76 relations: Access network, Address space, Agner Krarup Erlang, Analog signal, Backbone network, Bell Labs, Bell Telephone Company, Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network, Broadcast programming, Business telephone system, Cable modem, Called party, Calling party, Cellular network, Circuit switching, Communications satellite, Data-rate units, Digital data, Digital Signal 0, Digital Signal 1, Digital subscriber line, Disruptive innovation, E-carrier, E.164, ETSI, Fiber to the x, G.711, Gateway (telecommunications), General Post Office, Infrastructure, Integrated Services Digital Network, Interconnection, ISDN User Part, ITU-T, Last mile, Local loop, Long-distance calling, Managed facilities-based voice network, Microwave transmission, Mobile phone, Multi-frequency signaling, Optical fiber cable, Packet switching, Plain old telephone service, Plesiochronous digital hierarchy, Privatization, Public utility, Pulse dialing, Pulse-code modulation, Quality of service, ..., Regulatory agency, Routing in cellular networks, Routing in the PSTN, Sampling (signal processing), Signaling (telecommunications), Signalling System No. 7, State ownership, Submarine communications cable, Synchronization, Synchronous optical networking, T-carrier, Telecommunication, Telecommunications Industry Association, Telephone call, Telephone company, Telephone exchange, Telephone line, Telephone numbering plan, Telephony, Teletraffic engineering, Time-division multiplexing, Trunking, Two-wire circuit, V5 interface, Via Net Loss, X.25. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
An access network is a type of telecommunications network which connects subscribers to their immediate service provider.
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
Agner Krarup Erlang (1 January 1878 – 3 February 1929) was a Danish mathematician, statistician and engineer, who invented the fields of traffic engineering and queueing theory.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
A backbone is a part of computer network that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company — the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.
In the 1980s the telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the public switched telephone network, and conceived an end-to-end circuit switched services, known as Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN).
Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering of broadcast media programs (Internet, television, radio, etc.) in a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or season-long schedule.
A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges.
A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) and radio frequency over glass (RFoG) infrastructure.
The called party (in some contexts called the "B-Number") is a person who (or device that) answers a telephone call.
The calling party (in some contexts called the "A-Number") is a person who (or device that) initiates a telephone call.
A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless.
Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
Digital Signal 0 (DS0) is a basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second (kbit/s), corresponding to the capacity of one analog voice-frequency-equivalent communication channel.
Digital Signal 1 (DS1, sometimes DS-1) is a T-carrier signaling scheme devised by Bell Labs.
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
In business, a Disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a new market and value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network, displacing established market-leading firms, products, and alliances.
The E-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed for digital transmission of many simultaneous telephone calls by time-division multiplexing.
E.164 is an ITU-T recommendation, titled The international public telecommunication numbering plan, that defines a numbering plan for the worldwide public switched telephone network (PSTN) and some other data networks.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, headquartered in Sophia-Antipolis, France, with worldwide projection.
Fiber to the x (FTTX) or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications.
G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding.
A gateway is the piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications via communications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another.
The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.
In telecommunications, interconnection is the physical linking of a carrier's network with equipment or facilities not belonging to that network.
The ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) User Part or ISUP is part of Signaling System No. 7 (SS7), which is used to set up telephone calls in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
The last mile or last kilometer is a colloquial phrase widely used in the telecommunications, cable television and internet industries to refer to the final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end-users (customers).
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.
In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.
A managed facilities-based voice network, or MFVN, is a physical network owned and operated by a voice service provider that delivers traditional telephone service via a loop start analog telephone interface.
Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
In telephony, multi-frequency signaling (MF) is a signaling system that was introduced by the Bell System after World War II.
An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Plain old telephone service or plain ordinary telephone service (POTS) is a retronym for voice-grade telephone service employing analog signal transmission over copper loops.
The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
Network routing in a cellular network deals with the challenges of traditional telephony such as switching and call setup.
Routing in the PSTN is the process used to route telephone calls across the public switched telephone network.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
Signaling System No.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
The T-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories for digital transmission of multiplexed telephone calls.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies.
A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called party and the calling party.
A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system.
A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.
Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.
Telecommunications traffic engineering, teletraffic engineering, or traffic engineering is the application of traffic engineering theory to telecommunications.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
In telecommunications, trunking is a method for a system to provide network access to many clients by sharing a set of lines or frequencies instead of providing them individually.
In telecommunication, a two-wire circuit is characterized by supporting transmission in two directions simultaneously, as opposed to four-wire circuits, which have separate pairs for transmit and receive.
V5 is a family of telephone network protocols defined by ETSI which allow communications between the telephone exchange, also known in the specifications as the local exchange (LE), and the local loop.
Via Net Loss (VNL) is a network architecture of telephone systems using circuit switching technologies deployed in the 1950s with Direct Distance Dialing and used until the late 1980s.
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
Circuit-switched telephone network, General Switched Telephone Network, Generalised switched telephone network, Global telephone network, International telephone network, North American Public Switched Telephone Network, Office classification, PSTN, PTSN, Pstn, Public Switched Telephone Network, Public Switched Telephone network, Public telephone network, Switched Circuit Network, Switched circuit network.