public health journal

A public health journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of public health, including epidemiology, biostatistics, and health care (including medicine, nursing and related fields).

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Public health law

Public health law examines the authority of the government at various jurisdictional levels to improve the health of the general population within societal limits and norms.

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Public health nursing

Public health nursing, a term coined by Lillian Wald of the Henry Street Settlement, or community health nursing, is a nursing specialty focused on public health.

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Public health system in India

The modern public health system in India evolved due to a number of influences from the past 70 years, including British influence from the colonial period.

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Public policy

Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.

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A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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River Thames

The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.

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Riverhead Books

Riverhead Books is a division of Penguin Group (USA) founded in 1993 by Susan Petersen Kennedy.

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Road traffic safety

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.

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Robert Koch

Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.

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Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

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Ronald Ross

Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Safe sex

Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.

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Sam Zemurray

Samuel Zemurray (nicknamed "Sam the Banana Man"; born Schmuel Zmurri on January 18, 1877, in Kishinev, Bessarabia, Russian Empire, present-day Chişinău, Moldova; died November 30, 1961, in New Orleans, Louisiana) was a Jewish businessman who made his fortune in the banana trade.

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Samuel Finer

Professor Samuel Edward Finer (22 September 1915 – 9 June 1993) was a political scientist and historian who was instrumental in advancing political studies as an academic subject in the United Kingdom, pioneering the study of UK political institutions.

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Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.

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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sara Josephine Baker

Sara Josephine Baker (November 15, 1873 – February 22, 1945) was an American physician notable for making contributions to public health, especially in the immigrant communities of New York City.

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Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Social determinants of health

The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.

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Social determinants of health in poverty

The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations' health and health inequality.

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Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London.

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Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company

The Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company was a utility company supplying water to parts of south London in England.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Steven Johnson (author)

Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author and media theorist.

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Stovepiping (also stove piping) is a metaphorical term which recalls a stovepipe's function as an isolated vertical conduit, and has been used, in the context of intelligence, to describe several ways in which raw intelligence information may be presented without proper context.

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Suicide prevention

Suicide prevention is an umbrella term used for the collective efforts of local citizen organizations, health professionals and related professionals to reduce the incidence of suicide.

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Surgeon General of the United States

The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.

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Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.

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The Ghost Map

The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How it Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he describes the most intense outbreak of cholera in Victorian London (See 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak) The book incorporated the idea of gemeinschaft, dealing with the effects of an epidemic in a city of common values, language, and traditions.

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The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to "ttract and disburse additional resources to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria." A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.

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The Hispanic American Historical Review

The Hispanic American Historical Review is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal of Latin American history, the official publication of the Conference on Latin American History, the professional organization of Latin American historians.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Thomas Southwood Smith

(Thomas) Southwood Smith (21 December 1788 – 10 December 1861) was an English physician and sanitary reformer.

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Timeline of global health

This page is a timeline of global health, including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.

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Tobacco control

Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

The Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine is part of Tulane University, located in New Orleans, in the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

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United States Deputy Secretary of State

The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the principal deputy to the Secretary of State.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Public Health Service

The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW; which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979–1980 (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education).

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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User-centered design

User-centered design (UCD) or user-driven development (UDD) is a framework of processes (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which usability goals, user characteristics, environment, tasks and workflow of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process.

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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.

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Veterinary physician

A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.

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Visiting Nurse Service of New York

Founded in 1893 by nursing pioneer Lillian D. Wald and Mary M. Brewster, the Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) is one the largest not-for-profit home- and community-based health care organization in the United States, serving the five boroughs of New York City; Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties; and parts of upstate New York.

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Walter Reed

Major Walter Reed, M.D., U.S. Army, (September 13, 1851 – November 22, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact.

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Waste management

Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water chlorination

Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.

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Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.

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Waterborne diseases

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.

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Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.

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Web 2.0

Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.

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WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland on 21 May 2003.

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Wickliffe Rose

Wickliffe Rose (November 19, 1862 in Saulsbury, Tennessee – September 5, 1931 in British Columbia) was the first director of the International Health Board and won the Public Welfare Medal in 1931.

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William H. Welch

William Henry Welch (April 8, 1850 – April 30, 1934) was an American physician, pathologist, bacteriologist, and medical school administrator.

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In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Health Day

The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organisations.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Health Report

The World Health Report (WHR) is a series of reports produced regularly by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

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2010 Haiti earthquake

The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_health

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